Thursday, December 31, 2020

out partying

i've not had a great time out partying since it's kinda boring in my small town. plus, i can't drive and can't get out as much as i'd gotten in the town in new york. it's kinda intresting since you're not out as much and i'm bored. while i'm of age and i've got an ID it's kinda weird i'm not intresting since i'm into drinking things that's not alcoholic. i have my ID in case i need them. it's rare for me drinking stuff.

Reptilian conspiracy theory

Reptilians (also called reptoids, lizard people, reptiloids, saurians, draconians) are supposed reptilian humanoids, which play a prominent role in fantasy, science fiction, ufology, and conspiracy theories The idea of reptilians was popularised by David Icke, a conspiracy theorist who claims shape-shifting reptilian aliens control Earth by taking on human form and gaining political power to manipulate human societies. Icke has stated on multiple occasions that many world leaders are, or are possessed by, so-called reptilians. Origins: Michael Barkun, professor of political science at Syracuse University, posits that the idea of a reptilian conspiracy originated in the fiction of Conan the Barbarian creator Robert E. Howard. The first appearance of "serpent men" in literature was in Howard's story "The Shadow Kingdom", published in Weird Tales in August 1929. This story drew on theosophical ideas of the "lost worlds" of Atlantis and Lemuria, particularly Helena Blavatsky's The Secret Doctrine written in 1888, with its reference to "'dragon-men' who once had a mighty civilization on a Lemurian continent". Howard's "serpent men" were described as humanoids (with human bodies and snake heads) who were able to imitate humans at will, and who lived in underground passages and used their shapechanging and mind-control abilities to infiltrate humanity. Clark Ashton Smith used Howard's "serpent men" in his stories, as well as themes from H. P. Lovecraft, and he, Howard and Lovecraft together laid the basis for the Cthulhu Mythos. In the 1940s, Maurice Doreal (also known as Claude Doggins) wrote a pamphlet entitled "Mysteries of the Gobi" that described a "serpent race" with "bodies like man a great snake" and an ability to take human form. These creatures also appeared in Doreal's poem "The Emerald Tablets", in which he referred to Emerald Tablets written by "Thoth, an Atlantean Priest king". Barkun asserts that "in all likelihood", Doreal's ideas came from "The Shadow Kingdom", and that in turn, "The Emerald Tablets" formed the basis for David Icke's book, Children of the Matrix. Historian Edward Guimont has argued that the reptilian conspiracy theory, particularly as expounded by Icke, drew from earlier pseudohistorical legends developed during the colonisation of Africa, particularly surrounding Great Zimbabwe and the mokele-mbembe. Alien abduction: Alien abduction narratives sometimes allege contact with reptilian creatures. One of the earliest reports was that of Ashland, Nebraska, police officer Herbert Schirmer (born 1945), who under hypnosis recalled being taken aboard a UFO in 1967 by humanoid beings with a slightly reptilian appearance, who wore a "winged serpent" emblem on the left side of their chests. Skeptics consider his claims to be a hoax. David Icke: According to British conspiracy theorist David Icke, who first published on this theme in his 1999 work The Biggest Secret, tall, blood-drinking, shape-shifting reptilian humanoids from the Alpha Draconis star system, now hiding in underground bases, are the force behind a worldwide conspiracy against humanity. He contends that most of the world's ancient and modern leaders are related to these reptilians, including the Merovingian dynasty, the Rothschilds, the Bush family and the British Royal family. Icke's conspiracy theories now have supporters in up to 47 countries and he has given lectures to crowds of up to 6,000. American writer Vicki Santillano included it in her list of the 10 most popular conspiracy theories. A poll of Americans in 2013 by Public Policy Polling indicated that 4% of registered voters (±2.8%) believed in David Icke's ideas. Politics: In the closely fought 2008 U.S. Senate election in Minnesota between comedian and commentator Al Franken and incumbent Senator Norm Coleman, one of the ballots challenged by Coleman included a vote for Franken with "Lizard People" written in the space provided for write-in candidates. Lucas Davenport, who later claimed to have written the gag ballot, said, "I don't know if you've heard the conspiracy theory about the Lizard Men; a friend of mine, we didn't like the candidates, so we were at first going to write in 'revolution', because we thought that was good and to the point. And then, we thought 'the Lizard People' would be even funnier." "Evil reptilian kitten-eater from another planet" was a pejorative used to refer to then Ontario Liberal Party opposition leader Dalton McGuinty in a press release disseminated by the Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario on September 12, 2003, during the provincial election campaign in Ontario, Canada. In February 2011, on the Opie and Anthony radio show, the comedian Louis C.K. jokingly asked former U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld a number of times if he and Dick Cheney were lizard people who enjoyed the taste of human flesh. Amused by Rumsfeld's refusal to directly answer the question, C.K. suggested it as a possible admission of guilt. He went on to further muse that perhaps those who are lizard people cannot lie about it; when asked if they are lizards, they either have to avoid answering the question or say yes. On March 4, 2013, a video depicting a security agent with unusual features guarding a speech by U.S. President Barack Obama was spotlighted in a Wired report about shapeshifting reptilian humanoids. This led to a tongue-in-cheek response from chief National Security Council spokeswoman Caitlin Hayden who said "any alleged program to guard the president with aliens or robots would likely have to be scaled back or eliminated in the sequester".

Kasur child sexual abuse scandal

The Kasur child sexual abuse scandal is a series of child sexual abuses that occurred in Hussain Khanwala village in Kasur District, Punjab, Pakistan from 2006 to 2014, culminating in a major political scandal in 2015. After the discovery of hundreds of video clips showing children performing forced sex acts, various Pakistani media organizations estimated that 280 to 300 children, most of them male, were victims of sexual abuse. The scandal involved an organized crime ring that sold child pornography to porn sites, and blackmailed and extorted relatives of the victims. The scandal caused nationwide outrage, among allegations that the Punjab police and Malik Ahmad Saeed Khan, Kasur's Member of the Provincial Assembly from the ruling Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz), were involved in an attempted cover-up of the abuse. It is cited by both news agencies and government departments as the largest child abuse scandal in Pakistan's history. Besides large-scale public condemnation, 50 Pakistani clergy and religious scholars issued a fatwa (religious decree) for capital punishment of the culprits, and demanded that the government console the victims and their parents. Abuse: Ashraf Javed, a staff reporter for The Nation, broke the news that a gang of 20 to 25 men had allegedly filmed up to 400 videos of child sexual abuse, involving at least 280 children of Hussain Khanwala village in Kasur. In one instance, the father of one of the victims was blackmailed into paying PKR 1.2 million to the abusers, who had threatened to release a video of his son being raped. Police involvement- Clash between police and protesters: On 8 August 2015, villagers from Hussain Khanwala and adjacent villages clashed with policemen in Dolaywala village along Deepalpur Road, after protesting the police's failure to stop the abuse ring. Police cordoned off the roads leading to the village to stop the protesters; As a police contingent tried to halt the mob led by Mobeen Ahmed, the latter pelted stones. Police teargassed and baton charged the crowd, which then damaged official vehicles on Deepalpur Road. DSPs Hassan Farooq Ghumman and Arif Rasheed; Ganda Singh SHO Akmal Kausar; policemen Akbar, Sajid, Riaz, Naeem, Ahmed Ali, Akbar Ghani and Muhammad Akmal; and 15 protesters were injured in the clash. Government reaction- Rana Sanaullah controversy: The Government of Punjab's initial statement came from Punjab Minister of Law Rana Sanaullah on 8 August 2015, who stated that a government inquiry committee concluded that no instance of child sex abuse had been reported. Sanaullah said that "reports to this effect surfaced after two parties involved in a land dispute registered 'fake cases' against each other." Chief Minister's reaction: On 9 August 2015, the Chief Minister of Punjab Shehbaz Sharif ordered the Punjab Home Department to request Chief Justice of the Lahore High Court Manzoor Ahmed Malik to constitute a judicial inquiry into the sex abuse case. On the next day, the Chief Justice rejected the request, observing that the Punjab police was already investigating the case hence there was no need of a separate judicial commission.

Murder of Emily Salvini

Emily Salvini was a seven year old girl who was killed in an arson attack on her family home in Reading, Berkshire in May 1997. Her murder has never been solved. Background: Emily was born in Italy in October 1989. Her mother was Katie and her father was Marco Salvini. Katie graduated from Sussex University with a degree in politics and met Marco on a holiday in Italy in the late 1980s. They were married for about a year before Emily was born and lived near Lake Garda for three years before moving to Caversham in Reading, close to Katie’s parents. Emily had a brother, Zach, who was four years younger than her. At the time of the attack on the Salvini's’ home, Katie and Marco had separated and Katie and her two children were the only occupants of the semi-detached rented house on Hemdean Road in Caversham. Katie worked part-time in a local pub and Marco had regular contact with their children and was reported to visit every Saturday at 10.00am to take the children out. Emily was a pupil at Caversham Primary School which was very close to her home. The Crime: On the night of Friday 2 May 1997, Zach, 3, got into bed with his mother at some point early in the night and Emily, 7, was asleep in her bedroom at the back of the house. At 1.30am on Saturday 3 May, telephone lines were cut on three telegraph poles on Hemdean Road, this resulted in thirty houses losing their telephone connection. Neighbours were woken by screaming and a ringing burglar alarm some time after 4.00am on Saturday morning. Flames were seen billowing out of the Salvini’s home. Katie was woken by Zach crying and got up realising it was very hot and there was a glow around the bedroom door. When she opened the door, flames rushed into her bedroom, they were as high as the ceiling. Katie put Zach, who was very distressed, out of the bedroom window and onto a small ledge on the top of the downstairs bay window. She was desperate to reach her daughter, Emily, but couldn’t get through the flames to her room. She handed Zach down to one of the neighbours who had arrived to help. He persuaded her to leave the house too, despite her wish to save her daughter. Katie fell from the bay window ledge, witnesses described her and Zach’s face, hands and feet as black and most of their clothing was burnt away. Neighbours tried to get to Emily in the back bedroom by putting a ladder up at the back of the house. Meanwhile a passing motorist had alerted the fire brigade on their mobile phone and the firefighters broke down the front door and managed to rescue Emily from her bedroom. All three of the family members were taken to the Royal Berkshire Hospital where Emily died of smoke inhalation. Her mother and brother’s injuries were so severe that they were transferred to a specialist unit at Stoke Mandeville Hospital in Buckinghamshire. Katie and Zach were seriously ill after the fire and both underwent surgery for their burns. Zach was able to leave hospital a few weeks later and was looked after by relatives. Katie finally left hospital just over a month after the attack. The investigation: Four hundred people were interviewed in the first few months of the investigation. Thames Valley Police stated that the ‘calculated and pre-planned’ arson attack was a deliberate attempt to murder Katie Salvini and her children. Petrol had been poured through the letterbox of the family’s front door and then set alight. On the day of the attack, police closed off part of Hemdean Road and a mobile incident room was set up in the street. Police interviewed neighbours and searched gardens, among the items they were looking for was a can of flammable fluid. Two men were arrested and held for questioning over the weekend, they were later released without charge. Mrs Salvini had reported to police that her telephone cable had been cut two weeks previously, two men had been questioned then but released without charge. A few weeks after the attack, police appealed for two men to come forward. A neighbour saw them walking down Hemdean Road and then run back to a blue car at the time of the attack. Both men were described as Asian with one being in his 20s and the other in his 40s. Police were keen to speak to them in the hope they had seen the arsonist. A man was arrested on 17 June, held overnight and then released without charge. In July 1997, police issued an unusual artist’s impression of a ‘man without a face’, which was based on a description given to them by two witnesses who were not close enough to see his facial features. They saw the man at the junction of Hemdean Road and Victoria Road, yards from the Salvini home at 4.40 am, shortly before the fire. He was described as being between 5ft 8in and 5ft 11in with short dark hair. He was wearing a padded light lumberjack-style shirt or jacket with a predominantly white check pattern. In August, police cleared an overgrown area at the junction of Hemdean Road and Victoria Road where the ‘man without a face’ had been seen standing. It was the second time the area had been searched and nothing of interest was found. Drains in the area were checked for discarded items as well as the River Thames. A suspect: On 6 August 1997, 33 year old Stephen Duffy and his common-law wife were arrested at their home in Emmer Green. Forensic tests were carried out on his vehicle and the couple’s home was searched. Duffy had been previously interviewed by detectives and was arrested on suspicion of murder. His partner was arrested on suspicion of aiding and abetting. Both were released without charge. More details emerged about Duffy when police refused his application for the return of his gun licence in a court hearing in Reading on 23 October 1998. Counsel for Thames Valley Police described Duffy, a wine shop owner, as ‘cruel and dangerous’, that he remained a suspect in the Salvini murder and would remain so for the foreseeable future. It was reported that Duffy was one of two male suspects in the enquiry and neither had been eliminated. Police had interviewed three former partners of Duffy who had described his violent, abusive and controlling behaviour. He had reportedly caused one to miscarry after pushing her down the stairs and kicking her in the stomach. Duffy denied all allegations against him and was never charged in connection with the Salvini murder. It was reported in 2002 that a 37 year old man, Stephen Duffy, of Cavendish Road, Emmer Green, was found guilty of sex with an underage girl. He was jailed for a year and ordered to be put on the sex offenders register for ten years after release. Emily’s funeral and inquest: Emily Salvini’s funeral was held in Caversham on Thursday 19 June. The inquest into her death on 4 November 1997 gave a verdict of unlawful killing. Two year appeal: In April 1999, almost two years after the attack, Mrs Salvini made a plea for help to find her daughter’s killer and police stated that they believed someone was shielding him or her. The appeal led to an anonymous call stating that bolt croppers and a machete were used to cut the telephone lines on the night of Emily’s murder. The tools were never recovered. Later developments: In 2001, Emily's murder was featured on BBC’s Crimewatch TV programme. In 2017, on the twentieth anniversary of the attack, Katie and her son Zach, 23, made a new appeal for information to find Emily’s killer. Katie described the attack again and said that she had two more children, Laurie, 16, and Sebastian, 10. She also said that she believed there were two ‘very strong suspects’ who lived locally and who she had come face-to-face with in the years since the attack. She believed that one of them could have held a grudge against her for standing up for a friend. Thames Valley Police said they would be carrying out new forensic tests on fire debris retrieved from the scene of the crime.

Murder of Gerd Johansson

The murder of Gerd Johansson is one of Sweden's most notorious murder cases, concerning the disappearance and murder of a 10-year-old schoolgirl in Stockholm on 1 December 1939. Eight days after her parents had reported her missing her body was discovered in Lötsjön a lake in Sundbyberg; she had been raped and strangled to death. News media was filled with reports of the murder and her playmate Jan Sparring was interviewed by several media; Sparring later became a known singer in Sweden. A month after her body was discovered, media reported that her killer must have a dog and that jute fibers had been found on her coat. Police also stated that they were searching for a black car in connection with her murder. Soon a 33-year-old man, Olle Möller, was arrested and interrogated. Möller who was born in Michigan in the United States and had moved to Sweden at a young age, was a known athlete in Stockholm. On 17 January 1940 Möller was released by the police and the newspaper Aftonbladet set a 10,000 kronor reward for any tips that would lead to Johansson's killer being arrested. In December 1940, Möller was once again arrested and this time he was prosecuted and on 7 March 1940 he was sentenced to ten years hard labour for "attempted rape and assault with death occurring". Möller appealed his sentence, but his sentence was upheld in two more appeals and, on 26 June 1942, his sentence was finalised. However, over the following years the trial received a lot of criticism and accusations of false testaments, with rewards for those who testified against Möller. In 1984, one of the witnesses against Möller at his trial revealed that they had falsely testified that they saw Möller with Gerd Johansson. Möller was released from prison on 11 September 1948, after serving six years of hard labour. Möller was later sentenced once again, this time for the murder of Rut Lind in 1959. After Möller's death in 1983, his daughter continued to fight for her father to be officially acquitted of Gerd Johansson's murder. She took her claim to court that her father should be officially acquitted of the 1939 murder, because of witness confessions of untrue testimony in court. Her claim was denied by the supreme court of Stockholm on 24 May 1985. In 1998, a DNA test was made on the clothes of Gerd Johansson, but no certain results could be determined. Olle Möller och orättvisan was a book released in 2010 by Henry Sidoli, covering the murder case. In 2012, the book Mördaren i folkhemmet by Lena Ebervall and Per E Samuelson was released about the Johansson murder case. Möller himself released a book in 1966 called Jag är oskyldig (I'm innocent) about the case.

