Thursday, December 31, 2015

New years

I guess I'll have my new years resolution from last year. I'm still shooting for a boyfriend but i lost my best male friend. Oh well happy new year everyone.

Tuesday, December 29, 2015

Super happy

Like i said in my last video (check out the video "my first latter day saints baptism" by Jackie) i was listening to a play away and someone came up to me and started talking to me. Anyways, i wasn't listening as i was listening to something and it made me happy and tingly inside

Saturday, December 26, 2015


Maybe the reason I'm getting chills when i see a video about latter day saints missionaries is because i am supposed to be one. Anything is possible


Whenever i listen to a video about latter day saints missionaries I have chills

Lipstick lesbian

Apparently a lipstick lesbian is a feminine lesbian. Wearing makeup, dresses and skirt

Friday, December 25, 2015

Skateboard in Florida

I wonder if i could skateboard in Florida. Its nice and i know my balance is getting better every time.

Sightings of Madeleine McCann

Madeleine McCann, a British child, went missing on the evening of Thursday, 3 May 2007, shortly before her fourth birthday, from an apartment in Praia da Luz, Portugal, where she was on holiday with her parents. The Portuguese police investigation into her disappearance closed in July 2008. Scotland Yard began a review of the investigation, known as Operation Grange, in May 2011, and announced in April 2012 that they believed Madeleine might still be alive. Since the disappearance, there have been many reported sightings of Madeleine in Portugal and elsewhere. Portugal- 3 May 2007: The first possible sighting was around 21:15 on 3 May, 45 minutes before Madeleine's mother raised the alarm. Jane Tanner, who was travelling with the McCanns, noticed a man walking along the road on which the McCanns' holiday apartment was situated. She said he was carrying a barefoot child who was wearing light-coloured pink pyjamas with a floral pattern. Scotland Yard has since ruled this out, saying in October 2013 that a British holidaymaker who was carrying his child home at that time had been identified, was believed to be the man seen by Tanner, and was not involved in the abduction. A second sighting is being taken seriously by Scotland Yard. At around 22:00, an Irish family saw a man carrying a young girl on Rua da Escola Primária. They described her as four years old, wearing light-coloured pyjamas, with blonde hair and pale skin. They said the man was in his mid-30s, 1.75–1.80 m in height, with a slim-to-normal build, short brown hair, wearing cream or beige trousers. Scotland Yard issued an efit of the man on 13 October 2013. 4–17 May: On the evening of 4 May, Antonio Castela, a taxi driver, took three men, a woman, and a girl resembling Madeleine from Monte Gordo to the Hotel Apolo in Vila Real de Santo António, where they drove away in a blue Jeep. He said that he had recorded the sighting with the PJ but that they had not contacted him again. A Portuguese trucker telephoned the Método 3 helpline in November reporting that he had seen a blonde woman pass a child wrapped in a blanket to a man, who then 'bundled' her into a car. He said this took place two days after the disappearance, in the Algarve town of Silves. Police in the mountainous town of Nelas, northern central Portugal, received information of a girl matching Madeleine's description who was seen with a man in a supermarket on 8 May. The man, a Belgian citizen, stopped at the supermarket with his daughter and left the place in a car before police were contacted, but police later confirmed that the sighting had been a false alarm. People in the resort came forward to report unusual incidents including a woman who noticed a man trying to take away a pram and a man who caught a stranger taking photographs of young blonde girls on a beach. Portuguese police also investigated a report by holidaymaker Andre van Wyk. Van Wyk claimed that, shortly after the disappearance, he had seen a girl resembling Madeleine being taken in a cart to a gypsy camp near Portimão, about ten miles (16 km) from where Madeleine disappeared. On 9 May, the 24 Horas newspaper reported that police had found a vehicle near Praia da Luz that may have been used by the kidnapper. Further, CCTV video from a petrol station near Lagos showed a child matching Madeleine's description with a woman and two men. The child was having an altercation with the woman. The following day it was reported that the car from the petrol station had British number plates and it was claimed that the person caught taking photographs was one of the men on the CCTV footage. An anonymous witness contacted police claiming to have spotted a Fiat Marea with a forged license plate in Pinhal Novo, Palmela, Setúbal, on May 17, which allegedly transported the missing child. Spain: A blonde girl, identical to Madeleine, was reported to be seen with a German family, at the Cabopino campsite on the Costa del Sol, just three days after the child went missing. It turned out, though, to be the daughter of Karsten Mayer, a German-speaking Swiss native. Two women reported seeing a child who looked like Madeleine with a man at a petrol station near Cartagena, Spain, on 21 August 2007. This was discounted after a thorough investigation by the Spanish National Police and Civil Guard. There was a further reported sighting, in early April 2012, on the