Killing of disabled children in Uganda

In some parts of Uganda, disabled children are put to death. In traditional rituals, infant body parts are claimed to bring benefits. Those who continue these practices describe it as "mercy killing", meaning that the children are spared from enduring painful disabilities. Rituals- Process: Most of the time, a witch doctor will resort to these rituals to save the disabled children from their painful disability after the failure of multiple attempts using other methods that include herbal remedies or animal sacrifices which are less powerful. During the rituals of child sacrifice, the witch doctor is in presence of his accomplices and starts by verifying any evidence of demonization in the child. Then, he removes different parts of the child’s body by force and uses the blood to make a potion mixed with herbs. These body parts are mostly heads, genitals, eyes, tongues, limbs, teeth, and organs. According to the perpetrators, these rituals are necessary to bring about success, healing or wealth. Practitioners: The ‘killing’ of disabled children in Uganda is perpetrated by witchdoctors who praise the power of these rituals to their clients in search of wealth, health or fame. Those witchdoctors are often compared to traditional healers which have resulted in the propaganda stating that witchcraft is associated with the healing practices of the indigenous culture although they are, in reality, responsible of horrible crimes unlike traditional healers who do not use human organs. The parents of disabled children also play a major role in the rituals by allowing it and leading their children to death because they believe that the so-called ‘mercy killing’ would avoid them the pain of enduring these disabilities. Investigations: The parliament of Uganda highly condemns "mercy" killing of newborn disabled children in Uganda as they regard it as an inhumane act. Findings: The European Parliament was involved in finding resolutions for the killings of disabled people in Uganda. They argued that the killings should not take place because: human rights should be respected at all times, everyone has a right to life despite their disabilities. People with disabilities are often excluded from community activities. Disabled children are usually hidden from the public, cast out, and even killed. Mothers of these children experience isolation from their extended families, while most of the fathers neglect their families. The Ugandan National Household Survey reports only record disabled people of age 5 and above; leaving out most children. 7.1% of Ugandans, which is equivalent to 2.1 million people are reported to be disabled. Actions and penalties: In Uganda, the law prohibits discrimination against persons with physical, sensory, intellectual, or mental disabilities in employment, education, air travel and other transportation, access to health care, and the provision of other state services. However, the government's efforts in enforcing these laws have not been effective. The form of treatment given to people with disability has not been encouraging of late. A July report released by the National Council on Disability (NCD) indicated 55 percent of persons with disabilities lacked functional literacy skills, and only 33 percent studied to primary grade seven. The report found some children with mental disabilities were sometimes denied food and were tied to trees and beds with ropes in order to control their movements. The report further stated the needs of children with autism and learning difficulties were ignored due to an insufficient number of special needs schools. Government agencies responsible for protecting the rights of persons with disabilities included the Ministry of State for Disabled Persons, the NCD, and the Ministry of Gender, Labor, and Social Development, but these entities lacked sufficient funding to undertake any significant initiatives. In the government’s effort to ensure that there is adequate representation of people with disability in roles of position, there are 5 seats in parliament which have been reserved for persons with disability. These initiatives by the government will ensure that the minority group which have been oppressed systematically for decades will now have a form of empowerment.

James Dale Ritchie

James Dale Ritchie was an American serial killer. Throughout 2016, Ritchie murdered upwards of five individuals in and around Anchorage, Alaska, most of whom were in parks or along bike paths. He always committed his murders at night, often around midnight or a short time after. Ritchie was killed during a shootout with police officers in downtown Anchorage on November 12, 2016. Following his death, a Colt Python handgun on his person connected him to the string of murders he committed over the course of two months. Personal history: James Dale Ritchie was born on November 4, 1976. He grew up in Anchorage's Wonder Park neighborhood and attended East Anchorage High School, where – standing at 6 ft 3 in (1.91 m) – he was noted as being a standout athlete, having played on the 1994 state championship football and basketball teams alongside future professional athletes Trajan Langdon and Mao Tosi. Ritchie was a close friend of Quincy and Bobby Thompson, whose family hosted him often throughout his teenage years. Ritchie scored 1200 on his SAT and was recruited by the West Virginia University (WVU) football team in 1994, one day following the death of Quincy. He subsequently fell out of contact with the Thompson family. After a semester at WVU, Ritchie dropped out and returned to Alaska, and became involved in drug dealing and dog fighting in 1995. By 1998, Ritchie had adopted the street name "Tiny". Over the following seven years, Ritchie was arrested a number of times, predominantly for drug-related offenses. He was arrested for the last time in Alaska in 2005, when he was apprehended while committing a home invasion with plastic handcuffs and two handguns in his possession. After serving two years in custody, he resided in Alaska, during which time he acquired a Colt Python handgun. In 2013, Ritchie lent his handgun over to an acquaintance and moved to Broadway, Virginia, where his parents had been living at the time. Save for a pair of moving violations, Ritchie had no court appearances and was observed by the police as being a law-abiding citizen. Following a breakup with his girlfriend, Ritchie returned to Alaska in March 2016. He reacquired the Colt Python from his acquaintance and moved to Airport Heights, where he stayed before moving to Penland Parkway trailer park in Anchorage. Ritchie sought mental health treatment, though the Anchorage Police Department (APD) could not ascertain if he had received a diagnosis. Murders: Ritchie committed his first two confirmed murders during the early morning hours of July 3, 2016, when he shot 20-year-old Brianna Foisy and 41-year-old Jason Netter Sr. The two bodies were discovered together along a bike path near Ship Creek by a bicyclist at 7:45 a.m. Netter was noted for having extensive run-ins with the law, often regarding his drug-related activity, as well as child support issues with his two daughters, one of whom changed her name. Foisy was homeless and had fallen into substance abuse as well, denying intervention offered by her adoptive mother, Marcella Foisy. The nature of Foisy and Netter's relationship – if any – was not determined or disclosed. On July 5, the murders were ruled a double homicide by the APD. After reviewing hours of surveillance footage, the APD released images of two unidentified men who were persons of interest for the investigation. The third recorded murder committed by Ritchie took place 26 days later, on July 29. Shortly after 3 a.m., Ritchie shot 21-year-old Treyveonkindell Thompson, the son of his childhood friend Bobby Thompson, multiple times while he was riding his bicycle home from work, between Duben Avenue and Bolin Street in East Anchorage. Three girls who had spotted Ritchie lingering in the woods near Bolin Street through their window just prior heard the gunfire and witnessed him grabbing Thompson's bicycle. Ritchie rode the bicycle away from the scene and brought it to his home, where it was spotted but not identified as being involved in a crime by witnesses. The police arrived at Bolin Street, where they found Thompson, who was pronounced dead at the scene shortly after. Under Sergeant Slawomir Markiewicz's direction, witnesses were interviewed and enough testimonials were given that a composite sketch of the suspect – who would later be positively identified as Ritchie – was created. Shortly after Thompson's murder, the Alaska State Crime Lab confirmed that the same murder weapon used in Foisy and Netter's murders was also used in Thompson's murder. During the early hours of August 28, Ritchie shot dead 34-year-old Kevin Turner and 25-year-old Bryant De Husson in Valley of the Moon Park. An unidentified female passerby who was walking through the park discovered De Husson's body along the trail at 1:42 a.m. Shortly after arriving, police discovered Turner's bullet-riddled body under the pavilion in the park. Turner, suffering from schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, was homeless at the time, as he had not fared well at assisted living facilities recently. De Husson, a notable environmental activist in Anchorage, was thought by his father, Gordon De Husson, to be doing a late-night bicycle ride on his new Schwinn to meet a friend when he stumbled upon the fatal encounter between Ritchie and Turner. There was no relation between De Husson and Turner. In the police report, the APD noted that very little evidence was left at the scene of the crime. However, the Alaska State Crime Lab confirmed that the weapon used to kill Turner and De Husson had also been used in the earlier homicides. Recognizing a modus operandi displayed by the string of murders, the APD released an advisory notice for citizens to avoid isolated trails after dark. Following the murders of Turner and De Husson, the FBI was brought on to assist with the investigation. On September 6, Anchorage Mayor Ethan Berkowitz hosted a press conference that asserted that gang violence was largely responsible for the record-breaking number of murders in the city, though he refused to acknowledge the evidence lending credibility to the serial killer theory. The FBI offered a $10,000 reward leading to the apprehension of the suspect responsible for Thompson's murder, while refusing to comment on any connection to the other murders, due to the concern that acknowledging that a weapon tying all the crimes together would run the risk of prompting the killer to dispose of it. The joint APD and FBI task force subsequently received upwards of 175 tips over the following two months – at least one of which pertained to Ritchie. Following Thompson's murder, his mother, Mandy Premo, had conducted an independent investigation to discover her son's killer. After searching homeless camps and low-income neighborhoods, Premo claimed to have located an armed Ritchie near the Alaska Regional Hospital in October 2016. Premo claimed to have contacted the APD lieutenant and reported that she had found her son's killer. She claimed to have contemplated over the phone confronting Ritchie directly, which the lieutenant advised against, as he was armed and her infant child was in the car. Death: Ritchie was killed near the corner of 5th Avenue and Cordova Street in Anchorage during a gunfight with Officer Arn Salao and Sergeant Marc Patzke of the APD on November 12, 2016. Officer Salao, while responding to an unrelated report of unpaid taxi cab fares, spotted Ritchie walking down the street at 4:30 a.m. Salao pulled up alongside Ritchie and asked for him to stop, presumably to ask him if he had witnessed the crime. Ritchie continued walking, prompting Salao to repeat the question over his megaphone. Without warning, Ritchie turned, walked towards officer Salao's vehicle, drew his Colt Python and opened fire on Salao, hitting him six times, which resulted in damage to his bones, intestines and liver. Salao exited his patrol car and returned fire while also engaging Ritchie in a physical confrontation. Simultaneously, Sergeant Patzke of the K9 Unit spotted the confrontation and fired upon Ritchie, who was killed by a number of gunshot wounds. Salao was taken to an area hospital, where he was moved out of the intensive care unit after seven hours of surgery. Aftermath: Following Ritchie's death, the Colt Python on his person was sent to the Alaska Crime Lab, where it was confirmed to have been the murder weapon responsible for the deaths of Brianna Foisy, Jason Netter Sr., Treyveonkindell Thompson, Kevin Turner and Bryant De Husson. The investigative task force had not considered Ritchie a suspect, due to his lack of run-ins with the law over the decade prior. After seventy-eight hours of investigation and contacting the victims' families, APD Chief Chris Tolley hosted a press conference in which he announced the connection between the homicides and the attempt on Officer Salao's life. Additionally, Lieutenant John McKinnon confirmed that the investigation had revealed a connection between the murders, but the task force withheld it from the public out of concern that Ritchie would have disposed of the Colt Python had he realized it was being sought. The weapon, which had been purchased in 1971, was not registered to Ritchie; the original owner was questioned by the APD, with the intent of discovering how it found its way into Ritchie's possession. Ritchie was immediately identified as being the assailant responsible for Thompson's murder, due to the witnesses and the identification of his photo identification matching the composite sketch. While the APD continued to collect evidence implicating Ritchie's involvement in the other homicides tied to the Colt Python, the FBI looked to trace Ritchie's activities in Virginia and Nevada prior to returning to Alaska in 2016. On April 26, 2017, APD spokesperson Renee Oistad announced that sufficient probable cause was determined to confirm that Ritchie was solely responsible for the five murders and, therefore, a confirmed serial killer. Investigators had traced the Colt Python handgun's whereabouts back to confirm that it had found its way into Ritchie's possession prior to the murders of Foisy and Netter in July 2016. With Oistad's announcement, the cases were closed.[24] A month later, on May 23, the Anchorage Police Department released dashcam footage recorded just prior to Ritchie and Salao's confrontation, as well as details pertaining to Ritchie's personal history. Known victims: Through ballistics, Ritchie's Colt Python was connected with four crime scenes that include two double homicides, one homicide and the attempted murder of a police officer. The victims include: -Brianna Foisy, 20, and Jason Netter Sr., 41: shot and killed on July 3, 2016, along a bike path near Ship Creek, west of N Post Road and Viking Drive, east of Anchorage. -Treyveonkindell Bobby Dwayne Thompson, 21: shot and killed on Bolin Street on July 29, 2016, in East Anchorage. -Kevin S. Turner, 34, and Bryant C. De Husson, 25: shot and killed on August 28, 2016, at Valley of the Moon Park, in Downtown Anchorage. -Officer Arn Salao: shot and wounded on November 12, 2016 at 5th Street and Cordova Street, in Downtown Anchorage. Salao and Sergeant Marc Patzke returned fire and killed Ritchie.

DeWayne Lee Harris

DeWayne Lee Harris also known as The Seattle Jungle Killer or Chilly Willy, is an American serial killer who killed three women in Seattle between 1997 and 1998, dumping their bodies near freeways. While jailed for a robbery charge, he confessed to the murders and was later sentenced to 94 years imprisonment. Murders: The first victim was 42-year-old Denise Marie Harris (no relation), whom DeWayne met on First Avenue in downtown Seattle. Along with an unnamed accomplice, they strangled Denise with a belt, removing some of her clothing and then binding her hands and ankles with shoelaces. He also stuffed a brassiere in her mouth. Harris' body was then dumped in the "Jungle", an underdeveloped plot of land under the I-5 and I-90 freeways. Denise's body was found on September 12th by a transient man wandering the area. Not long after, Harris picked up 33-year-old Antoinette Jones. He accused her of stealing drugs from him, and proceeded to strangle her with a leather belt. Like Denise, he then bound her wrists and ankles with shoelaces, wrapping an additional shoelace around her neck. Her body was dumped in the Jungle, where her skeletal remains were found on February 1, 1998, about half a mile from where Harris was found. Forensic tests proved that she had been there for at least three months. The last victim was 25-year-old Olivia Smith, whose date of death is uncertain. After picking her up from an apartment building at Airport Way South, Harris and Smith engaged in a violent argument about exchanging drugs for sex, after which DeWayne took out a knife and stabbed her numerous times and slashed her throat. He left the body on the scene, where it was discovered on the stairwell on January 10, 1998. Arrest, trial and imprisonment: Some time after the murders, Harris was jailed for an unrelated robbery charge. While in jail, around April 1998 he phoned a detective and told him that he could lead him to the murderer. He later was confronted and confessed to murders of three prostitutes, claiming that it was his 'hobby' and he got a thrill out of doing it. Shortly after his confession, he was charged with all three murders, and was detained at the King County jail on $5 million bail. At his trial, Harris, strapped in a restraining chair because of his unruly behavior, was described as a cunning and manipulative predator who preyed on vulnerable women. According to his attorney, John Hicks, his only reason for confessing was that he "wanted Seattle to recognize there was a serial killer." He was found guilty of all charges in December 1998, and finally sentenced to 94 years imprisonment the next month. Upon hearing the verdict, he dropped his head backwards and started to laugh, much to the courtroom's shock. For his final words before the court, Harris told the King County Superior Court Judge Marsha Pechman that there were more like him out there, and that nobody was safe, even in their own homes and apartments. He also added that there was no true justice, as he was still living and breathing, and had certain privileges in prison. He also expressed he hopes for the victim's families forgiveness. Upon being escorted out of the room, he hurled insults at the jury which convicted him. Initially at the Clallam Bay Corrections Center, DeWayne Lee Harris is currently serving his sentence at the Stafford Creek Corrections Center (SCCC). In an interview, Harris claimed to have committed 32 other murders. Popular culture: -Dewayne Lee Harris murders and related investigation were adapted in the first episode of Real Detective, a Canadian produced docudrama.