Costa del Sol. Morocco: Marie Olli, a Norwegian woman living in the Spanish town of Fuengirola, contacted the police on 10 May 2007, claiming she had seen a girl matching Madeleine's description in a petrol station in Marrakech, Morocco. The girl, who was said to have appeared sad, was allegedly accompanied by a man in his late 30s. At about the same time, a British tourist reported seeing Madeleine near the Marrakech Ibis hotel. Though Interpol subsequently discounted these sightings, officers from Leicestershire police remained in Morocco for some days afterwards. A Spanish tourist saw a girl resembling Madeleine as she drove through the town of Zaio in northern Morocco at the end of May. Attention switched back to Morocco on 4 June, after GCHQ in Cheltenham picked up phone intercept messages in Arabic referring to "the little blonde girl", a German man, and a ferry from Tarifa in Spain. Another Spanish tourist, Isabel Gonzalez, has said that she saw a girl fitting Madeleine’s description being dragged across a street, also in Zaio, by a North African woman on 15 June. Naoual Malhi, a Spanish woman of Moroccan origin, claimed to have spotted the girl with a woman in the village of Fnideq, on 21 August, but private investigators were unable to substantiate the lead. A photograph of a blonde girl being carried on the back of a North African woman was taken on 31 August by Clara Torres, another Spanish tourist, in Zinat in northern Morocco, but it turned out to be a Moroccan girl. A school inspector claimed to have seen the child in Karia Ba Mohamed around the start of October, but after enquiries the local police were adamant that she was not there. Also, the Moroccan Interior Minister Chakib Benmoussa said, on 4 November, that there was no evidence to suggest that Madeleine was in Morocco. Elsewhere: There were two reported sightings in Belgium. The first was during May 2007 in Liège and the second occurred on 28 July on a café terrace in Tongeren. In the latter case, children’s therapist Katleen Sampermans said that Madeleine was in the company of a Dutch man and an English woman. However, the girl turned out to be the 4-year-old daughter of a Belgian man. Security was tightened in Valletta, Malta, on 21 June following five reported sightings on the island. The total sightings had risen to 29 by 27 June. An Irish tourist reported a sighting in Međugorje, Bosnia and Herzegovina, at the beginning of November. The child was later revealed to be the 3-year-old daughter of Slavko Dedić, a dentist from the nearby town of Ljubuški. Dutch student Melissa Fiering claimed that she saw Madeleine with a 'tall, swarthy man', at the L'Arche motorway service station restaurant in the south of France, on 15 February 2008. However, the French police, after examining CCTV evidence, determined that the sighting was not of the missing child. The first reported sighting in Britain occurred in Dorset in February 2008. Retired civil servant Alan Cameron said that she was with a Portuguese couple who came to the door. A sighting of Madeline McCann was reported in the Sydney central business district on 17 March. The reported sighting, of a middle-aged man carrying a blonde girl, turned out to be a false alarm. There have been six reported sightings in Brazil. A witness reported seeing Madeleine on a plane flying to São Paulo, in late March. Five earlier reports had been investigated and discounted. The release of the Portuguese police case files in August 2008 revealed a possible sighting, in Amsterdam, Netherlands, in early May 2007. Anna Stam reported to Dutch police that a girl of three or four years of age, who resembled Madeleine, had come into her shop and had told her that the adult she was with was "a stranger" who "took me from my mummy" while she was on holiday. She added that her name was "Maddy". The McCanns' spokesman Clarence Mitchell said that it was a "disgrace" that they had not been told by police about the reported sighting at the time. The files included a 14-volume annexe of reported sightings, of Madeleine, across the world. The Swedish newspaper Aftonbladet published, in October 2009, a photograph of a girl, seen in Sweden, who bore a great similarity to Madeleine. The photographer claimed that the girl only spoke English, and was accompanied by a man who spoke Swedish. In New Zealand, CCTV video from a department store in southern Dunedin showed a girl who looked like Madeleine being led into the store by a man at around 9:00pm on 5 December 2007, seven months after her disappearance. A sighting in Leh, India, was reported on 28 July 2011. British and American tourists reportedly saw a young girl with a French/Belgian couple, who claimed that the child was theirs. Although reports suggested DNA tests had been conducted the chief of police in Leh, Vivek Gupta, denied the reports and stated that no DNA test had been undertaken by the police. New Zealand police were informed of a possible sighting, in Queenstown, on 31 December 2012. The informant said that the girl she had seen had the same coloboma of the iris as Madeleine. After investigation, police identified the girl and stated that they were "absolutely satisfied" that the girl was not Madeleine. Disclosure of official information: Leicestershire Police agreed, in the High Court on 7 July 2008, to disclose the content of files related to sightings and tip-offs. They handed over 81 pieces of information to Madeleine's parents.

Disappearance of Jerry Michael Williams

Jerry Michael Williams, known as Michael or Mike Williams to his friends and family, has not been seen since he left his home in Tallahassee, Florida, United States, to go duck hunting on December 16, 2000. After his failure to return, he was presumed to have drowned. In the years since then, however, investigators have come to suspect he was the victim of foul play. After Williams' boat was found abandoned on Lake Seminole, a large reservoir straddling the Florida–Georgia state line, the initial theory was that he had fallen out of it after a collision. A lengthy and exhaustive search of the lake bed in the area, however, failed to find his body, the only time that had ever occurred with a drowning death in the lake at that point in time. It was eventually concluded that his body was eaten by alligators, and after his waders were found in the lake six months later, he was declared legally dead following a court petition by his widow, who later married a mutual friend who had helped her take out a large life insurance policy on her first husband shortly before his disappearance. Some investigators felt aspects of the case were not consistent with that theory, and after pressure from Williams' mother Cheryl the case was reopened in 2004 by the Florida Department of Law Enforcement (FDLE). By then officers had learned that alligators do not, in fact, eat during the winter months as the water is too cold, and it was concluded that foul play might have occurred. But it did not produce any new evidence as the potential crime scene had not been secured during the search for Williams. Two later investigations, involving the state's insurance fraud agency and the federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms in addition to FDLE, were likewise unable to uncover any significant new information. Cheryl Williams, who like some residents of the area where her son disappeared believes he is still alive, has continued to press the case, alienating many of the law enforcement officials she had previously persuaded to reopen the case. Her efforts included writing letters on a daily basis to the governor asking him to have the state reopen the investigation. The case has also been the subject of an episode of the Investigation Discovery channel series Disappeared. Background: Williams grew up in Bradfordville north of the city, the son of a Greyhound bus driver and a day care provider who raised him and his older brother Nick in a double-wide trailer. Instead of building a house the family saved its money so both boys, who helped by working nights at supermarkets, could attend North Florida Christian High School. There he excelled, serving as student council president, playing football and being active in the Key Club. At the age of 15, he both began duck hunting as a hobby and came to know Denise Merrell. After North Florida Christian, he attended Florida State University. Before he had even graduated, he was hired by Ketcham Appraisal Group as a property appraiser. He distinguished himself as "the hardest-working man I ever saw", according to the company's owner. After he married Merrell in 1994, he would often go home for dinner and return to work after she (and later, his daughter) went to bed, then sometimes come in to work after going hunting in the morning. According to his mother, he was making $200,000 annually by the time of his disappearance). He and Denise had bought a home in a small upscale subdivision on the east side of the city. In 1999, Williams' only child, a daughter, was born. His coworkers said he was as devoted to her as his work. The following year his father died. Midway through the year the couple bought a $1 million life insurance policy on him through Brian Winchester, a childhood acquaintance of Merrell who had also become best friends with her husband. Later in the the year, Williams told his mother, whom he had been consoling, that he would have liked to have $50,000 to take the next year off. Two days before his disappearance, Mike and Denise told his mother and Nick that they were planning to have another child soon. Denise would later tell a court that they ultimately planned to have another besides that. In 2001, she said, they were planning to go on a cruise in Hawaii that spring; later in the year he expected to travel to Jamaica as well for work. Disappearance: According to Denise Williams, on the morning of December 16, 2000 her husband awoke early, leaving the house on Centennial Oak Circle with his boat in tow well before dawn to go duck hunting at Lake Seminole, a large reservoir approximately 50 miles (80 km) west-northwest of Tallahassee along the Florida–Georgia state line, where three other streams merge to form the Apalachicola River. When he had not returned by noon, Denise grew concerned. The couple had plans to celebrate their sixth wedding anniversary that night in Apalachicola. Denise called her father, who went along with Winchester to the areas of the lake they knew Mike Williams frequently hunted at. They found his 1994 Ford Bronco near a remote boat launch in Jackson County, on the Florida side. After investigators with the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FFWCC) were called, a search began, but