Samuel Little

Samuel Little was an American serial killer and serial rapist who was convicted in 2012 of the murders of three women in California between 1987 and 1989, and in 2018 of the murder of one woman in Texas in 1994. He claimed to have killed as many as ninety-three women, and investigators have linked him to over sixty murders. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has confirmed Little's involvement in at least fifty murders, the largest number of proven cases for any serial killer in United States history. He allegedly murdered women across nineteen states over a third of a century ending around 2005. Early life: Samuel Little was born on June 7, 1940, in Reynolds, Georgia, to a mother he claimed was a prostitute. Soon after his birth, Little's family moved to Lorain, Ohio, where he was brought up mainly by his grandmother. He attended Hawthorne Junior High School, where he had problems with discipline and achievement. In 1956, after being convicted of breaking and entering into property in Omaha, Nebraska, Little was held in an institution for juvenile offenders. Little moved to Florida to live with his mother in his late 20s, working at various times as a cemetery worker and an ambulance attendant (by his own account). He said he then "began traveling more widely and had more run-ins with the law”, being arrested in eight states for crimes that included driving under the influence, fraud, shoplifting, solicitation, armed robbery, aggravated assault, and rape. Little claimed that he took up boxing during his stints in prison, referring to himself as a former prizefighter. Crimes: In 1961, Little was sentenced to three years in prison for breaking into a furniture store in Lorain; he was released in 1964. By 1975, he had been arrested 26 times in 11 states for crimes including theft, assault, attempted rape, fraud, and attacks on government officials. In 1982, Little was arrested in Pascagoula, Mississippi, and charged with the murder of 22-year-old Melinda Rose LáPree, who had gone missing in September of that year. A grand jury declined to indict him for her murder. However, while under investigation, Little was transferred to Florida to be brought to trial for the murder of 26-year-old Patricia Ann Mount, whose body was found in September 1982. Prosecution witnesses identified Little in court as a person who spent time with Mount on the night before her disappearance. Due to mistrust of witness testimonies, Little was acquitted in January 1984. Little moved to California, where he stayed in the vicinity of San Diego. In October 1984, he was arrested for kidnapping, beating, and strangling 22-year-old Laurie Barros, who survived. One month later, he was found by police in the backseat of his car with an unconscious woman, also beaten and strangled, in the same location as the attempted murder of Barros. Little served two and a half years in prison for both crimes. Upon his release in February 1987, he immediately moved to Los Angeles and committed more than 10 additional murders. Little was arrested on September 5, 2012, at a homeless shelter in Louisville, Kentucky, and extradited to California to face a narcotics charge, after which authorities used DNA testing to establish that he was involved in the murders of Carol Ilene Elford, killed on July 13, 1987; Guadalupe Duarte Apodaca, killed on September 3, 1987; and Audrey Nelson Everett, killed on August 14, 1989. All three women were killed and later found on the streets of Los Angeles. He was extradited to Los Angeles, where he was charged on January 7, 2013. A few months later, the police said that Little was being investigated for involvement in three dozen murders committed in the 1980s, which until then had been undisclosed. In connection with the new circumstances in Mississippi, the LaPree murder case was reopened. In total, Little was tested for involvement in 93 murders of women committed in many US states. Trial and incarceration: Little was tried for the murders of Elford, Nelson, and Apodaca in September 2014. The prosecution presented the DNA evidence as well as testimony of witnesses who were attacked by the accused at different times throughout his criminal career. On September 25, 2014, Little was found guilty and was sentenced to life imprisonment without possibility of parole. On the day of the verdict, Little continued to insist on his innocence. Prior to his death, Little was serving a sentence at the California State Prison, Los Angeles County. Later confessions: On November 9, 2018, Little confessed to the 1996 fatal strangulation of Melissa Thomas. On November 13, 2018, Little was charged with the 1994 murder of Denise Christie Brothers in Odessa, Texas after having confessed the crime to a Texas Ranger in May 2018. Little pleaded guilty to the murder of Brothers on December 13 and received another life sentence. The Ector County, Texas District Attorney and Wise County Sheriff's Office also announced on November 13 that Little had confessed to dozens of murders and may have committed more than 90 across 14 states between 1970 and 2005. On November 15, 2018, the Russell County, Alabama District Attorney announced that Little had earlier that month confessed to the 1979 murder of 23-year-old Brenda Alexander, whose body was found in Phenix City. On November 16, 2018, Macon, Georgia sheriffs announced that Little had credibly confessed to the 1977 strangling murder of an unidentified woman and the 1982 strangling murder of 18-year-old Fredonia Smith. In the fall of 2018, Little confessed to the 1982 murder of 55-year-old Dorothy Richards and the 1996 murder of 40-year-old Daisy McGuire; both of their bodies were found in Houma, Louisiana. On November 19, 2018, Harrison County, Mississippi sheriff Troy Peterson said that Little had confessed to strangling 36-year-old Julia Critchfield in the Gulfport area in 1978 and dumping her body off a cliff. On November 20, 2018, Lee County, Mississippi law enforcement officials announced that Little had admitted to killing 46-year-old Nancy Carol Stevens in Tupelo in 2005 and that the case would be presented to a grand jury in January 2019. On November 21, 2018, Richland County, South Carolina authorities announced that Little had confessed to murdering 19-year-old Evelyn Weston, whose body was found near Fort Jackson in 1978. Little also confessed to having killed 20-year-old Rosie Hill in Marion County, Florida, in 1982. On November 27, 2018, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) announced that a Violent Criminal Apprehension Program team had confirmed 34 of Little's confessions and was working to match the remainder of Little's confessions to known murders or suspicious deaths. Little began making the confessions in exchange for a transfer out of the Los Angeles County prison in which he was being held. One included his confession to a previous cold case homicide in Prince George's County, Maryland, previously one of only two homicide cases in that county with unidentified victims. In December 2018, Little was indicted for strangling Linda Sue Boards, 23, to death in May 1981 in Warren County, Kentucky. Her body was found on May 15, 1981 near U.S. Route 68. One of Little's victims was identified in December 2018 as Martha Cunningham of Knox County, Tennessee, who was 34 years old when Little murdered her in 1975. On May 31, 2019, Cuyahoga County, Ohio prosecutors announced indictments, with four counts of aggravated murder and six counts of kidnapping, that accuse Little of killing Mary Jo Peyton in 1984 and Rose Evans in 1991 in Cleveland. Both victims were strangled and dumped. The body of Rose Evans, 32, was found on August 24, 1991, in a vacant lot on East 39th St. She left her hometown of Binghamton, New York when she was 17. Evans had been strangled according to coroner Elizabeth K. Balraj. As for Peyton, an anthropologist had to create a model of what she looked like, but she remained unidentified until 1992 when Cleveland put her thumbprint in an FBI data base and got a match. Little picked up Peyton at a bar near East 105th and Euclid avenues. He described her as a short, plump woman in her 20s with brown hair. Little also confessed to killing another Cleveland woman in 1977 or 1978. The woman murdered in 1977 or 1978 was found on March 18, 1983, in Willoughby Hills according to the National Missing and Unidentified Persons System (NamUs). She was likely black and somewhere between 17 and 35 years old. The woman's body had been dumped down a grassy slope, near a fence in a wooded area just off Interstate 271; when her body was found by a man walking his dog, only her skeleton, some clothing and jewelry remained. Little had also confessed to killing one woman in Akron; two in Cincinnati – one of the bodies was dumped outside of Columbus; and one woman he met in Columbus and disposed of in Kentucky. Of the two women Little murdered in Cincinnati, one was identified as Anna Stewart, 33, whose body was dumped in Grove City. Stewart was last seen on October 6, 1981, getting out of a cab at General Hospital to see her sister in the hospital (now UC Medical Center). She was killed on October 11. He killed the other woman between 1980 and 1999. The "Jane Doe" was anywhere from 15 to 50 as the details of her age and the date of her murder are unclear. She was black, slender, wore glasses and lived in the Over-the-Rhine neighborhood of Cincinnati with a "heavy female Hispanic." Little left her beside a cigarette billboard in Ohio. On June 7, 2019, Little was indicted in Hamilton County, Ohio for murdering the two women killed in Cincinnati. Little had drawn portraits of many women he killed. These portraits were released by the FBI in hopes of someone identifying the women. At least one portrait has solved a cold case in Akron, Ohio. In November 2020, Little confessed to two Florida murders, one of which another man was wrongfully convicted. Confirmed victims (partial list): -Annie Lee Stewart -Mary Jo Peyton -Carol Elford -Guadalupe Abodaca -Audrey Nelson Everett -“Jane Doe” -Rose Evans -Denise Christie Brothers Personal life: Little had a long-term girlfriend, Jean, since deceased, who supported them both through shoplifting for years. Little used a wheelchair, and had diabetes and a heart condition. Little died from an unspecified health condition on December 30, 2020, in a Los Angeles County area hospital.

Wednesday, December 30, 2020

Joe Louis Clark

Joe Louis Clark was the principal of Eastside High School in Paterson, New Jersey. He is also the subject of the 1989 film Lean on Me, starring Morgan Freeman. Clark gained public attention in the 1980s for his unconventional and controversial disciplinary measures as the principal of Eastside High. Biography: Clark was seen as an educator who was not afraid to get tough on difficult students, one who would often carry a bullhorn or a baseball bat at school. During his time as principal, Clark expelled over 300 students who were frequently tardy or absent from school, sold or used drugs in school, or caused trouble in school. Clark's practices did result in slightly higher average test scores for Eastside High during the 1980s. After his tenure as principal of Eastside High, Clark later served as director of the Essex County Detention House in Newark, New Jersey, a juvenile detention facility. Legacy: Time magazine's cover article notes that Clark's style as principal was primarily disciplinarian in nature, focused on encouraging school pride and good behavior, although Clark was also portrayed as a former social activist in the film Lean on Me. "Clark's use of force may rid the school of unwanted students," commented Boston principal Thomas P. O'Neill Jr., "but he also may be losing kids who might succeed." George McKenna, former principal of Washington Preparatory High School in Los Angeles, often cited as a contemporary of Joe Clark as a school reformer with a similarly outgoing approach, was also critical. "Our role is to rescue and to be responsible," McKenna told Time. "If the students were not poor black children, Joe Clark would not be tolerated." Other educators defended and praised Clark. "You cannot use a democratic and collaborative style when crisis is rampant and disorder reigns," said Kenneth Tewel, a former principal. "You need an autocrat to bring things under control." Some critics focused on the fact that while Clark had reestablished cleanliness and order, education scores had not substantially improved, which resulted in Eastside High being taken over by the state one year after Clark's departure in 1991. Separate criticism focused on the social impact of expelling delinquent students to improve test scores, claiming that "tossing out the troublesome low achievers" simply moved the problems from the school onto the street. Clark defended the practice, saying teachers should not have to waste their time on students who do not want to learn. However, Time noted that the national dropout rate for such students remained high across the country, with few alternatives available, and that each inner city school that had been able to reverse the trend had done so through "a bold, enduring principal" such as Clark who was "able to maintain or restore order without abandoning the students who are in trouble." Personal: -Clark grew up in Newark, New Jersey and attended Central High School. -Clark was also the father of Olympic track athletes Joetta Clark Diggs and Hazel Clark, and the father-in-law of Olympic track athlete Jearl Miles Clark. His son, JJ Clark, was their coach. -He resided in Newberry, Florida during his retirement. Clark died following a long illness on December 29, 2020 at the age of 82.

Murder of Jane Britton

At 12:30 a.m. on January 7, 1969, Jane Britton, a graduate student in Near Eastern archaeology at Harvard University, left a neighbor's apartment in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States, to return to her own. The next day, after she had failed to answer her phone and missed an important exam, her boyfriend went to the apartment and found her dead. The cause of death was found to be blunt force trauma from a blow to the head; she had been raped as well. The crime attracted national media attention, as Britton's father was an administrator at Radcliffe College, and several factors led to a presumption that Britton's killer had been an acquaintance, perhaps a fellow student or faculty member of Harvard's anthropology department. Her body had been sprinkled with red ochre powder, used in many ancient funerals of multiple civilizations. No valuables had been taken from the apartment, nor had any of her neighbors heard any screams or other unusual noises (although later some were reported). Investigators were unable to find any likely suspects among the anthropology department. Albert DeSalvo reportedly confessed to raping and murdering another woman who had lived in the same building in 1963, following his arrest as the Boston Strangler several years earlier, but doubts remained as to whether he had committed all the murders linked to the case. Some also considered that there might have been a second Boston Strangler, leading to speculation that, if there was, he might have killed Britton as well. The case went cold but continued to fascinate the media and true crime enthusiasts on the Internet, some of whom brought lawsuits to have records made public from the investigation in the hope of resolving the case. Cambridge police and the Middlesex County district attorney's office announced in November 2018, two months before the crime's 50th anniversary, that they had identified a suspect in the case through DNA: Michael Sumpter, who had died in 2001 after being paroled into hospice care from a prison sentence that he was serving for a 1975 rape. It is the oldest cold case that Middlesex County law enforcement has ever solved. The DNA evidence has also linked Sumpter to several other unsolved rapes and murders in the Boston area. Jane Britton: Born in 1945, Jane Britton was the daughter of J. Boyd Britton, administrative vice president of Radcliffe College in Cambridge, a selective women's college that shared ties with Harvard and enjoyed a similar reputation, one of the Seven Sisters. Her mother, Ruth, was a visiting scholar in medieval history at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. The family lived in Needham, another Boston suburb. Britton attended the Dana Hall School, a private school in Wellesley. In addition to her academic studies, she learned to ride horses, play the piano and organ, and paint. She went to Radcliffe herself, where she majored in anthropology, writing her senior thesis on comparative methodologies in studying one of the Périgordian cultures in a week. After graduating magna cum laude in 1967, she was accepted into Harvard's graduate program in the field. Britton was particularly interested in Near Eastern archaeology. In mid-1968, she was one of several doctoral candidates who accompanied department chair Stephen Williams and project leader C. C. Lamberg-Karlovsky to a dig in southeastern Iran, where they found what Lamberg-Karlovsky believed to be the ruins of Alexandria Carmania, a fortress taken in 325 BCE by Alexander the Great, at the Tepe Yahya mound. Lamberg-Karlovsky later credited Britton with one of the dig's important finds. Britton lived in a fourth-floor apartment at 6 University Road, a Harvard-owned building two blocks from Harvard Square. When studying, Britton did most of her work at the university's Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. Outside of her studies, she painted pictures of animals in her apartment, where she kept a turtle and cat as pets. She also socialized, primarily with fellow students in her department. One, James Humphries, had become her boyfriend; she also frequently dined with fellow anthropology graduate students Donald and Jill Mitchell, who lived in the apartment next to hers, having played the organ at their wedding ceremony. Apartment and neighborhood security issues: Contemporary newspaper accounts describe the building as decrepit and unsafe. The New York Times called it "seedy and roach-infested" with peeling paint in the hallways. In 1963 Beverly Samans, a graduate student at Boston University, had been raped and murdered in her apartment in the same building; the crime had not yet been solved five years later but was believed to have been one of 13 committed by the Boston Strangler. The Harvard Crimson reported that the "littered and dingy" building had no locks on the outside doors, despite repeated pleas from tenants to install them along with a buzzer system to further restrict entry to their guests. Britton's own apartment door had a lock so dysfunctional she rarely used it; the Mitchells said she intended to move out of the building early the next year. Street crime had also become a problem in the neighborhood over the preceding months. The Tech, the weekly student newspaper at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, also located in Cambridge, reported that several Harvard students and faculty had been the victims of muggings or attempted muggings in the area between Cambridge Common and the Radcliffe dormitories in late 1968. Friends of Britton recalled that while an undergraduate at Radcliffe she had fought off an attacker on the Common with a penknife, slashing his clothes in the process; the incident had not been reported to the police. Murder: On the night of January 6, 1969, the first Monday of the new year and the day classes resumed after the holiday break, Britton and Humphries joined other anthropology classmates for dinner at a local restaurant, after which the couple went ice skating on the Common. Humphries returned with her to her apartment at 10:30 p.m. and left her for the night at 11:30 p.m. Britton went over to her neighbors the Mitchells to have some sherry at 12:30 a.m. January 7 was an important day for all the anthropology doctoral candidates, as it was the day of their general examinations, the culmination of the classroom portion of their degrees, after which they would commence full-time work on their dissertations. Britton did not attend, which her classmates found unusual for a woman who had shown such dedication to her studies. Humphries called her repeatedly that morning but she did not answer. After the exam, shortly after noon, Humphries went to Britton's apartment. Since the door was unlocked, he was able to enter, and found her body face down on her bed with her nightgown pulled over her head and a rug and fur coat over her upper body. Thinking she was sick, he went next door and asked Jill Mitchell if she would take a closer look. When she did, she discovered Britton's bloodied head and realized she was dead. Investigation: The Cambridge police were called to the apartment and began collecting evidence; they found that Britton had been raped as well as killed. She was officially pronounced dead by the medical examiner; by that evening he had performed an autopsy and, having found multiple lacerations to the head with underlying skull fractures, as well as a bruise on her arm, ruled the death a homicide by blunt force trauma that had occurred roughly 10 hours before the body was discovered. Nothing of value had been taken from the apartment. The Massachusetts State Police were called in to sweep the apartment for any forensic evidence. From the shape of the head wounds, the murder weapon had had a point, but investigators could not determine exactly what had been used. "It was something sharp, like a hatchet or cleaver", said Leo Davenport, the lead detective on the case. Later they speculated that a 4-by-6-inch (10 by 15 cm) stone with a pointed end, a souvenir Britton had brought home from the Iranian dig, had been used. It was missing, and the state police found no weapon in the apartment; however, they did find a set of fingerprints which matched neither Britton nor anyone else investigators knew to have been in the apartment. The final results of the autopsy, a week later, similarly failed to produce any new information. "We know nothing ... more than we knew about the murder when we started" Middlesex County District Attorney John Droney told the Times. "There is no suspect". Canvassing the building did, however, produce a few leads. A child in one other apartment in the building recalled hearing unusual noises on the fire escape that night. Another neighbor of Britton's told police that he had seen a man whom he described as about 6 feet (180 cm) tall and 170 pounds (77 kg) running away from the building at 1:30 a.m. Effect of media coverage: Because of the Harvard and Radcliffe connections, the case attracted national media attention. The New York Times ran several articles about the case over the next two weeks. It was the first assignment for United Press International reporter Michael Widmer, and newspapers as far away as California ran his stories. Much reporting focused on one unusual aspect of the case. Britton's body, along with the floor, walls, and ceiling, had been sprinkled with a reddish-brown powder identified as either red ochre or iron oxide. When police had told Professor Williams of this while discussing the case with him, he said that ancient Iranians, along with many other cultures in the world, had sprinkled it over the dead as a funeral rite. Along with the way Britton's clothing had been used to cover her body, and the killer's apparent lack of interest in taking her valuables, that led to speculation that she had been killed by someone who knew her from Harvard and not a stranger. Lamberg-Karlovsky called that idea "completely fabricated and without foundation". Nevertheless, Williams gave police a list of one hundred students and faculty from the department who might have had this knowledge, most of whom testified at a February grand jury hearing, expedited since many of them were due to leave the country for digs in a few months. But at the same time he dismissed rumors that there had been friction among the team members in Iran that might have motivated someone to murder, saying nothing more serious occurred than the sort of minor tensions that arise among a group living and working closely together for an extended period. "There were complaints about too much tuna fish", he recalled. Many of Britton's friends could not imagine anyone wanting to kill her. The Cambridge police nonetheless filmed her January 10 funeral service, in case someone in attendance had been involved and gave themselves away by their behavior. Lie detector tests were administered to Humphries and the Mitchells, and detectives talked to, or attempted to talk to, anyone mentioned in her diary and an old phone directory. Three days after the killing, the Cambridge police announced they had found the stone but would not say where. At a special news conference on the case, Chief James Reagan said that from then on detectives would need his permission to disclose any information about the case. He claimed that this was due to inaccuracies in reporting on the case. With little news from the police, media speculation centered on the active counterculture of the era, which was very present in Cambridge. A Radcliffe friend of Britton's told the Times that "she knew a lot of odd people in Cambridge—the hangers-on and acid heads who you would not call young wholesome Harvard and Radcliffe types" to the point that she attended parties through and got along well with them. It was postulated that perhaps whoever had killed Britton had been under the influence of hallucinogenic drugs popular with members of the counterculture at the time. Ada Bean homicide: On February 6, less than a month after Britton was found dead, another woman, with past connections to Harvard, was found slain in her Cambridge residence under similar circumstances. Ada Bean, 50, a former research secretary at the university, was found raped and beaten to death in her Linnaean Avenue apartment, close to the Radcliffe campus and 1 mile (1.6 km) north of Britton's University Road building. Bean's body also was found on her bed, face down, her nightclothes pulled over her head, covered by blankets. She, too, was found by someone who had noticed her absence, in her case her employer since she had failed to show up for work, who entered the apartment with the assistance of the building's janitor. Police believed she, like Britton, had been killed in her sleep (however, her building had the outside locks and functional indoor locks that Britton's did not). The similarity of the two killings led to speculation that the same assailant was involved. By that time, Albert DeSalvo had confessed to the murder of Samans, as well as the other 12 victims of the Boston Strangler earlier in the decade. He was sentenced to life in prison for other offenses since he could not be prosecuted for the murders. As he was already in a mental hospital, he could not have also killed Britton and Bean. But DeSalvo's confession had been the only evidence linking him to most of the Strangler murders, and there had been speculation that there was more than one killer responsible for those killings—a second killer who might have resumed his activities with Britton and Bean. Police would not say whether the two murders were linked to each other, or to any others. Cold case: After the initial investigation and its frustrations, no further information of value emerged, and the now-cold case fell from the attention of the police, media and public as newer crimes took its place. It was never closed, however. Occasional media coverage of the case was limited by the police's continued refusal to release any of the original records from the case, citing the ongoing investigation. Evidence from the case was well-preserved, and when DNA testing became available to investigators in the late 1980s, they eventually tested the semen left by the killer. It did not produce any matches to the profiles of known offenders at the time, nor did a 2006 retest. In the early 2010s, several writers—Widmer, New Yorker staff writer Rebecca Cooper, and Alyssa Bertetto, moderator of the Unresolved Mysteries subreddit—began looking into the case and requesting copies of the investigatory records. Most of these requests were denied. When the journalists did receive records, they were very limited, sometimes just consisting of newspaper clippings of articles about the case. Even the records that had been shared with the authors of those articles were withheld. Widmer observed that this was a common pattern for law enforcement in Massachusetts, to refuse to release all but the most basic information about long-cold cases. He, Cooper (who had left the magazine to work full-time on a book about the Britton case), and Bertetto all filed lawsuits against the city of Cambridge to force the release of the case files, arguing that fresh leads had been generated by the release of information from long-cold cases in other jurisdictions. During preparations for the court hearings in the cases, police and prosecutors reviewed all the information they had. While doing so, they looked at the DNA evidence again and considered whether it was time to have it processed again in the hope of finding a match. The state police told them newer forensic techniques could process more of the DNA, making it more likely that they could find a match this time. The investigators decided to try again. Posthumous identification of perpetrator through DNA: The 2017 DNA analysis was, for the first time in the case, able to recover enough DNA to perform a Y-STR analysis and thus obtain strings specific to a male depositor. Entered into the federal Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), that string came back as a "soft hit" on an identifiable suspect: Michael Sumpter, a convicted rapist who had died in 2001, a little over a year after he was paroled from his sentence for that crime into hospice care for the terminal cancer from which he was suffering. To be certain it was Sumpter's DNA, investigators needed to test the Britton case DNA against DNA from another closely related male, since the portion of DNA tested by the Y-STR remains the same in all males of the same line. Sumpter's records mentioned a brother, but his whereabouts by the mid-2010s were unknown. Researching the family on led police to him, and he provided them with a sample that matched the one believed to be his brother's closely enough to eliminate all but 0.08% of the human male population as suspects. During his lifetime, Sumpter had been convicted of two rapes, the second of which occurred when he escaped from a work release program he was in while serving his sentence for the first. Earlier investigations had found similar matches between his DNA and that from two other previously unsolved Cambridge rape-murders in the early 1970s, predating his first conviction, as well as another unsolved rape, bringing his lifetime total of known offenses to five rapes and three murders. However, despite the similarities in the Ada Bean case, police do not consider Sumpter a suspect there. Further investigation found other circumstantial evidence that connected Sumpter to Cambridge in 1969. While he did not live in the city at the time, he had during his childhood in the 1950s, and attended first grade in the Cambridge Public School District; later in his youth he had been arrested as a juvenile by city police. Two years before the killing, he had worked on Arrow Street about 1 mile (1.6 km) from the apartment, and at the time his girlfriend lived in Cambridge. In 1972, he was convicted of assaulting a woman he had met at the Harvard Square subway station, just a few blocks from University Road. At a November 2018 news conference the current Middlesex County district attorney, Marian T. Ryan, announced the results of the investigation: "Michael Sumpter ... has been identified as the person responsible for the 1969 murder of Jane Britton." Although Sumpter could not be tried due to his death, Ryan stated that "I am confident that the mystery of who killed Jane Britton has finally been solved and this case is officially closed." It was the oldest cold case in Middlesex County to be solved, she said. Having identified their perpetrator, police set out their theory of how Sumpter had committed the crime. As one of the witness accounts at the time had suggested, despite the building's deficient security he had probably used the fire escape to gain access to Britton's apartment. Toxicology reports from the autopsy had found that while Britton's blood was alcohol-free, her stomach had an 0.08% alcohol content from the Mitchells' sherry, suggesting that she had died before it could be metabolized, within a short time of returning to her apartment. Once Sumpter had finished, he went back down the fire escape and fled the building. His height and weight at that time—5 feet 11 inches (180 cm) and 185 pounds (84 kg)—were close to that estimated by the neighbor who had seen the man running away at 1:30 a.m. Despite the great significance originally accorded the scattered red ochre, police later concluded that it was a "red herring", just flakes or other residue from Britton's painting, as it is a common pigment in paints.