soon had to be called off when a storm blew in. Search: The initial search investigation was handled by the FFWCC. Since it had been reported to them as a missing hunter, the agency handled the case that way, focusing on search and rescue or recovery. "We didn't have a whole lot to go on except there was an empty boat and the guy didn't show up," one of the agency's officers recalled later, after his retirement. "There was nothing there that we had from the scene that suggested foul play at all." Deputies with the Jackson County Sheriff's Office were present but primarily worked in a support capacity. Searchers focused on the 10 acres (4.0 ha) of the lake around the cove where Williams' truck was parked. His boat was soon found roughly 225 feet (69 m)[9] from the ramp by a helicopter pilot who initially assumed it was a boat being used in the search. In it investigators found his shotgun, still in its case, but not Williams himself. The cove is locally believed to have been an orchard before the Chattahoochee and Flint rivers and Spring Creek were dammed to create the lake. It took its name, Stump Field, from the many remaining stumps that protruded above and below the water level,[2] requiring careful handling of any powerboat in the area. Searchers thus assumed that Williams had hit a stump with his boat, fallen out, sunk into waters 8–12 feet (2.4–3.7 m) deep when his waders filled and then drowned when he was unable to extricate himself. If Williams had indeed drowned, his body would have been expected to float to the surface eventually, making it easier to discover. Investigators assured the Williams family that his body would, like other drowning victims, surface within three to seven days, perhaps a little later due to the cold front that had moved in after the first night's storm. However, after that period of time had elapsed, no body had been found. Ten days into the search, a camouflage-patterned hunting hat was found. Efforts continued until the search was called off in early February, although it has since been reported that it might have been continued if Denise Williams had indicated it should. At that time the case was still considered open. "Nothing in investigative or search and rescue efforts has produced any definitive evidence of a boating accident or a fatality as of this date," read the final report, issued in late February 2001. Subsequent developments: If Williams had drowned after accidentally falling out of his boat, his body was the only one from 80 such deaths in the lake to have never been found. The head of a private search firm that supplemented official efforts near the end of the search offered a possible explanation. "With the wildlife around, I would guess that the alligators have dismembered and have stored the remains in a location that we would not be able to find," he wrote in a report. Early searchers had reported seeing many of them, and some of the officials seemed to be willing to accept the possibility. "Everyone knows the lake is full of alligators," said the FFWCC's David Arnette. "You look for other answers: 'Why hasn't the body appeared?'" It was suggested that perhaps Williams' body had become entangled in the beds of dense hydrilla beneath the lake surface, and then found by the alligators later, with turtles and catfish finishing what they left. Denise Williams, who had avoided media attention during the search for her husband, accepted that her husband had died. She arranged for a memorial service for Mike to be held the day after the search ended. In June, an angler in the Stump Field area discovered a pair of waders floating in the lake. These turned out to be Williams'. Divers called to the area also found a lightweight hunting jacket and flashlight on the lake bottom. A week later a Leon County judge granted Denise Williams' petition to have Mike declared legally dead based on that evidence and the belief that alligators had consumed anything else that might have been found. The court decision allowed Denise Williams to proceed with claims on her husband's life insurance policies. She received $1.5 million. Five years after her husband's death, she married Brian Winchester, who had sold Mike some of the policies a few months before he disappeared; the couple live in the same house where she and Mike lived. They have mostly declined to discuss the case publicly. Later investigations: The private search team that produced the alligator theory had been hired near the end of the original search by Williams' mother Cheryl. After it ended, and after her son was declared legally dead (proceedings she said in 2008 she would have contested had she been aware of them), she was not convinced that he had drowned in the lake. For the next several years, she investigated on her own when not doing day care at her house. She ran advertisements in local newspapers and put up signs seeking information. All the subsequent investigations of the case have resulted from her efforts. She believes her son is still alive. "I get criticized a lot for not admitting that Mike’s dead," she told the Tallahassee Democrat in 2007. "All I know is I can't stop looking for him until I find him." Her efforts have severely strained her relationship with her former daughter-in-law."