Murder of Diane Maxwell

The 1969 murder of Diane Maxwell involved the death of Diane Maxwell, a 25-year-old phone operator for Southwestern Bell, who was found raped and killed in a shack in December 1969 in Houston, Texas. Crime: On December 14, 1969, 25-year-old Diane Maxwell was walking to her job as a phone operator for Southwestern Bell, but never made it to the building. Later that day, a man by the name of William Bell noticed a man walking away from a shack. When Bell came to look in the shack, he found the raped, dead body of Maxwell and immediately notified police. However, the case remained unsolved due to the lack of computer technology. In 1986, seventeen years after the incident, investigators reopened the case, but could not solve it. The case remained closed until July 2003, 34 years after the murder was committed. A batch of forensics they had performed in 1969 was found by Houston police, who located James Ray Davis, a lifetime criminal. Davis was last convicted of kidnapping a young girl and considered the perpetrator of the Maxwell rape and murder. DNA evidence confirmed that he did rape her. Davis was convicted of first degree murder (the robbery, rape, and kidnapping statute of limitations had expired) shortly afterward, and was sentenced to life without parole. Media: -In 2008, the case was featured in the Forensic Files episode "Brotherly Love."

1969 Greensboro uprising

The 1969 Greensboro uprising occurred on and around the campuses of James B. Dudley High School and North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University (A&T) in Greensboro, North Carolina, when, over the course of May 21 to May 25, gunfire was exchanged between student protesters, police and National Guard. One bystander, sophomore honors student Willie Grimes, was killed, although whether he was killed by police or protesters remains unknown. The uprising was sparked by perceived civil rights issues at the segregated high school, when a popular student council write-in presidential candidate was denied his landslide victory allegedly because school officials feared his activism in the Black Power movement. Starting on the campus of Dudley High School, the uprising spread to A&T campus where students had stood up in support of the Dudley protest. Escalating violence eventually led to armed confrontation and the invasion of the A&T campus by what was described at the time as "the most massive armed assault ever made against an American university". The uprising ended soon after the National Guard made a sweep of A&T college dormitories, taking hundreds of students into protective custody. While local officials blamed outside agitators, a report released by the North Carolina State Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights found that James B. Dudley High School had an unjust system and suppressed dissent. They found the National Guard invasion reckless and disproportionate to the actual danger, and criticized local community leaders for failing to help the Dudley High School students when the issues first emerged. They declared it "a sad commentary that the only group in the community who would take the Dudley students seriously were the students at A&T State University." Events- James B. Dudley High School: Before events began to coalesce in the spring of 1969, the students at James B. Dudley High School were already unhappy. They no longer believed that desegregation of the school system in Greensboro was a possibility. Their school was the only school in the district to place restrictions on student attire or forbid students leaving campus for lunch. But the catalyst for their uprising was their failure to elect a student council president of their choice. Even though he was not permitted on the ballot, the students attempted to place honor student Claude Barnes in the office of president as a write-in. A senior, Barnes had been politically active in his earlier years at the school, but was feared by school officials, who believed him a militant advocate of Black Power as a member of the Youth for the Unity of Black Society. Barnes won the election with 600 votes, a landslide compared to the top official candidate who received 200. But the student body was informed on May 1 that Barnes would not be permitted to run. The students of Dudley High turned for assistance to A&T. In the later 1960s, A&T was a center for the Black Power movement in the South. They took the Dudley students seriously. On May 2, A&T students attempted to join discussions with school administrators, but their several attempts proved unsuccessful. Angry response of the students began to build, with an increasing number of students boycotting classes, and armed police were seen in the vicinity of the school in riot gear. On May 9, the school superintendent effectively disempowered the school's black principal, sending in a white administrator to try to quell the trouble. Students made several attempts during this period to reach a peaceful resolution with school officials, but this administrator did not take a sympathetic or conciliatory approach to the students. On May 19, events began to reach a head. Police were called to deal with picketing, and, in the midst of alleged police misconduct, nine students were arrested. Student response damaged the school and resulted in more student arrests, as well as student injuries. On May 21, during school hours, students again assembled near the school. Police were contacted when an official indicated seeing a weapon on one of the students. Efforts by a school administrator to disperse the protesters peaceably failed when some students instead began throwing rocks through the windows of the school. Police brought tear gas against student protesters, applying it over a larger area than may have been needed for the small percentage of students involved in the protest; in some cases—according to residential bystanders—they pursued and gassed students for blocks even as they attempted to flee. Community members, some of whom were also affected by the tear gas canisters, began throwing rocks at police and cars, while students from Dudley High went again to A&T to appeal for assistance. North Carolina A&T State University: Early response to the situation at Dudley had been restricted to members of the newly-formed black activism group Student Organization for Black Unity, but the events of the day brought attention from the wider campus. A&T student activist Nelson Johnson reported 400 students marching on Dudley High. While at first violence was contained to tear gas and rocks, the shooting started shortly thereafter. Johnson claims that the first gunfire was instigated by a carload of young white people who fired onto the A&T campus, prompting the students to defend themselves in kind. Police report sniper fire from the dormitories at 10:45 p.m. Wherever it started, the police began returning fire within two hours, and 150 National Guard were sent to the scene to keep the peace. Two students were shot. One of them, bystander Willie Grimes, was killed, although whether he was shot by police or protesters remains unknown. The 22-year-old Grimes had been walking with a group of friends to a restaurant at around 1:30 a.m. when shots came from a passing car. Whether or not the car was a police vehicle has long been the subject of dispute. Grimes' death ignited the campus. A state of emergency was declared in Greensboro and 500 more National Guardsmen called in. The university was closed down, and a curfew was set for 8p.m. to 5 a.m. During the day of May 22, violence continued, as protesters vented their anger on white motorists, overturning cars and attacking at least one of the drivers. That evening, in spite of the curfew, shooting resumed Early in the morning of the 23rd, a shoot-out resulted in the serious injuries of five policemen and two students, which was followed by what was described at the time by one journalist as "the most massive armed assault ever made against an American university", with—according to 2012's The Black Revolution on Campus—the descent upon A&T of 600 National Guardsmen, a tank, a helicopter, an airplane and several armed personnel carriers. A UPI reporter wrote that "it looked like war". On information suggesting students may be harboring a large number of guns, then-governor Robert W. Scott ordered the invasion of the dormitory Scott Hall, the centerpoint of the shooting. At approximately 7:00 a.m., supported by smoke, "nausea" and tear gas grenades, the National Guard swept through the dorm, placing the students they found under protective custody and doing tens of thousands worth of dollars in damage. Many of the students were packing to evacuate or sleeping at the time of the invasion. Over 300 students from Scott Hall and neighboring dormitories were sent to state prisons, where they were detained through the day. More than 60 bullet holes left their mark on Scott Hall. Students alleged that during the sweep, personal items disappeared. When the sweep was completed, only three operable firearms had been located. By the 24th, the violence was contained. The curfew was lifted and the National Guard withdrawn. The uprising was declared over on May 25. Aftermath: -Willie Grimes' funeral was attended by 2,000 people, and a marker was erected on campus in his memory. -Governor Scott stated that the violence had been incited by a group of hard-core militants who had seized on the high school election as a catalyst for furthering their own cause. On October 3 and 4 of that year, meetings were held to investigate the incident under the direction of the North Carolina State Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights. While local officials continued blaming "outsiders" and "radicals" for the event, the committee found that the "prevailing system" at Dudley was unjust and that the school had suppressed dissent. Criticizing the inaction or ineffective action of school officials and community leaders, they declared it "a sad commentary that the only group in the community who would take the Dudley students seriously were the students at A&T State University." They also condemned the conduct of the National Guard sweep of Scott Hall, which endangered innocent students and seemed out of proportion to the actual risk, writing that "it is difficult to justify the lawlessness and the disorder in which this operation was executed." -In 1979, Jack Elam, Greensboro's mayor during the event, expressed discomfort with the sweep of Scott Hall, but—although he agreed that communication had been poor—declared the committee's report a "joke". Johnson, who had been arrested for inciting the Dudley students to riot and who was instrumental in bringing the committee to review the situation, wrote later that the community ignored the Advisory Committee's report. Additional black policemen were employed by the city, although by 1979 the number of black policemen were still not representative of the proportion of black residents of the area. -2008 saw the release of a documentary recounting the event, Walls that Bleed.