Joyce Vincent

Joyce Carol Vincent (15 October 1965 – 11 December 2003) was a British woman whose death went unnoticed for more than two years as her corpse lay undiscovered in her London bedsit. Prior to her death, Vincent had cut off nearly all contact with those who knew her. She resigned from her job in 2001, and moved into a shelter for victims of domestic abuse. Around the same time, she began to reduce contact with friends and family. She died in her bedsit around December 2003 with neither family, friends, co-workers, nor neighbours taking notice. Her remains were discovered on 25 January 2006, with the cause of death believed to be either an asthma attack or complications from a recent peptic ulcer. Her death was the topic of Dreams of a Life, a 2011 drama-documentary film. The film and Vincent's life heavily inspired the album Hand. Cannot. Erase. by musician Steven Wilson. Life: Joyce Vincent was born in Hammersmith on 19 October 1965 and raised near the Fulham Palace Road. Her parents had immigrated to London from Grenada; her father Lawrence was a carpenter of African descent and her mother Lyris was of Indian descent. Following an operation, her mother died when Vincent was eleven, and her four older sisters took responsibility for her upbringing. She had a strained relationship with her emotionally distant father, whom she claimed had died in 2001 (he lived until 2004). She attended Melcombe Primary School and Fulham Gilliatt School for Girls, and left school aged sixteen with no qualifications. In 1985, Vincent began working as a secretary at OCL in the City of London. She then worked at C.Itoh and Law Debenture before joining Ernst & Young. She worked in the treasury department of Ernst & Young for four years, but resigned in March 2001 for unknown reasons. Shortly afterwards, Vincent spent some time in a domestic abuse shelter in Haringey and worked as a cleaner in a budget hotel. During this period, she became estranged from her family. A source involved in the investigation said: "She detached herself from her family but there was no bust up. They are a really nice family. We understand she was in a relationship and there was a history of domestic violence." It has been speculated that she was ashamed to be a victim of domestic abuse or did not want to be traced by her abuser. As a victim of domestic violence, Vincent was moved into her bedsit flat above Wood Green Shopping City in February 2003. The flat was owned by the Metropolitan Housing Trust and was used to house victims of abuse. In November 2003, after vomiting blood, she was hospitalised for two days due to a peptic ulcer, and listed her bank manager as her next of kin. Death: Vincent died of unknown causes around December 2003. She was an asthma sufferer, and an asthma attack, or complications surrounding her recent peptic ulcer, have been suggested as a possible cause of death. Her remains were described as "mostly skeletal" according to the pathologist, and she was lying on her back, next to a shopping bag, surrounded by Christmas presents she had wrapped but never delivered. It is not known to whom the presents were addressed, and the police report regarding the case has been disposed of. Neighbours had assumed the flat was unoccupied, and the odour of decomposing body tissue was attributed to nearby waste bins. The flat's windows did not allow direct sight into the accommodation. Drug addicts frequented the area, which may explain why no one questioned the constant noise from the television. Half of her rent was being automatically paid to Metropolitan Housing Trust by benefits agencies, leading officials to believe that she was still alive. However, over two years, £2,400 in unpaid rent accrued, and housing officials decided to repossess the property. Her corpse was discovered on 25 January 2006 when the bailiffs broke in. The television and heating were still running due to her bills being continually paid for by automatic debit payments and debt forgiveness. The Metropolitan Housing Trust said that due to housing benefits covering the costs of rent for some period after Vincent's death, arrears had not been realised until much later. The Metropolitan Housing Trust said that no concerns were raised by neighbours or visitors at any time during the two years between death and discovery of the body. Vincent's body was too badly decomposed to conduct a full post-mortem, and she had to be identified from dental records. Police ruled death by natural causes as there was nothing to suggest foul play: the front door was double locked and there was no sign of a break-in. At the time of her death she had a fiancé, but the police were unable to trace him. Her sisters had hired a private detective to look for her and contacted the Salvation Army, but these attempts proved unsuccessful. The detective found the house where Vincent was living, and the family wrote letters to her. But as she was already dead by this time, they received no response, and the family assumed that she had deliberately broken ties with them. The Glasgow Herald reported, "...her friends noted her as someone who fled at signs of trouble, who walked out of jobs if she clashed with a colleague, and who moved from one flat to the next all over London. She didn't answer the phone to her sister and didn't appear to have her own circle of friends, instead relying on the company of relative strangers who came with the package of a new boyfriend, a colleague, or flatmate." Film: A film about Joyce, Dreams of a Life, written and directed by Carol Morley, with Zawe Ashton playing Joyce, was released in 2011. Morley tracked down and interviewed people who had known Joyce. They described a beautiful, intelligent, socially active woman, "upwardly mobile" and "a high flyer", whom they assumed "was off somewhere having a better life than they were". During her life, she met figures such as Nelson Mandela, Ben E. King, Gil Scott-Heron, and Betty Wright, and had also been to dinner with Stevie Wonder. Album by Steven Wilson: On November 4, 2014, English musician Steven Wilson announced that his fourth CD release, titled Hand. Cannot. Erase., would be based on the life of Vincent. According to Wilson, he was inspired to create a concept album after seeing Dreams of a Life. From the book that accompanied the deluxe release of the album it is clear that the central character, 'H.', is a highly fictionalised version of Vincent: she is born on 8 October 1978 to an Italian mother and dies or disappears 22 December 2014. Her only sister is a girl, 'J.', who was briefly fostered by her parents prior to their divorce. In the album and book the Christmas presents are intended for H.'s estranged brother and his family.