Disappearance of William Tyrrell

William Tyrrell is an Australian boy who disappeared at the age of 3 from Kendall, New South Wales, on 12 September 2014. He had been playing at his foster grandmother's house with his sister, and was wearing a Spider-Man suit at the time of his disappearance. Tyrrell is believed to have been abducted. Despite extensive investigations, as of 2020, Tyrrell has not been found, or his abductor(s) identified. On 12 September 2016, a reward of A$1 million was offered for the recovery of Tyrrell and does not require the arrest, charging or conviction of any person or persons. Disappearance: On 11 September 2014, three-year-old William Tyrrell, his foster parents, and his five-year-old sister travelled four hours from Sydney to visit his foster mother's mother in Kendall. His foster grandmother's house on Benaroon Drive is directly across the bushland road from the Kendall State Forest, about 35 kilometres (22 mi) south of Port Macquarie. Between 10:00 and 10:25 am on 12 September, Tyrrell and his sister were playing hide-and-seek in the front and back yard, while his foster mother and foster grandmother were sitting outside watching them. His foster mother went inside to make a cup of tea; she became worried after she had not heard him for five minutes and began searching the yard and house. Shortly after, Tyrrell's foster father returned after going to Lakewood on business and began searching the street and door-knocking neighbours. At 10:56, his foster mother phoned 000 emergency services to report him missing and the police arrived at 11:06. His foster mother's last memory was that Tyrrell was imitating a tiger's roar ("raaaarrrr") while running towards the side of the home, and then there was silence and he had disappeared. His mum looked for him but to no success. Investigation- Initial search efforts: Hundreds of police, members of State Emergency Services, Rural Fire Service and members of the community searched day and night for Tyrrell. Specialist police, including the sex crimes squad from Strike Force were immediately formed. Motorcycles and helicopters were brought in to search. Two hundred volunteers searched overnight, hundreds of people combed rugged terrain around the home and police divers searched waterways and dams. The police searched every house in the estate that surrounds Benaroon Drive several times. The police detection dogs were brought in and they managed to detect Tyrrell's scent, but only within the boundaries of the backyard. "Strike Force Rosann" was established with specially trained investigators from the State Crime Command who are experienced in the unexplained disappearance of young children. They supported the police, other emergency services workers and members of the public involved in the search. After five days, police said they were unable to come up with any leads. Sighted vehicles: The police later began investigations into finding the drivers of two cars that were seen parked on the dead end road on the morning Tyrrell disappeared. The cars, described as a white station wagon and an older-style grey sedan, were parked between two driveways of the acre lot of land. They were seen with their driver's side windows down and were unknown in the neighbourhood where locals are friends. These cars were noticed by Tyrrell's mother and they have not been seen again since the time he disappeared. The police regard these particular vehicles with suspicion, as there seemed to be no logical reason why they would be parked on the street before William's disappearance. Reportedly, at 9:00 am, a green or grey sedan car drove past the Tyrrell home while Tyrrell and his sister were riding bikes in the driveway. The car drove into the no through road, did a U turn in the neighbour's driveway and drove out of the street. Secondly, another 4WD was sighted driving out of Benaroon Drive at about 10:30 am, about the time he disappeared. The same vehicle was later seen speeding down another Kendall street. The police said that they have known about these cars since the investigation started. However, as part of investigative strategy, the information about these vehicles was not released to the public until 12 months after Tyrrell disappeared. Suspected paedophile ring: The police cleared Tyrrell's family of any involvement in the disappearance and earlier believed the boy was abducted by an opportunistic stranger who may have a connection with a paedophile ring. The police also believed that the boy could be alive in the hands of a group of people suspected of paedophile activity, but it is no longer believed the kidnapper is a member of a paedophile ring. The police have interviewed dozens of people including a number of paedophiles. A Current Affair reported that about 20 registered sex offenders were living in the surrounding area of Kendall where Tyrrell went missing. Two persons of interest in the case, both convicted child sex offenders, may have met up on the day Tyrrell vanished. The family of one paedophile, who had 90 convictions against his name including aggravated indecent assault of a minor, said he was going to visit another child sex offender on that day and returned home drunk that afternoon. But he told police he spent that day in the bush collecting scrap metal. It was reported that both men lived in the Kendall area and had been driving vehicles that matched the description of the grey sedan and white station wagon that had been seen near the Tyrrell house around the time he disappeared. They also had been members of an organisation called GAPA (Grandparents As Parents Again) and were friends. The pair have both been questioned by the police and they categorically denied being friends, or having any involvement in the disappearance. Another man who repaired a washing machine at Tyrrell's foster home is facing unrelated historical child sex charges in Victoria and was due to appear in court on 4 July 2016. The police had charged the man with multiple child sexual offences, including various counts of indecent assault and sexual intercourse with children between 1983 and 1985 in Victoria. The man posted an online video in September 2015 denying any involvement in the Tyrrell disappearance and that he had been to the Tyrrell home on 9 and 18 September but not to that street on 12 September, the day Tyrrell disappeared. Reported sightings: More than 1,000 suspected sightings were reported to the investigation team in the two years after Tyrrell disappeared. It includes a photo taken of a man, and a young boy from Queensland, who looked strikingly similar to Tyrrell. However, 24 hours later, the police received another call to confirm that the boy was not him. In early 2015, two passengers and a member of the New Zealand-bound flight crew thought they saw Tyrrell on their aeroplane. The police met the aircraft at the airport and soon discovered it was not him. Another photo came across to the police showing a young boy and a woman in a McDonald's restaurant in Central Queensland. The boy looked similar to Tyrrell, and the woman who was with the boy looked like his grandmother. The police later confirmed that the mother and boy were not them. Later developments- Strike Force Rosann: On 16 September 2014, Strike Force Rosann was established to investigate Tyrrell's disappearance. It consists of 14 detectives and analysts working full-time to solve the case. The team will also sift through hundreds of pieces of information pouring in from the public. The ramped-up investigation comes after a personal plea from Tyrrell's parents to members of State Parliament, Deputy Premier and Minister for Justice, at a private event in late 2015. The family spokesperson said that "They just want to reinforce that police believe he could still be alive and they're just asking members of the public not to give up on him." The investigation is now the state's largest, involving dozens of analysts, investigators and two strike forces, Rosann, run by the Homicide Squad, and Rosann Two, which provides assistance from the Armed Holdup, Sex Crimes and Fraud Squads. One million dollar reward: On 12 September 2016, the second anniversary of Tyrrell's disappearance, the NSW government announced a $1 million reward for information on his whereabouts. The police say that the reward will usually be paid out as conditional on the arrest and conviction of the offender, but the recovery of Tyrrell had been added as a condition on this reward. It is the largest ever reward offered to find a missing person in NSW's history and double the amount of the state's previously highest standing reward of $500,000, attached to the 1999 case of murdered teenager Michelle Bright. Case data: The case has led to a record number of over 2,800 calls to NSW Crime Stoppers alone since Tyrrell disappeared. The police have interviewed more than 1,000 people in connection with the case. There have been 11,000 documents created by the police. The search has gone global as far as Europe and the US. Crime Stoppers websites in up to 26 countries have been asked by the Australian Federal Police to post an appeal for information about the case. The police have identified 690 persons of interest to their inquiry and have called in other specialist squads within the State Crime Command to investigate many such persons as low-priority targets so that the rest are being questioned by "Strike Force Rosann". The Australian reported that it is possible detectives have already interviewed the person or persons involved. 2018 search: On 12 June 2018, police announced that they will undertake a "large-scale forensic search" in bushland around Kendall, which will last for three to four weeks and be run by search experts from the Public Order and Riot Squad. Parents, legal matters and criticism: Tyrrell was in foster care at the time of his disappearance which prevented his biological parents from being named for legal reasons. The legal reasons bound by the legislation prevented them being identified publicly or holding any press conferences for the purpose of appealing publicly about their missing son. On 24 August 2017, the New South Wales Supreme Court of Appeal ruled that Tyrrell's status as a foster child and the fact he disappeared while in state care with foster parents was "one of legitimate public interest". His parents were previously allowed to speak during a 60 Minutes interview on the condition that they did not show their faces. The father of murdered teenager Daniel Morcombe had criticised the NSW government's refusal to allow Tyrrell's parents to speak publicly about their son's disappearance as it was vital in helping to generate information that was then followed up by the police. They also feared the decision may have hindered the police investigation during the crucial weeks following Tyrrell's disappearance. But the NSW government released a statement saying its "key priority is to always act in the interests of the safety and wellbeing of children and not in any way to jeopardise ongoing police investigations". Current status: Despite various search efforts by the police and the forensic testing which failed to turn up any trace of Tyrrell or clues about his disappearance, police have yet to conclude what actually happened to him. Chief Inspector Gary Jubelin commented that the investigation into the disappearance of Tyrrell remains a priority for the NSW Police Force and said that the investigators would treat the case as though he was alive, until they had evidence proving otherwise. On 20 February 2016, a police spokesperson said that the ongoing investigation was one of the biggest investigations being run by homicide and that they have not given up hope of finding Tyrrell alive.

Disappearance of Timmothy Pitzen

On May 11, 2011, six-year-old American boy Timmothy James Pitzen was dropped off at school in Aurora, Illinois by his father James Pitzen. He was picked up shortly after by his mother, Amy Fry-Pitzen, who took him on a three-day trip to various amusement and water parks. Fry-Pitzen's body was subsequently found in a motel room in the city of Rockford, Illinois, having committed suicide, with a note stating that Timmothy was safe, but would never be found. Background: Timmothy Pitzen was born in Aurora, Illinois on October 18, 2004 as the only child of James Pitzen and Amy Joan Marie Fry-Pitzen. On May 11, 2011, Timmothy's father dropped him off at his kindergarten class at Greenman Elementary School. His mother checked him out of class between 8:10 and 8:15 AM CDT, citing a non-existent family emergency. She dropped her vehicle off at a repair shop at 10:00 AM. An employee of the shop drove Fry-Pitzen and her son to the Brookfield Zoo. They returned and retrieved their vehicle at 3:00 PM, and drove to the KeyLime Cove Resort in Gurnee, where they spent the night. The next morning, the pair drove to Kalahari Resort in Wisconsin Dells, Wisconsin, and were spotted on security footage in the checkout line at 10:00 AM the next day. Timmothy has not been seen or heard from since. Disappearance: Between 12:00 p.m. and 1:30 p.m. on May 13, Fry-Pitzen telephoned several family members, including her mother and brother-in-law, telling them that she and Timmothy were safe and not in any danger. Cell phone records indicated the calls were made from an area northwest of Sterling, near Route 40. Fry-Pitzen failed to contact her husband, however, who had been attempting to locate the pair after being notified by his son's school that he was not present when he arrived to pick him up at the end of the school day on May 11. Timmothy was heard in the background during the calls, saying that he was hungry. At 7:25 p.m. that evening, Fry-Pitzen was seen, alone, on security cameras at a Family Dollar store in Winnebago, where she purchased a pen, notepaper and envelopes. At 8:00 p.m., she was sighted at a Sullivan's Food store in Winnebago, again unaccompanied. At 11:15 p.m., she checked into the Rockford Inn at Rockford, where sometime that night or the next morning, she took her own life by slashing her wrists and neck and overdosing on antihistamines. At 12:30 p.m. on May 14, her body was found by a hotel maid along with a note. In the note, Fry-Pitzen apologized for the mess she had created, and explained that Timmothy would never be found, but was safe with people who would care for him. Investigation: Police found that the knife Fry-Pitzen had used to kill herself contained only her blood, but that "a concerning amount" of blood found in her car belonged to her son Timmothy. However, a family member later revealed that the stains were likely caused by a nosebleed Timmothy had suffered in the car earlier that month. It was also noted that Fry-Pitzen's cell phone was missing. An examination of her vehicle revealed that it had been parked in a grassy area, possibly near a stream, but close to a highway. In 2013, Fry-Pitzen's cell phone was located beside Route 78, but the discovery did not bring any new evidence. James Pitzen has stated that he believes his son is still alive. The case was broadcast on the American television series Live PD on August 25, 2018, with guest Angeline Hartmann of the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children showing viewers an age progression photograph of Timmothy at age 13. Reappearance hoax: On April 3, 2019, local residents in Newport, Kentucky called the police to report a teenager wandering the streets after running across a bridge over the Ohio River. When police found the shaken and distraught boy, he told them he was Timmothy. The next day, the Louisville office of the FBI revealed via Twitter that the boy in their custody was not Timmothy. Aurora Police spokesman Sgt. Bill Rowley said, "Although we are disappointed that this turned out to be a hoax, we remain diligent in our search for Timmothy, as our missing person's case remains unsolved." The man who claimed to be Pitzen was found to be 23-year-old Brian Michael Rini. He was released from Belmont Correctional Institution in Ohio less than a month prior to his claim, after serving about fourteen months on charges of burglary and vandalism out of Medina County. On December 16, 2020, Rini was sentenced to two years in prison after pleading guilty to charges of aggravated identity theft related to the hoax.

William Bonin

William George Bonin, also known as the Freeway Killer, was an American serial killer and twice-paroled sex offender who committed the rape, torture, and murder of a minimum of 21 boys and young men in a series of killings in 1979 and 1980 in southern California. Bonin is also suspected of committing a further 15 murders. Described by the prosecutor at his first trial as "the most arch-evil person who ever existed", Bonin was convicted of 14 of the murders linked to the "Freeway Killer" in two separate trials in 1982 and 1983. He spent 14 years on death row before he was executed by lethal injection at San Quentin State Prison in 1996. Bonin became known as the "Freeway Killer" due to the fact that the majority of his victims' bodies were discovered alongside numerous freeways in southern California. He shares this epithet with two separate and unrelated serial killers: Patrick Kearney and Randy Kraft. Early life- Childhood: William Bonin was born in Willimantic, Connecticut, on January 8, 1947, the second of three brothers born to Robert and Alice Bonin. Bonin's parents were alcoholics, and his father was a compulsive gambler who was physically abusive towards his wife and children. Bonin and his brothers were severely neglected as children, and were often fed and clothed by sympathetic neighbors. In addition, the brothers were often placed in the care of their grandfather, a convicted child molester who had molested Bonin's mother when she had been a child and adolescent, and who is known to have sexually abused his three grandsons. In 1953, Bonin's mother placed her sons in an orphanage in an effort to protect her children from their father's physical violence. This orphanage was known to severely discipline the children it housed for minor and major breaches of conduct, with the punishments administered including severe beatings, enduring various stress positions, and partial drowning in sinks filled with water. Although Bonin later freely discussed many aspects of his childhood and adolescence, he refused to discuss his memories of the orphanage beyond divulging that he consented to sexual advances from older males only if they would first tie his hands behind his back. He was to remain at the orphanage until the age of nine, when he returned to live with his parents in the town of Mansfield. At the age of 10, Bonin was arrested for stealing vehicle license plates and was placed in a juvenile detention center for various minor crimes. While housed at this juvenile detention center, he was repeatedly physically and sexually abused by several people, including his adult counselor. Four years later, in 1961, facing the prospect of the foreclosure of their home, Bonin's parents opted to relocate to California. The Bonin family settled in a modest home on Angell Street in the city of Downey; shortly thereafter, Bonin's father died from cirrhosis of the liver. While living at this address, Bonin is known to have molested his younger brother and several neighborhood children. Many of these children were lured into Bonin's home with the promise of alcohol, and all his known victims were younger than he was. In addition to these acts of molestation, Bonin is known to have committed several acts of robbery, petty theft, and grand theft in his teenage years. Engagement and U.S. Air Force: Shortly after graduating from high school in 1965, Bonin became engaged to marry; this engagement had largely been at the behest of his mother, who believed the prospect of marriage would quell her son's evident homosexuality. The same year of his graduation, Bonin joined the U.S. Air Force. He later served five months of active duty in the Vietnam War as an aerial gunner, logging over 700 hours of combat and patrol time. Bonin was to later claim his experiences in Vietnam had instilled a belief within him that human life is overvalued. On one occasion, while under enemy fire, he risked his own life to save the life of a wounded fellow airman. For this act, Bonin received a medal in recognition of his gallantry. Bonin later claimed to have engaged in consensual sexual relations with males and females in Vietnam; he also later admitted to sexually assaulting two fellow soldiers at gunpoint during the period of the Tet Offensive. Bonin served three years in the U.S. Air Force before he received an honorable discharge in October 1968. Upon his discharge, Bonin returned to Downey to live with his mother. Shortly thereafter, he married his fiancée; the couple soon divorced. First convictions: On November 17, 1968, at age 21, Bonin committed a sexual assault on a youth. He was to commit three further sexual assaults upon boys and youths over the following four months. The victims of these four assaults were aged between 12 and 18 and in each instance, he bound or otherwise restrained his victim before forcibly engaging in sodomy, oral copulation, and methods of torture which included bludgeoning and the squeezing of his victims' testicles. In early 1969, Bonin was arrested as he attempted to restrain a 16-year-old youth whom he had lured into his vehicle; he was indicted on five counts of kidnapping, four counts of sodomy, one count of oral copulation, and one count of child molestation against the five youths he had abducted and assaulted or—in the case of the final youth he had abducted—attempted to assault since the previous November. Bonin pleaded guilty to molestation and forced oral copulation and was sentenced to the Atascadero State Hospital as a mentally disordered sexual offender considered amenable to treatment in January 1971. While detained at this hospital, Bonin was subjected to a battery of psychiatric examinations, which revealed that he possessed a higher than average IQ of 121, and displayed traits of manic depression in addition to damage to the prefrontal cortex of his brain—which would likely reduce his ability to restrain any violent impulses. Bonin's physical examinations also revealed extensive scars on his head and buttocks, which he had likely sustained in the three years he had been housed at the Connecticut juvenile detention center, although he claimed to have no memory of any such incidents of abuse. Two years after his arrival at the Atascadero State Hospital, Bonin was sent to prison, declared unsuitable for further treatment—largely due to his repeatedly engaging in forceful sexual activity with male inmates. On June 11, 1974, he was released from prison after doctors concluded he was "no longer a danger to the health and safety of others." Further offenses and imprisonment: On September 8, 1974, Bonin encountered a 14-year-old named David Allen McVicker hitchhiking in Garden Grove. McVicker accepted Bonin's offer to drive him to his parents' home in Huntington Beach. Shortly after McVicker had entered Bonin's vehicle, he was taken aback by Bonin asking him if he was gay. When McVicker asked Bonin to stop his car, Bonin produced a gun and drove the youth to a deserted field, where he ordered McVicker to undress, then beat and raped him. After beating and assaulting McVicker, Bonin began to strangle the youth with his own T-shirt, then immediately became apologetic when McVicker began screaming. He then drove McVicker home before casually stating, "We'll meet again." McVicker immediately informed his mother of the rape; she in turn notified Garden Grove police. Shortly thereafter, Bonin was charged with the rape and forcible oral copulation of a minor, and the attempted abduction of a 15-year-old which had occurred two days after Bonin had assaulted McVicker. In this second instance, Bonin had sexually propositioned a 15-year-old, who had rejected Bonin's offer of $35 for sex. In response, Bonin had attempted to strike the youth with his vehicle. Bonin pleaded guilty to these charges, and on December 31, 1975, he was sentenced to serve between one and 15 years' imprisonment, to be served at the California Men's Facility in San Luis Obispo. He was released from detention on October 11, 1978, albeit with 18 months' supervised probation. Release- Acquaintance with Vernon Butts: Upon his release, Bonin moved to an apartment complex in Downey (approximately 1 mile from his mother's home), and soon found employment as a truck driver for a Montebello delivery firm named Dependable Drive-Away. He also established a reputation among teenage boys in his neighborhood as a gregarious individual who allowed them to socialize in his apartment, and who bought alcohol for minors. In addition, Bonin dated a young woman whom, he informed acquaintances, he regularly accompanied to Anaheim on Sundays, to partake in her hobby of roller skating. Shortly after moving to his apartment, Bonin became acquainted with a 43-year-old neighbor named Everett Fraser. Bonin became a regular attendee at the frequent parties Fraser held at his apartment and, through these social gatherings, he became acquainted with a 21-year-old named Vernon Butts and an 18-year-old named Gregory Miley. Butts, a porcelain-factory worker and part-time magician who held a fascination with occultism, later claimed to have been both fascinated with and terrified of Bonin, while freely admitting to taking a great delight in watching Bonin abuse and torture his victims. Miley—an illiterate Texas native with an IQ of 56 who supported himself with casual work—also actively participated in the murders he accompanied Bonin upon. Murder spree: Bonin usually selected young male hitchhikers, schoolboys or, occasionally, male prostitutes as his victims. The victims, aged 12 to 19, were either enticed or forced into his Ford Econoline van, where they were overpowered and bound hand and foot with a combination of handcuffs and wire or cords. They were then sexually assaulted, extensively beaten about the face, head and genitals, and tortured before typically being killed by strangulation with their own T-shirts, although some victims were stabbed or battered to death. One victim, Darin Kendrick, was forced to drink hydrochloric acid; three victims had ice-picks driven into their ears and another victim, Mark Shelton, died of shock. In order to minimize the chances of a potential victim escaping from his vehicle, Bonin removed all inner handles from the passenger-side and rear doors of his van, and stowed ligatures, knives, household tools and other instruments in his vehicle to facilitate the restraining and torture of his victims. The victims were usually killed inside his van before their bodies were discarded alongside or close to various freeways in southern California. In a minimum of 12 of the murders, Bonin was assisted by one or more of his four known accomplices. According to one attorney present throughout Bonin's subsequent confession, the escalating levels of brutality he had exhibited towards his victims had been similar to that of a drug addict requiring an ever-greater increase of dosage to attain a satisfactory level of euphoria, and Bonin later emphasized to neurologists he had felt an intense sense of excitement as he searched for his victims. First murder and initial arrest: The first murder for which Bonin was charged was that of a 13-year-old hitchhiker named Thomas Glen Lundgren. Lundgren was last seen leaving his parents' house in Reseda at 10:50 a.m. on the morning of May 28, 1979: his body, clad only in a T-shirt, shoes and socks, was found the same afternoon in Agoura. An autopsy revealed that Lundgren had suffered emasculation and bludgeoning to his face and head, with his skull sustaining multiple fractures. In addition, the youth had been slashed across the throat, extensively stabbed, and strangled to death. His underwear, jeans, and severed genitals were discovered strewn in a field close to his body. In the abduction and murder of Lundgren, Bonin was assisted by Butts, who is suspected of accompanying or assisting Bonin on at least eight further murders attributed to the "Freeway Killer." In mid-1979, Bonin was again arrested for molesting a 17-year-old boy in the coastal community of Dana Point. This violation of the conditions of his parole should have resulted in Bonin being returned to prison; however, an administrative error committed prior to Bonin's scheduled court date resulted in his release. Fraser drove to collect Bonin from the Orange County Jail where he had been incarcerated. He later recollected that as he drove Bonin home, Bonin made a statement which he (Fraser) had interpreted at the time as an expression of remorse: "No one's going to testify again. This is never going to happen to me again." Freeway Killer murders: Two months after the murder of Lundgren, on August 4, 1979, Bonin and Butts abducted a 17-year-old named Mark Shelton shortly after the youth left his Westminster home to walk to a movie theater near Beach Boulevard. Screams were heard from the vicinity of the Shelton household by neighbors, leaving a strong possibility Shelton was abducted by force. The youth was violated with foreign objects including a pool cue, causing his body to enter a state of shock which proved fatal. His body was then discarded in San Bernardino County. The following day, Bonin and Butts encountered a 17-year-old West German student named Markus Grabs attempting to hitchhike from Pacific Coast Highway. Grabs was bound with lengths of cord and ignition wire and driven to Bonin's home, where he was sodomized, beaten, and stabbed a total of 77 times before his nude body was discarded in Malibu Creek, close to Las Virgenes Canyon Road. His body was found the following morning, with one investigator likening the network of injuries inflicted upon the victim to that of a rabid dog unable to determine when to cease biting. On August 27, Bonin and Butts abducted a 15-year-old Hollywood youth named Donald Ray Hyden. Hyden was last seen alive walking along Santa Monica Boulevard at 1 a.m.; his body was found by construction workers later the same morning in a dumpster located near the offramp of the Ventura Freeway. Prior to his death by ligature strangulation, Hyden had been bound, beaten about the face, sodomized, then stabbed in the neck and genitalia and bludgeoned about the skull. Evident attempts had also been made to remove his testicles and slash his throat. Two weeks after the murder of Hyden, on September 9, Bonin and Butts encountered a 17-year-old La Mirada youth named David Louis Murillo cycling to a movie theater. Murillo was lured into Bonin's van, where he was bound, repeatedly raped, extensively bludgeoned about the skull with a tire iron, then strangled with a ligature before his nude body was thrown over an embankment into a bed of ivy alongside Highway 101. Eight days after the murder of Murillo, on September 17, an 18-year-old Newport Beach youth named Robert Christopher Wirostek was abducted as he cycled to his job at a grocery store; his body was found on September 27 alongside Interstate 10. Bonin is not known to have killed again until on or about November 1, when he and Butts abducted and murdered an unidentified young man approximately 5 ft 10 in in height, and estimated to be between 19 and 25 years old. This victim was savagely beaten, then strangled to death before his body was discarded in an irrigation ditch alongside State Route 99, south of Bakersfield. Although never identified, Bonin later estimated the age of this victim to be 23, and freely admitted to inserting an ice pick into this victim's nostrils and ear prior to his murder. Approximately four weeks later, Bonin—operating alone—abducted and strangled a 17-year-old Bellflower youth named Frank Dennis Fox; his body was found two days later alongside the Ortega Highway, five miles east of San Juan Capistrano. The body itself bore signs of extensive blunt force trauma to the face and head, with ligature marks on the wrists and ankles indicating Fox had been bound throughout his ordeal. No clothing or other identifying evidence was discovered at the scene. Ten days after the murder of Fox, a 15-year-old Long Beach youth named John Fredrick Kilpatrick disappeared after leaving his parents' home to socialize with friends. Kilpatrick was strangled to death before his body was discarded in a remote area of Rialto. His body was found on December 13; Kilpatrick remained known as a John Doe until August 5, 1980. On January 1, 1980, Bonin brutalized and strangled a 16-year-old Ontario youth named Michael Francis McDonald; his fully clothed body was found alongside Highway 71 in western San Bernardino County two days after his murder, although his body was not identified until March 24. Participation of Gregory Miley: On February 3, Bonin drove from Downey to Hollywood in the company of 18-year-old Miley with the specific intention of committing a further murder. The pair encountered a 15-year-old named Charles Miranda standing close to the Starwood nightclub, hitchhiking along Santa Monica Boulevard. According to Miley, Bonin and Miranda engaged in consensual sexual activity in the rear of the van as he drove, before Bonin then whispered to Miley, "Kid's going to die." Miranda was then overpowered and bound by Bonin, who then asked the youth how much money he had in his possession. When Miranda responded he had "about $6", Bonin ordered Miley to take the youth's wallet, before raping his victim. Miley also attempted to rape the youth, but was unable to sustain an erection. In frustration, Miley assaulted Miranda with various sharp objects, before assisting Bonin in beating the youth. Bonin then strangled Miranda to death with a T-shirt and a tire iron as Miley repeatedly jumped on Miranda's chest. His nude corpse was then dumped in an alleyway alongside East Second Street in Los Angeles. Five minutes after the pair had discarded Miranda's body, Bonin suggested to Miley: "I'm horny again, let's go and do another one." A few hours later, in Huntington Beach, the pair encountered a 12-year-old named James Macabe at a bus stop on the corner of Beach Boulevard and Slater Avenue. Macabe was lured into Bonin's van on the promise he would be driven to his intended destination of Disneyland. According to Miley, the boy entered the rear of the van voluntarily as Bonin drove to a grocery store parking lot, where he parked the van, and entered the rear of the vehicle. Miley then drove in an aimless manner for what he later described as being a "very, very long distance". As he drove, Miley continually heard Macabe crying as Bonin beat and raped him, before forcing the boy to sleep in his arms. Miley then joined Bonin in beating the child and crushing his neck with a tire iron simply because he "felt like" doing so. Bonin then strangled Macabe to death with his own T-shirt, before the pair discarded his fully clothed, beaten body alongside a dumpster in the city of Walnut. Macabe's body was found three days later. On February 4, Bonin was arrested for violating the conditions of his parole; he was remanded in custody at the Orange County Jail until March 4. Subsequent killings: Ten days after Bonin had been released from custody, on March 14, he abducted and killed an 18-year-old Van Nuys youth named Ronald Gatlin. Gatlin was abducted shortly after he had left a friend's home. He was beaten, sodomized and suffered several deep, perforating ice pick wounds to the ear and neck before being strangled with a ligature. Gatlin's body, bound hand and foot, was found the following day in the city of Duarte. One week later, on March 21, Bonin lured a 14-year-old named Glenn Barker into his van as the youth hitchhiked to school. Barker was also raped, beaten and strangled to death with a ligature; his body also bore evidence of numerous burns to the neck which had been inflicted with a lit cigarette. In addition, Barker had been violated with foreign objects which had extensively distended his rectum. At 4 p.m. the same day, a 15-year-old named Russell Rugh was abducted from a bus stop in Garden Grove. Rugh was bound, beaten and strangled to death after an estimated eight hours of captivity before his body was discarded alongside that of Barker in Cleveland National Forest. The youths' nude bodies were found on March 23. Encounter with William Pugh: One Friday evening in March, 1980, Bonin offered a 17-year-old named William Ray Pugh a ride home as the pair left Fraser's residence. Within minutes of accepting the ride, Bonin asked Pugh whether he would like to engage in sex with him. Pugh later stated he panicked and stuttered upon hearing this question and, after sitting in silence for several minutes, attempted to leave the vehicle once Bonin had slowed the van at a stoplight. In response, Bonin wordlessly leaned across and grabbed Pugh by the collar, dragging him back into the passenger seat. According to Pugh, Bonin then confided in him that he enjoyed abducting young male hitchhikers on Friday and Saturday nights, whom he then restrained and abused before strangling them to death with their own T-shirts. In a matter-of-fact tone, Bonin then informed Pugh: "If you want to kill somebody, you should make a plan and find a place to dump the body before you even pick a victim." Bonin then informed Pugh he had not chosen to refrain from assaulting and killing him out of sentiment; he'd been spared because the pair had been seen leaving Fraser's party together. Pugh was driven to his home without being assaulted. Murder of Harry Turner: On March 24, Bonin and Pugh abducted a 15-year-old runaway named Harry Todd Turner from a Los Angeles street. Turner had absconded from a boys' home in the desert community of Lancaster four days prior to his meeting Bonin and Pugh. Pugh was to later testify that he and Bonin lured Turner into Bonin's van with an offer of $20 for sex. After binding, sodomizing and biting the youth, Bonin ordered Pugh to "beat him (Turner) up." After Pugh had bludgeoned and beat Turner about the head and body for several minutes, Bonin strangled the youth to death with his own T-shirt before discarding his body at the rear delivery door to a Los Angeles business. Turner's autopsy subsequently revealed the youth's genitals had been mutilated, and he had received a total of eight fractures to the skull inflicted by a blunt instrument before he had been strangled. Later killings: On the afternoon of April 10, Bonin abducted a 16-year-old Bellflower youth named Steven John Wood as the youth walked to school, having attended a dental appointment that morning; his nude, extensively beaten body was discarded in an alleyway in Long Beach, close to the Pacific Coast Highway. No clothing or other identifying evidence was discovered at the scene. Wood's autopsy revealed the youth had been killed by ligature strangulation. Three weeks later, on April 29, while parked in the grounds of a Stanton supermarket, Bonin and Butts lured a 19-year-old employee named Darin Kendrick into Bonin's van on the pretext of selling the youth drugs. Kendrick was driven to Butts' apartment, where he was overpowered and bound by both men. In addition to enduring sodomy and partial ligature strangulation, Kendrick was forced to drink hydrochloric acid by Bonin, causing caustic chemical burns to his mouth, chin, stomach and chest. Butts then drove an ice pick into Kendrick's ear, causing a fatal wound to the youth's cervical spinal cord. His body was discarded behind a warehouse close to the Artesia Freeway, with the ice pick Butts had driven into his skull still protruding from his ear. On May 12, Bonin abducted and murdered a 17-year-old acquaintance of his whom he later stated he had decided to kill when he had awoken that morning because he was "tired of having him around". The body of this acquaintance, Lawrence Sharp, was discarded behind a Westminster gas station. His body was found on May 18, and his autopsy revealed that in addition to being bound and sodomized, Sharp had been extensively beaten about the face and body, then strangled with a ligature. One week after the murder of Sharp, on May 19, Bonin asked Butts to accompany him on a killing; on this occasion, however, Butts reportedly refused to accompany him. Operating alone, Bonin abducted a 14-year-old South Gate youth named Sean King from a bus stop in Downey, killed him, then discarded his body in Live Oak Canyon, Yucaipa. Bonin then visited Butts' residence and bragged of the killing to his accomplice. Acquaintance with James Munro: Nine days after the murder of