Disappearance of Emma Fillipoff

Emma Fillipoff (born January 6, 1986) has been missing since Nov 28, 2012, vanishing from in front of the Empress Hotel in Victoria, British Columbia, at the age of 26. Disappearance: Fillipoff was last seen in the immediate vicinity of the Empress hotel in Victoria between 7:30-8:30 on November 28, 2012. She was last seen being interviewed by Victoria police. Her red Mazda MPV 1993 van was found in the Chateau Victoria parking lot with almost all her belongings in it, including her passport, library card, digital camera, clothes, a pillow, assorted ornaments, laptop, and recently borrowed library books. It is believed she used the van as storage. Fillipoff's disappearance was the subject of a Canadian Broadcasting Corporation television program, The Fifth Estate. Circumstances of disappearance: Fillipoff arrived in Victoria from Ontario in the fall of 2011. She had brief employment at the Red Fish Blue Fish seasonal seafood restaurant in Victoria’s Inner Harbour. She left the job on October 31, 2012, as the work was seasonal, and she assured co-workers she would be back in the Spring. Early in the day of November 28, Fillipoff was captured in a 7-Eleven store video on Government Street purchasing a pre-paid cell phone. She reportedly left the Sandy Merriman House women’s shelter about 6 p.m. later that day. Later, she was seen walking barefoot in front of the Empress hotel. An acquaintance of hers, Dennis Quay, called 911 to say a woman was in severe distress outside the hotel. Victoria police arrived and spent 45 minutes talking to her. They got her name and decided that she was not a threat to herself or anyone else. They released her and no one has seen her since 7:45 pm that night. Investigators explored more than 200 leads, turning up minimal information. Most evidence indicates she was planning to return home to Ottawa, but there’s no proof she ever left the city. She got a credit card only days before her disappearance. The cellphone had never been activated. The credit card, however, was allegedly found on the side of the road by a stranger to the north of where Fillipoff disappeared, whom the police tracked by the purchase of cigarettes with the card. Possible leads: The Campbell River Courier-Islander newspaper reported in May 2014 that Gastown, Vancouver store owners Joel and Lori Sellen witnessed a man in their store throwing out a “missing” poster. The store owners reported that it was a $25,000 reward poster for Fillipoff, and that the man said: "It’s one of those missing persons posters, except she’s not missing, she’s my girlfriend and she ran away ‘cause she hates her parents." The owners immediately called the police, and security video captured an image of the man.