King, Bonin invited an 18-year-old homeless drifter named James Michael Munro to move into the apartment he shared with his mother. Munro had been evicted from his family's home in his native Michigan in early 1980 and had been living rough on the streets of Hollywood for several weeks. As such, Munro readily accepted Bonin's accommodation offer. As had earlier been the case with Miley, Munro—a bisexual who preferred sexual relations with females—also began a consensual sexual relationship with Bonin. He also accepted a subsequent offer of employment at the Montebello delivery firm where Bonin worked. Munro later described his initial impression of Bonin as being "a good guy; really normal", although on the evening of June 1, Bonin abruptly informed Munro he wanted the two of them to abduct, rape, and kill a teenage hitchhiker. Surveillance: By early 1980, the murders committed by the Freeway Killer were receiving considerable media attention, and a reward totaling $50,000 for information leading to the conviction of the perpetrator or perpetrators had been offered by leading gay rights activists. Bonin avidly collected newspaper clippings documenting his own manhunt. Having by this stage determined a definitive link between many of the murders committed within the previous year, investigators from the various jurisdictions where victims had been abducted or discovered had themselves begun sharing information in their collective hunt for the perpetrator. Six officers from three of the jurisdictions in which the Freeway Killer had most regularly either abducted or deposited the bodies of his victims formed a task force dedicated to the apprehension of the suspect or suspects who, as one of the officers upon this assembled task force later recalled, was striking at an average rate of once every two weeks in the spring of 1980. By May 1980, Pugh had been arrested for auto theft, and was housed at the Los Padrinos Juvenile Courthouse. On May 29, Pugh overheard the details of the ongoing murders on a local radio broadcast and confided to a counselor his recognition of the perpetrator's modus operandi as being that described to him by Bonin two months previous. This counselor reported Pugh's suspicions to the police, who in turn relayed the information to an LAPD homicide sergeant named John St. John. Upon hearing the confidential tip from the counselor, St. John conducted an extensive interview with Pugh. Although Pugh withheld the fact that he had actually accompanied Bonin on one of his murders, the information he provided led St. John to deduce that Bonin may have indeed been the Freeway Killer. (McVicker had also contacted authorities by this time to report his suspicions that Bonin may be the perpetrator. His suspicions were not dismissed, but regarded as one of many public tips to be investigated.) A police investigation into Bonin's background revealed his extensive history of convictions for sexually assaulting teenage boys. Detective St. John assigned a surveillance team to monitor Bonin's movements. The surveillance of Bonin began on the evening of June 2, 1980. Murder of Steven Wells: On June 2, the same day as police surveillance began, Bonin, accompanied by James Munro, encountered an 18-year-old print shop worker named Steven Jay Wells standing at a bus stop on El Segundo Boulevard. Bonin and Munro enticed the youth into the van. Upon learning Wells was bisexual, Bonin persuaded the youth to accompany him to his apartment on the promise he would be paid $200 if he allowed himself to be bound prior to engaging in sex. At Bonin's apartment, Wells was bound, raped, beaten about the face and torso, then informed he was to be murdered before he was strangled to death with his own T-shirt. Bonin then placed Wells' body inside a cardboard box which he and Munro then carried to his van. The pair then drove to the residence of Butts, whom Bonin first invited to view Wells' body with the enticement: "We got it in the van; it's a good one. Come on out and see it." According to Munro, upon viewing the body, Butts replied, "Oh, you got another one!" before Bonin asked for advice as to how to dispose of it. At Bonin's subsequent trial, Munro recalled Butts' response: "'Try a gas station like' or 'where' - I don't know which - 'we dumped the last one.'" Munro also later testified that Butts had actively dissuaded Bonin from discarding the youth's body in the nearby canyons due to the late hour. Wells' body was instead discarded behind a disused Huntington Beach gas station, where it was found five hours later. Arrest: After nine days of surveillance, on June 11, 1980, police observed Bonin driving in a seemingly random manner throughout Hollywood, unsuccessfully attempting to lure five separate teenage boys into his van, before succeeding in luring a youth into his vehicle. The police followed Bonin until his van parked in a desolate parking lot close to the Hollywood Freeway, then discreetly approached the vehicle. Upon hearing muffled screams and banging sounds emanating from inside the van, these plainclothes officers forced their way into the vehicle; discovering Bonin in the act of raping a 17-year-old Orange County runaway named Harold Eugene Tate, whom he had handcuffed and bound. Initially charged with the rape of a minor and held on suspicion of the murder of Miranda, Bonin was detained in lieu of $250,000 bond. The following day, Munro stole Bonin's car and fled to his native Michigan. Inside Bonin's van, investigators discovered numerous artifacts attesting to his culpability in the Freeway Killer murders. These items included various restraining devices including lengths of nylon cord, an assortment of knives, a tire iron, and household implements such as pliers and coat hangers. Furthermore, the interior of Bonin's van and sections of his home were extensively bloodstained, and the inner handles from the passenger-side and rear doors of his vehicle had been removed in an obvious effort to prevent victims from escaping the vehicle. Inside the glove box, investigators also discovered a scrapbook of newspaper clippings related to the murders. Confessions and indictments: Although initially protesting his innocence in any of the murders, Bonin confessed his guilt to St. John after reading an impassioned letter from the mother of King, imploring him to reveal the location of her son's body. Over the course of several evenings, Bonin confessed to abducting, raping, and killing 21 boys and young men. He expressed no remorse for his actions, but he did demonstrate extreme embarrassment and regret over having been caught. His primary accomplice throughout his killing spree, Bonin stated, had been Butts, with Miley and Munro being active accomplices in other murders. Bonin later told one reporter who asked him what he would be doing if he were still at large: "I'd still be killing, I couldn't stop killing. It got easier with each one we did." Bonin was physically linked to many of the murders by blood and semen stains, and numerous, distinctive green triskelion-shaped carpet fibers found upon seven of the victims' bodies which were forensically proven to be a precise match with the carpeting in the rear of Bonin's van. Furthermore, upon three victims' bodies, investigators had discovered hair samples which had proven to be a precise match with Bonin. Medical evidence also revealed that six of the murders for which Bonin was charged were committed by a unique windlass strangulation method, which was referred to by the prosecutor at Bonin's Los Angeles County trial as "a signature, a trademark." Initially formally arraigned for the murder of Grabs on July 25, by July 29, Bonin had been charged with an additional 15 murders to which he had confessed and upon which the prosecution believed they had sufficient evidence to obtain a conviction. In addition to the 16 murder indictments, Bonin was also charged with 11 counts of robbery, one count of sodomy, and one count of mayhem. He was held without bond, and on August 8, these charges were formally submitted against him. Three days later, in accordance with Penal Code section 987, Bonin, at this stage without legal representation, was appointed an attorney named Earl Hanson to act as his legal representative. Hanson remained Bonin's attorney until October 1981 when, at Bonin's request, he was replaced by William Charvet and Tracy Stewart. Based on Bonin's confession, police obtained a warrant authorizing a search of Butts' Lakewood property on the same date as Bonin's initial arraignment; this July 25 search uncovered evidence linking Butts to several of the murders to which Bonin had already confessed, and Butts was brought before a Municipal Court on July 29, charged with accompanying Bonin on six murders committed between August 1979 and April 1980. He was also charged with three counts of robbery. In a press statement relating to the police investigation into the murders issued on this date, the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department stated: "Bonin and Butts are believed to be responsible for the kidnapping, torture and murder of at least 21 young males between May 1979 and June 1980", before adding that five further murder charges would likely be filed against the men in Orange County. Despite proclaiming his innocence, Butts confessed to having accompanied Bonin upon each of the murder forays in each of the charges listed against him, and to have actively participated in the sexual abuse of several victims. Butts was adamant he had had only a limited role in the torture of the victims, but confessed to actively participating in the torture of one victim. Butts claimed he typically drove in an aimless manner as Bonin abused and tortured his victims in the rear of the van, then stopped the vehicle in order to assist in restraining the victim as Bonin escalated the torture. When asked as to why some victims had been subjected to more extensive blunt force trauma than others, Butts stated that, in many instances, Bonin would escalate the level of beatings to which he subjected his victim if the youth resisted his sexual advances. Butts was brought before Orange County Municipal Court Judge Richard Orozco on November 14, 1980. On this date, he was formally charged with participating in three further murders committed in this county. His trial was scheduled for July 27, 1981. On July 31, Munro was arrested in his hometown of Port Huron, Michigan; he was extradited to California, charged with the murder of Wells. Munro pleaded innocent to all charges against him on August 14. On August 22, Miley—by this stage 19 years old—was arrested in Texas and subsequently charged by California authorities with the murders of Miranda and Macabe. Miley was arrested after having confessed to his culpability in these February 3 murders in a recorded phone conversation with a friend (thus substantiating Bonin's earlier confession). He initially pleaded innocent to two charges of first-degree murder on December 18, but pleaded guilty at two separate pretrial hearings in May 1981. Preliminary hearings: At a preliminary hearing held in Los Angeles County before Los Angeles Superior Court Judge Julius Leetham on January 2, 1981, Bonin formally pleaded his innocence to 14 first-degree murder charges and numerous counts of sodomy, robbery and mayhem. In 11 of these indictments, a felony-murder-robbery special circumstance was also alleged. He was ordered to return to court on January 7 for pretrial motions and the formal setting of a trial date (which was eventually set for October 19). On the same date (January 2), Butts was arraigned on five counts of murder, in addition to three counts of robbery. The date of Butts' formal plea was delayed by Judge Leetham until January 7. Four days after his formal plea before Judge Leetham, Butts committed suicide by hanging himself with a towel in his cell. A subsequent coroner's investigation revealed Butts had unsuccessfully attempted to take his own life on at least four occasions prior to his arrest. His attorney, Joe Ingber, theorized that Butts' depressive state had been magnified by the impending release of transcripts of his client's testimony at the preliminary hearing, in which Butts had graphically described the torture the victims had endured prior to their murder. Prior to Bonin's impending trials, Miley and Munro had agreed to testify against him at the trials in exchange for being spared the death penalty, with Deputy District Attorney Stirling Norris also agreeing to seek the dismissal of additional charges of sodomy and robbery filed against Munro if he honored his agreement to testify. In the case of Miley, Norris agreed to accept two separate pleas of guilty to first-degree murder in exchange for two consecutive sentences of life imprisonment, with a possibility of parole after 25 years, if Miley agreed to testify against Bonin at the trials. Prior to his suicide, Butts never formally agreed to either testify against Bonin, or to accept any form of plea bargain. Murder trials- Los Angeles County: Bonin was brought to trial in Los Angeles County, charged with the murder of 12 of his victims whose bodies had been found within this constituency, on October 19, 1981. He was tried before Superior Court Judge William Keene. The trial commenced on November 5, 1981. Norris, acting as prosecutor, sought the death penalty for each count of murder for which Bonin was tried, stating in his opening speech to the jury: "We will prove he is the Freeway Killer, as he has bragged to a number of witnesses. We will show you that he enjoyed the killings. Not only did he enjoy it, and plan to enjoy it, he had an insatiable demand, an insatiable appetite - not only for sodomy, but for killing." Norris further elaborated that Bonin had followed a depressingly familiar routine in his murders of luring or forcing his victim into the van, before overpowering and binding his victim. He would then repeatedly rape his captive between and throughout instances of torture, before finally reaching the "climax of the orgy" by killing his victim. Norris further asserted that Bonin considered murder a group sport, and would typically groom people of a low mentality to participate in many of his murders. Miley and Munro testified against Bonin at his Los Angeles County trial, describing in graphic detail the murders in which they had accompanied Bonin. In his testimony, delivered on November 17, Munro stated that shortly after the murder of Wells, he and Bonin drove to a McDonald's restaurant and purchased hamburgers with $10 taken from Wells's wallet. As they had eaten the burgers at Bonin's home, Bonin laughed and mused: "Thanks, Steve, wherever you are", before Munro had also joined in the laughter. Miley testified to his participation in the murders of Miranda and Macabe; describing in graphic detail how they were beaten and tortured with various instruments before their murders, and how he had heard a "bunch of bones cracking" as Bonin had pressed a tire iron against Miranda's neck. Miley continued his testimony with the words: "The kid vomited. I jumped down on him the same way, killing the guy." Several members of the audience rushed out of the courtroom as Bonin's accomplices delivered their testimony, later stating to reporters gathered outside the courtroom they had found the recited details too nauseating. The strategy of Bonin's defense attorneys, Charvet and Stewart, was to challenge the credibility of numerous prosecution witnesses, and to suggest that extremely significant mitigating factors as to the root causes of Bonin's behavior lay in the extensive physical, sexual, and emotional abuse he had endured throughout his early life. To support this contention, Bonin's defense attorneys summoned Dr. David Foster, an expert on the developmental effects of violence and abuse on children, to testify as to the conclusions of his psychological examinations upon Bonin. Foster opined that Bonin had, as a result of repeated abandonment, not received the nurturing, protection, and behavioral feedback as a child necessary for sufficient psychological development. This had been so consistent and prevalent, he stated, that Bonin held a confusion as to the differences between violence and love. In a direct rebuttal, the prosecution summoned Park Dietz, a forensic psychiatrist and expert in impulse control disorder and sexual sadism disorder, who testified that the overall pattern of Bonin's behavior was inconsistent with an inability to control his impulses. Dietz further testified as to Bonin's actions being reflective of planning as opposed to impulsive behavior. In summary, Dietz concluded that Bonin was a sexual sadist, and that although he suffered from an antisocial personality disorder, neither of these conditions had impaired his ability to control his actions. Against overruled objections from Bonin's defense attorney, a Fresno-based reporter named David López waived his previously-sought immunity under California's shield law and agreed to testify on behalf of the prosecution as to the details of seven interviews Bonin had granted him between December 1980 and April 1981. In his testimony, given on December 14 and 15, López stated Bonin had first informed him he would refuse to talk with any other reporter if López would agree not to broadcast the precise details of the interview. López had agreed to these conditions, and Bonin had confessed to him on January 9 that he was indeed the Freeway Killer, and that he had killed 21 victims. The victims' ages, Bonin had confided, had ranged between 12 and 19, with his youngest victim, Macabe, being the easiest victim to kill. According to López, Bonin had confided that although he resented the prospect of being executed, he had opted to kill repeatedly simply because he had enjoyed the "sound of kids dying". López also testified Bonin had informed him he had killed one victim by repeatedly punching him in the throat, and that the primary incentive for his revealing the location of King's body to authorities had been the knowledge police would purchase hamburgers as they searched San Bernardino County for the remains. Upon cross-examination, Bonin's defense attorney ensured López conceded his testimony was based upon what he had recalled from the interviews as opposed to any handwritten notes, although he strenuously denied he had received any form of payment to testify. Closing arguments lasted from December 16 to December 22, 1981. In his closing argument on behalf of the prosecution, Norris described Bonin as an insatiable, callous individual who acted with malice aforethought, and who derived extreme pleasure from the suffering he inflicted upon his victims. Having outlined the torture Bonin's victims had endured, Norris concluded his closing arguments by urging the jury to "give him (Bonin) what he has earned". Defense attorney Charvet began his closing argument in defense of Bonin on December 21. Although Charvet did not specifically ask the jurors to find Bonin not guilty, he did request they only return the "reasonable verdict you can bring"; indicating a likelihood of not guilty verdicts on at least some counts upon which Bonin stood charged. Charvet then hearkened towards the credibility of some of the delivered testimony, pouring particular scorn upon Miley and Munro, whom he emphasized had turned state's evidence, and thus, he alleged, had tailored their testimony to the desires of the police. As such, Charvet called their testimony unbelievable. Charvet repeatedly reminded the jury he had exposed a myriad of inconsistencies in the testimony of Munro's account of the murder of Wells in the various statements he had given, and had compelled him to admit that he lied on numerous occasions. Charvet also reminded the jury of the extensive abuse Bonin had endured as a child, and of the diagnoses doctors at the Atascadero State Hospital had reached between 1969 and 1971. Contending the prosecution's case was "full of holes", he then alleged the prosecution had resorted to what amounted to little more than "revulsion tactics" in the hope Bonin would be convicted upon that basis. Following these closing arguments, Judge Keene ordered the trial recessed until December 28, when he delivered his final instructions to the jury, who then formally began their deliberations. Bonin's first trial lasted until January 6, 1982. On this date, the jury convicted Bonin of 10 of the murders for which he was tried, although he was found not guilty of the murders of Lundgren and King, of committing sodomy upon Grabs, of committing mayhem upon Lundgren, and of robbing one other victim. As these verdicts were read by the clerk of court, many relatives and friends of Bonin's victims wept openly. The following day, the prosecution and defense made alternate pleas for the actual sentence the jury should decide: Norris requesting the death penalty; Charvet requesting life imprisonment. On January 20, the jury further found that the special circumstances required within California Law (multiple murders and robbery) had been met in the 10 murder cases for which they had found Bonin guilty, and thus unanimously recommended he receive the death penalty. Bonin was cleared of the sodomy and murder of King because he had led police to the body of the victim in December 1980, with the agreement that his leading police to the body could not be used against him in court, and therefore the prosecutors had discussed King's disappearance at the trial, but not the discovery of his body; he was cleared of the charges of mayhem and murder against Lundgren because, according to López, he had strenuously denied committing this particular killing in the interviews he had granted to him. In response to the recommendations of the jury, Judge Keene ordered a reconvening of court on February 24, upon which date Charvet was to argue for a modification of the sentence recommended by the jury. Despite an impassioned appeal by Charvet, Keene formally sentenced Bonin to death for the 10 murders of which he was convicted on March 12. Describing the murders as "a gross, revolting affront to human dignity", Keene further ordered at this hearing that if Bonin's death sentence were commuted to one of life imprisonment, the sentences should run consecutively. Bonin was then ordered to be remanded to the warden of San Quentin State Prison, to await execution in the gas chamber. He remained unmoved upon receipt of this sentence, having earlier informed his attorney he had fully expected to formally receive the death penalty. He had a total disregard for the sanctity of human life and a civilized society. Sadistic, unbelievably cruel, senseless and deliberately premeditated. Guilty beyond any possible or imaginary doubt. --- Los Angeles Superior Court Judge William Keene pronouncing sentence upon Bonin. March 12, 1982. Orange County: Bonin was brought to trial in neighboring Orange County, charged with the robbery and murder of four further victims who had been found murdered within this jurisdiction between November 1979 and May 1980, on March 21, 1983. He was tried before Superior Court Judge Kenneth Lae. Prior to this second trial, Bonin was temporarily removed from death row and held in solitary confinement, where he remained until the conclusion of the trial. While incarcerated in this capacity, Charvet attempted to secure a change of venue, citing the extensive pretrial publicity surrounding the case minimizing the chances of securing an untainted jury within this jurisdiction; however, this motion was refused by Judge Lae, who ruled in November 1982 that there had only been minimal publicity surrounding the Freeway Killer case in Orange County following Bonin's earlier convictions. Initial jury selection began on March 21, and saw a total of 204 prospective jurors subjected to the process of Voir dire selection until 16 were picked in June. Upon completion of jury selection process, Bonin's attorney renewed his motion that the trial should be moved to a jurisdiction outside of Orange County due to pretrial publicity tainting the jury pool; this motion was again rejected by Lae, who ruled that the trial would begin on June 14. The prosecutor at Bonin's Orange County trial, Bryan Brown, contended that all four victims killed within this constituency had been abducted while hitchhiking, then ordered to strip before being bound about the wrists and ankles. Each of the four victims had then endured rape, beatings, torture, and finally ligature strangulation. In each instance, the ligature had left an impression measuring approximately one-half of an inch upon the victim's neck. Brown also hearkened toward the similarities in each of these murders and two of those for which Bonin had earlier been convicted in Los Angeles County: Miranda and Wells. Particular emphasis was placed upon the fiber evidence found upon each of the Orange County victims—in addition to three victims killed in Los Angeles County—being a precise match to the distinctive carpeting in the rear of Bonin's van. As such, Brown stated, the four Orange County victims had been killed by the same individual who had killed Miranda and Wells, and his accomplices in these two murders, Miley and Munro, would testify as to their accompanying Bonin on each of these murders. To further support this contention, the prosecution also presented forensic experts who testified that the fibers discovered upon the bodies of all six victims in question were a precise match with the carpeting in Bonin's van. The interior of the van had also been extensively stained with human blood. In reference to the evidence found within the van itself, Brown stated to the jury: "One can truly say from the evidence found within the van it is a virtual death wagon." These contentions were refuted by Charvet, who contended that any similarities in modus operandi did not constitute automatic proof of his client's guilt, and that the evidence presented did not support the prosecution's contention beyond a reasonable doubt that Bonin had murdered any of the four Orange County victims, or the two victims killed in Los Angeles County. Specifically, Charvet attacked the credibility of Munro, and further contended Bonin was simply a scapegoat for four unsolved murders. During the six-week trial, Bonin's attorneys called two witnesses in his defense—one of whom was Munro, who conceded Bonin had communicated with him prior to his testifying in this second trial, requesting he lie when called to deliver his testimony. Following less than three hours of deliberations, the jury announced on August 2, 1983, that they had found Bonin guilty of each of the four murders, in addition to three counts of robbery. After three days of deliberations as to the actual penalty to be imposed upon Bonin, the jury announced on August 22 their recommendations that he be sentenced to death on each count. Judge Lae postponed formal sentencing until August 26. On this date, Bonin received four further death sentences, with Lae describing Bonin as sadistic and guilty of "monstrous criminal conduct". Death row: Bonin was to remain incarcerated on death row for 14 years at San Quentin State Prison, awaiting execution in the gas chamber. In his years on death row, he undertook painting and writing as hobbies, and received several minor awards for his artwork, short stories and poems. He also corresponded with numerous individuals, including the mothers of some of his victims; in the correspondence exchanged with his victims' relatives, Bonin never expressed any regret or remorse over having murdered their sons. On one occasion, Bonin informed King's mother that her son had been his favorite victim as "he was such a screamer". Bonin also contended to his defense attorneys—in addition to several people with whom he corresponded—that Butts had been the actual ringleader behind the murders, and that he had simply been Butts' accomplice. These claims would be refuted by Norris, the prosecutor at Bonin's Los Angeles County murder trial, who recollected shortly before Bonin's execution: "He was the leader, and he chose weak people he could use." The method of Bonin's execution was superseded with lethal injection by the state of California in 1992, following the execution of Robert Alton Harris, the first inmate California had executed since 1967. Harris had exhibited evident symptoms of discomfort for up to four minutes throughout his 15-minute execution in the gas chamber. These symptoms had included convulsions. As such, the state of California opted to use lethal injection as an alternate method of execution to the gas chamber, branding the gas chamber a "cruel and unusual" method of execution. Appeals: Bonin filed numerous appeals against his convictions and sentencing, citing issues such as jury prejudice, the potential of jury inflammation via listening to victim impact statements (which his defense had offered to stipulate at Bonin's trials), and inadequate defense as the bases for each appeal. For these appeals, Bonin hired new lawyers, who initially submitted contentions that his previous defense attorney, Charvet, had provided inadequate defense at his trials by failing to place sufficient emphasis upon Bonin's bipolar disorder and the sexual abuse he had endured as a child. These lawyers contended that had Charvet placed further emphasis on these issues, Bonin would have been "humanized" in the eyes of his juries. Each successive appeal proved unsuccessful, with the U.S. Supreme Court refusing to overturn the death penalty convictions for the murders in which Bonin had been tried in August 1988 and January 1989. Despite upholding Bonin's convictions, the Supreme Court poured scorn upon the judge at Bonin's Los Angeles County trial, William Keene, for failing to fully heed a warning given by the prosecution prior to trial that Munro had discussed the possibility of agreeing to legal representation by Charvet prior to his appearance at trial. Despite admonishing Charvet for a potential conflict of interest, Judge Keene had permitted him to act as Bonin's defense attorney at his first trial. In spite of this fact, the Supreme Court ruled in 1989 that Charvet had effectively cross-examined Munro at trial, and that Keene's actions, though ruled as "inexplicable", had not effectively harmed Bonin's legal defense. Further merit was given to Bonin's contention that his defense should have been allowed to stipulate the testimony of the parents of his victims being allowed to identify photographs of their sons in both life and death at his trials. Despite this ruling, this finding was also deemed not to have affected the overall verdict. A final submission to the United States Court of Appeals was submitted in October 1994, with Bonin contending such issues as his being denied the effective assistance of counsel at his trials, that he had been denied due process at his Los Angeles trial due to the judge's refusing to suppress the testimony of Munro and Miley, and that the judge at his Orange County trial had denied his counsel's motion for a change of venue upon the basis that pretrial publicity had effectively minimized any chance of obtaining an unbiased jury within the county. This final appeal was rejected on June 28, 1995, with the appellate judges stating they had found no evidence of legal misconduct, and that no evidence existed that the 13 jurors who served upon Bonin's Orange County trial who had admitted to minimal, indirect pretrial exposure to the Freeway Killer case had, as a result of this pretrial publicity, been incapable of judging Bonin with impartiality. As such, the appellate judges declared their satisfaction with the validity of Bonin's convictions. On February 20, 1996, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals rejected a plea for clemency submitted by Bonin's attorneys on the grounds of inadequate legal representation at both his trials. Scarcely one hour prior to his scheduled execution, the Supreme Court refused to hear Bonin's final plea to overturn his death sentence, with the convened panel in almost unanimous agreement that Bonin's own attorneys had not failed to give their client adequate legal representation by not earlier discovering their submitted claims to have discovered evidence attesting to Bonin's innocence. Furthermore, these appellate judges ruled that Bonin's attorneys should not have waited until the last minute to submit arguments to overturn or postpone the impending death sentence of their client. These convened judges also rejected Bonin's final claim that he had a right to choose between the gas chamber or lethal injection as his actual method of execution. Execution: Bonin was executed by lethal injection inside the gas chamber at San Quentin State Prison on February 23, 1996. He was the first person to be executed by lethal injection in the history of California, and his execution occurred 14 years after his first death sentence had been imposed. In a final interview given to a local radio station less than 24 hours before he was executed, Bonin claimed he had "made peace" with the fact he was about to die. He added that his only real regret was that he had not pursued his teenage passion of bowling long enough to have turned professional. When asked whether there was anything he had to say to the families of his victims, Bonin stated: "They feel my death will bring closure, but that's not the case. They're going to find out." At 6 p.m. on the day he was executed, Bonin was moved from his cell to a death watch cell, where he ordered his last meal: two large pizzas, three pints of ice cream and three six-packs of Coke. His final hours were spent in the company of five individuals whom he had chosen for this occasion. These included his attorney, chaplain, and a prospective biographer. Each later stated that Bonin seemed resigned to his fate; his attorney also added that he had not detected any remorse in his client. At 11:45 p.m., Bonin was escorted from his holding cell into the execution chamber. In his final statement, given to the prison warden one hour prior to his scheduled execution at midnight, Bonin again expressed no remorse for his crimes and left a note that stated: I feel the death penalty is not an answer to the problems at hand. I feel it sends the wrong message to the people of this country. Young people act as they see other people acting instead of as people tell them to act. I would advise that when a person has a thought of doing anything serious against the law, that before they did, they should go to a quiet place and think about it seriously. Bonin was pronounced dead at 12:13 a.m. He was 49 at the time of his execution. None of Bonin's relatives chose to witness his execution; the event was witnessed by several relatives of his victims, many of whom wept and embraced when his death was officially confirmed. According to several of these witnesses, Bonin's execution passed without complications, and he was heavily sedated throughout the latter stages of the procedure. On this subject, then-Governor Pete Wilson—who had rejected a submitted plea for clemency from Bonin's attorneys three days prior to the execution—referred to Bonin as the "poster boy for capital punishment", before adding that California's method of execution ensured his death was infinitely more pleasant than that endured by his victims. Victims: Bonin and three of his four known accomplices were convicted of 14 murders committed between August 5, 1979, and June 2, 1980; Bonin was also charged with two additional murders for which he was acquitted at his first trial in Los Angeles County. Of these murders for which Bonin was convicted, 10 were committed in Los Angeles County and four in nearby Orange County. Bonin was suspected of committing at least 21 murders, and the killings for which he was convicted are shown in italics in the adjacent table. -In nine murders; those of Lundgren, Shelton, Grabs, Hyden, Murillo, Wirostek, Kendrick, Wells and the John Doe whose skeletal remains had been found in Kern County on November 30, 1979, Bonin was assisted by his primary accomplice, Vernon Robert Butts; a factory worker who had been 21 years old when he committed his first murder with Bonin. According to Bonin, Butts had been an extremely active accomplice. -Bonin was assisted by 19-year-old Gregory Matthews Miley in the February 3 murders of Miranda and Macabe. Miley then returned to his native Houston in the spring of 1980, to live with his stepfather. He was arrested on August 22.[38] -James Michael Munro, Bonin's lodger and coworker, assisted Bonin in the murder of Steven Wells. The day after Bonin's arrest, Munro fled to his native Michigan, where he was arrested on July 31. -Through questioning Bonin's neighbor, Everett Fraser, police discovered that 17-year-old William Ray Pugh, who had informed police he suspected Bonin of being the Freeway Killer, actually knew Bonin much better than he had initially divulged. Police later learned Pugh had willingly accompanied Bonin on the murder of Harry Todd Turner. As a direct result of this knowledge, first-degree murder charges against a 20-year-old acquaintance of Bonin's named Eric Wijnaendts—brought in December, 1980—were dropped, with the county prosecutor citing insufficient evidence as the cause. -Bonin was not brought to trial for the murders of Mark Shelton, Robert Wirostek, John Kilpatrick, Michael McDonald, or the John Doe whose body was found close to a Kern County reservoir in November 1979 because police did not find sufficient evidence upon any of the victims' bodies which could conclusively link Bonin alone to the crimes. Police did charge Bonin and Butts with the murder of the John Doe, and those of Mark Shelton and Robert Wirostek (alongside that of Darin Lee Kendrick) in October and November 1980. Bonin was formally charged with these murders at a pretrial hearing held on January 2, 1981. -Shelton had been linked to the manhunt for the Freeway Killer upon his body being found in August 1979, as had Darin Lee Kendrick and the unidentified victim whose location was reported to police by Butts. Wirostek, who vanished en route to his job on September 17, 1979, was not confirmed as a Freeway Killer victim until his body was formally identified in July 1980. -Two months after all charges had been filed against each defendant, Vernon Butts committed suicide, rendering his recorded testimony in these three cases inadmissible as evidence. The charges against Bonin in relation to Shelton, Wirostek and the John Doe were therefore dropped in accordance with Penal Code section 995 in early 1981. Nonetheless, sufficient physical evidence was still present in the case of Darin Kendrick—a murder for which Bonin was subsequently convicted. -Neither Bonin nor any of his accomplices were ever charged with the murders of John Kilpatrick or Michael McDonald, although Bonin confessed to their killings to David López. -Bonin was charged with, but subsequently cleared of, the murders of Sean King and Thomas Lundgren at his Los Angeles County trial. He is known to have confessed to the murder of King, and did lead police to the youth's body; he emphatically denied Lundgren's murder in the series of interviews granted to David López between December 1980 and January 1981, although Bonin stated in these interviews he had killed 21 victims. Other "Freeway Killers": On July 1, 1977, Patrick Kearney, the prime suspect in a series of killings of young men known as the "Trash Bag Murders", voluntarily surrendered to Riverside Police. Prior to his surrender, Kearney had been a fugitive for two months, following his being forensically linked to the murder of a 17-year-old named John LaMay—a confirmed victim of the Trash Bag Murderer. Kearney subsequently confessed to the murders of 28 boys and young men; many of whose bodies he had discarded alongside freeways in southern California. In contrast to Bonin, Kearney extensively dismembered the majority of his victims' bodies, before typically discarding their remains in trash bags. Although primarily known as the Trash Bag Murderer,[201] Kearney is also known as the Freeway Killer. Three years after the arrest of Bonin, two California Highway Patrol officers arrested 38-year-old Randy Kraft as he attempted to discard the body of a 25-year-old Marine from his car in Mission Viejo. The victim had been drugged, bound and garroted in a similar manner to that of numerous other young men whose bodies had been found alongside or close to various California and Oregon freeways since 1972. A search of Kraft's vehicle revealed an envelope containing over 50 Polaroid pictures of young men—either drugged or deceased—in suggestive poses. Several of these images were of confirmed victims of Kraft. In addition, police also discovered a coded list depicting cryptic references to his victims in the trunk of Kraft's vehicle, leading Kraft to also become known as the "Scorecard Killer." Although his disposal method had been similar to that of Bonin, Kraft drugged his victims before he killed them and used differing torture methods upon their bodies, including burning the victims' chests and genitals with an automobile cigarette lighter. In addition, many of his victims had been aged in their early- or mid-twenties, and a small number of his victims had also been dismembered prior to their disposal. Collectively, Bonin, Kraft and Kearney may have claimed up to 131 victims. Aftermath: Bonin's family refused to claim his remains in the weeks following his 1996 execution. His remains were cremated in a private ceremony with no family members present. Later, his ashes were scattered over the Pacific Ocean. Throughout Bonin's trials and in the years prior to his execution, much speculation was given as to whether the root cause of his crimes lay in his abusive, dysfunctional upbringing. Opponents and advocates of the death penalty alike were in agreement Bonin had endured extensive physical and sexual abuse in his childhood, but much scorn was given to the claims from his attorneys and supporters that the murders had been a direct manifestation of the abuse he had endured, and an attempt to purge his frustration and anger onto his victims. In one article published in the San Francisco Chronicle three days prior to Bonin's execution, editor Robert Morse opined: "Bonin was abused as a child. The abuse seems to have been bad, but not nearly as gruesome as the abuse he dealt out. This world is filled with articulate people who can write and paint and were abused as children; very few of them become serial killers. The crime rate among the mentally ill is lower than among so-called 'normal' people. To call Bonin's evil a psychiatric disorder, as the defense has, or an illness, is to slander the mentally ill." Butts, who was accused of accompanying or otherwise assisting Bonin on at least nine of the murders, hanged himself while awaiting trial on January 11, 1981. He left no suicide note. At the time of his death, he had been scheduled to be tried on July 27 for six of the murders he had accompanied Bonin upon. Correspondence found within his cell indicated Butts had been greatly distressed at the impending release of a transcript of evidence he had given behind closed doors at his preliminary hearing days prior, and the effect it would have on his friends and relatives. Despite claiming in his formal confession to investigators shortly after his arrest that he had basically participated in the murders out of fear of Bonin, Butts also informed investigators he had considered the killing spree "a good little nightmare", adding that Bonin "really loved those sounds of screams. He loved to hear them scream ... he loved every minute of it." McVicker, the youth who had survived the 1975 assault and partial strangulation at Bonin's hands, and who personally witnessed Bonin's execution, was initially traumatized by his experience, and never discussed his ordeal in detail with his family. In the years immediately following his ordeal, McVicker was haunted by nightmares, dropped out of high school, and began abusing drugs and alcohol. Nonetheless, he described the experience of observing the execution as being symbolic of closure and "the beginning of my life." In the years following Bonin's execution, McVicker has actively campaigned to ensure that his two living accomplices, who were imprisoned for first- and second degree murder convictions, are not set free. In one interview granted in 2011, McVicker stated the primary reason he had been inspired to campaign to ensure Munro and Miley are never released were the words one of the victims' mothers had spoken to him on after he had testified at Bonin's first trial: "You've got to speak for my kid." Munro was sentenced to a term of 15 years to life for the second degree murder of Wells on April 6, 1981. Munro has repeatedly appealed his sentence, claiming that he had not known Bonin had been the Freeway Killer until after Wells' murder, and that he had been tricked into accepting a plea bargain whereby he pleaded guilty to this second degree murder charge. He has also written to successive governors, requesting he be executed rather than spend the remainder of his life behind bars for what he claims is "a crime I didn't commit". (In the days following the murder of Wells and prior to Bonin's arrest, Munro boasted to several people of his belief the Freeway Killer would never be caught.) Munro has repeatedly been denied parole and is incarcerated at Mule Creek State Prison. He is next available for parole in 2029. Miley was sentenced to a term of 25 years to life by Superior Court Judge Bonnie Lee Smith on February 5, 1982. This sentence was for the first-degree murder of Miranda, and Miley was informed he would need to serve a minimum of 16 years and eight months before he would be considered for parole. He was later sentenced to a consecutive term of 25 years to life by an Orange County court judge for the abduction and murder of Macabe. Initially incarcerated at the California Substance Abuse Treatment Facility and State Prison, Corcoran in Corcoran, California, Miley was later transferred to Mule Creek State Prison. Throughout the years of his incarceration, Miley was repeatedly reprimanded for violating prison rules. These accrued reprimands had included the possession of contraband drugs, and attempting to engage in non-consensual sodomy with fellow inmates. On May 25, 2016, Miley died of injuries he had sustained two days previously, when he had been attacked by another inmate in an exercise yard at Mule Creek State Prison. Initially, he was evaluated at the prison medical facility, before returning to his cell; he was later airlifted to hospital after falling into unconsciousness two hours after the attack. At the time of his death, Miley's next scheduled parole hearing was to be held in 2019. He had most recently been eligible for parole in October 2014, after previously agreeing to a three-year continuance of his most recent request for parole. This subsequent suitability hearing was held on October 29, 2014; the decision made at this hearing was to deny parole. Pugh was sentenced to six years in prison for voluntary manslaughter in the case of Turner on May 17, 1982. Pugh had initially been charged with the first-degree murder of Turner, in addition to companion charges of robbery and sodomy; however, after five days of deliberation, the jury found Pugh guilty of the reduced charge of manslaughter, and innocent of robbery and sodomy. Pugh served less than four years of his sentence, and was released from prison in late 1985. Media- Film: -The film Freeway Killer was released by Image Entertainment in 2010. This film is directly based upon the murders committed by Bonin and his accomplices. The film cast Scott Anthony Leet as William Bonin and Dusty Sorg as Vernon Butts. Bibliography: -Bonin, William (1991). Doing Time: Stories from the Mind of a Death Row Prisoner. Red Bluff, Calif.: Eagle Publishing. ISBN 978-1-8790-2704-6. OCLC 84045749. -McDougal, Dennis (1991). Angel of Darkness: The True Story of Randy Kraft and the Most Heinous Murder Spree of the Century. New York: Warner Books pp. 160-168; 171-175, 178; 285-286; 368. ISBN 978-0-7088-5342-9. -Pelto, Vonda (2007). Without Remorse: The Story of the Woman who Kept Los Angeles' Serial Killers Alive. Seven Locks Press. ISBN 978-0-9795-8528-9. Rosewood, Jack (2015). William Bonin: The True Story of the Freeway Killer. CreateSpace. ISBN 978-1-5196-3119-0. Television: -The Investigation Discovery channel has broadcast a documentary pertaining to the crimes of William Bonin. This episode—entitled The Freeway Killer—was first broadcast in 2014.