Latter Day Saint polygamy in the late-19th century

Possibly as early as the 1830s, followers of the Latter Day Saint movement (also known as Mormonism), were practicing the doctrine of polygamy or "plural marriage". After the death of church founder Joseph Smith, the doctrine was officially announced in Utah by Mormon leader Brigham Young in 1852, attributed posthumously to Smith, and the practice of polygamy began among Mormons at large, principally in Utah where The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) had relocated after the Illinois Mormon War. In the years after the LDS Church began practicing polygamy, it drew intense scrutiny and criticism from the United States government. This criticism led to the Utah Mormon War, and eventually the abandonment of the practice under the leadership of Wilford Woodruff, who issued the 1890 Manifesto. Official sanction by the LDS Church: The Mormon doctrine of plural wives was officially announced by one of the Twelve Apostles, Orson Pratt, and church president Brigham Young in a special conference of the elders of the LDS Church assembled in the Salt Lake Tabernacle on 28 August 1852, and reprinted in the Deseret News Extra the following day. The announcement came nine years after the purported original revelation by Joseph Smith, and five years after the Mormon exodus to the Salt Lake Valley following Smith's death in Carthage, Illinois. Young was unable to produce the original document and declared that Smith's widow Emma Smith had burned it. To this, Emma Smith replied that she had never seen such a document, and concerning the story that she had destroyed the original: "It is false in all its parts, made out of whole cloth, without any foundation in truth." Controversy and opposition by the United States government Early tension and the Utah War (1852–58): Polygamy was roundly condemned by virtually all sections of the American public. During the presidential election of 1856 a key plank of the newly formed Republican Party's platform was a pledge "to prohibit in the territories those twin relics of barbarism, polygamy and slavery". Further tension grew due to the relationship between "Gentile" federal appointees and the Utah territorial leadership. The territory's Organic Act held that the governor, federal judges, and other important territorial positions were to be filled by appointees chosen by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, but without any reference to the will of Utah's population. Many of these federally appointed officers were appalled by the practice of polygamy and the Mormon belief system in general, and would harangue the Mormons for their "lack of morality" in public addresses. This already tense situation was further exacerbated by a period of intense religious revival starting in late 1856 dubbed the "Mormon Reformation." The issue of polygamy among the Latter-day Saints in Utah was one of the contributing factors that lead to the Utah War, in which the President of the United States dispatched an army to Utah to quell a perceived rebellion. In the midst of the American Civil War, Republican majorities in Congress were able to pass legislation meant to curb the Mormon practice of polygamy. One such act was the Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act, which was signed into law on July 8, 1862 by President Abraham Lincoln. The act banned plural marriage and limited church and non-profit ownership in any territory of the United States to $50,000. The act targeted the LDS Church's control of Utah Territory. The measure had no funds allocated for enforcement, and thus it was not rigorously enforced. The Mormons, believing that the law unconstitutionally deprived them of their First Amendment right to freely practice their religion, chose to ignore the law. Aftermath and further legislation (1858–90): In the following years, several bills aimed at strengthening the anti-bigamy laws failed to pass the United States Congress. These included the Wade, Cragin, and Cullom bills which had their origin in the territory of Utah and were initiated by men who were bitterly opposed to the Mormon establishment. The Wade Bill initiated in 1866 would have destroyed local government if it had passed. Three years later, the Cragin Bill was proposed, but within a few days it was substituted by the Cullom Bill, which was more radical than the Wade or Cragin bills. Members of the church worked for the defeat of the bill, including women of the church, who held mass meetings throughout the territory in January 1870 in opposition to the bill. Finally, the Poland Act (18 Stat. 253) of 1874 was passed which sought to facilitate prosecutions under the Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act by eliminating the control members of the LDS Church exerted over the justice system of Utah Territory. Sponsored by Senator Luke P. Poland of Vermont, the Act redefined the jurisdiction of Utah courts by giving the United States district courts exclusive jurisdiction in Utah Territory over all civil and criminal cases. The Act also eliminated the territorial marshal and attorney, giving their duties to a U.S. Marshal and a U.S. Attorney. The Act also altered petit and grand jury empaneling rules to keep polygamists off juries. By removing Latter-day Saints from positions of authority in the Utah justice system, the Act was intended to allow for successful prosecutions of Mormon polygamists. Immediately, under the act, the United States Attorney tried to bring leading church officials to trial. These efforts culminated in the sentencing of George Reynolds to two years hard labor in prison and a fine of five hundred dollars for his practice of polygamy. In 1876, the Utah Territorial Supreme Court upheld the sentence. His 1878 Reynolds v. United States appeal reached the United States Supreme Court, and in January 1879 that body ruled the anti-polygamy legislation constitutional and upheld Reynolds's prison sentence (it struck down the fine and hard labor portions). Reynolds was released from prison in January 1881, having served eighteen months of his original sentence. In February 1882, George Q. Cannon, a prominent leader in the church, was denied a non-voting seat in the House of Representatives due to his multiple marriages. This revived the issue in national politics. One month later, the Edmunds Act was passed, amending the Morrill Act by declaring polygamy a felony, revoking a polygamist's right to vote, making them ineligible for jury service, and prohibiting them from holding political office. These restrictions were enforced regardless of whether an individual was actually practicing polygamy, or merely believed in the Mormon doctrine of plural marriage without actually participating in it. All elected offices in the Utah Territory were vacated, an election board was formed to issue certificates to those who both denied polygamy and did not practice it, and new elections were held territory-wide. Electoral obstacles to prosecution were now removed, and the new territorial officials began criminal prosecutions in ernest. Judge Charles S. Zane, the Republican appointee of Chester A. Arthur, handed down harsh sentences to church leaders, beginning with apostle Rudger Clawson. Finally, the Edmunds–Tucker Act of 1887 touched all the issues at dispute between the United States Congress and the LDS Church. The act disincorporated both the church and its Perpetual Emigration Fund on the grounds that they fostered polygamy. The act prohibited the practice of polygamy and punished it with a fine of from $500 to $800 and imprisonment of up to five years. It dissolved the corporation of the church and directed the confiscation by the federal government of all church properties valued over a limit of $50,000. In July of the same year, the U.S. Attorney General filed suit to seize the church and all of its assets. The act was enforced by the U.S. marshal and a host of deputies. The act: -Dissolved the LDS Church and the Perpetual Emigrating Fund Company, with assets to be used for public schools in the territory. -Required an anti-polygamy oath for prospective voters, jurors and public officials. -Annulled territorial laws allowing illegitimate children to inherit. -Required civil marriage licenses (to aid in the prosecution of polygamy). -Abrogated the common law spousal privilege to require wives to testify against their husbands -Disfranchised women (who had been enfranchised by the territorial legislature in 1870). -Replaced local judges (including the previously powerful Probate Court judges) with federally appointed judges. -Removed local control in school textbook choice. In 1890, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the seizure of church property under the Edmunds–Tucker Act in Late Corporation of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints v. United States. The church was losing control of the territorial government, and many members and leaders were being actively pursued as fugitives. Without being able to appear publicly, in the 1880s the leadership was left to navigate "underground". Following the Edmunds-Tucker Act, the LDS Church found it difficult to operate as a viable institution.

Elna Baker

Elna Baker is a writer and performer of humorous stories. Her stories have been featured on radio programs such as This American Life, The Moth, BBC Radio 4 and Studio 360. In October 2009, Penguin Books published her book The New York Regional Mormon Singles Halloween Dance (ISBN 0525951350), which chronicles her experience as a young, single Mormon living in New York City. Early life: Baker was born in Tacoma, Washington, and was raised as a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). After age nine she lived in Madrid and London. Her father runs a titanium factory in Russia, where her parents now reside. Baker attended The American School in London and the Tisch School of the Arts at New York University where she was mentored by playwright Elizabeth Swados and currently lives in New York City. She has left the LDS Church since the publication of her book. Writing: Baker's writings and humor often relate to her experiences in New York City and coming of age as a Mormon, struggling between her personal desires and religious abstinence. George Dawes Green said "As she juggles it all before us—her doubt and her deep faith and her lust and longing and fierce discipline—she’s a dazzlement, a living breathing paradox…".

Jeff Lindsay (engineer)

Jeffrey Dean Lindsay is an intellectual property strategist currently working as the head of intellectual property for a large Asian company, Asia Pulp and Paper. He is a former Fortune 500 corporate patent strategist, former business consultant, professor, author, apologist, chemical engineer, paper industry expert and patent agent with over 100 US patents who received attention defending The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints on his website at and LDS blogs. He is the lead author of Conquering Innovation Fatigue: Overcoming the Barriers to Personal and Corporate Success (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2009), which shortly after publication in June 2009 was named by BusinessWeek as one of its top 20 new book recommendations for summer reading. Prior to his current professional position as Head of Intellectual Property at Asia Pulp & Paper in Shanghai, China, he was the director of Solution Development at Innovation Edge, corporate patent strategist and senior research fellow at Kimberly-Clark Corporation in Neenah, Wisconsin, as well as an associate professor at the Institute of Paper Science and Technology on the campus of the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta. He also served as chair of the Forest Bioproducts Division of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers from 2007 to 2011. In 2012 he received AIChE's Andrew Chase Award from the Forest Bioproducts Division for his service to the industry and AIChE, and in 2013 he was named a fellow of AIChE. In 2015, another professional society, TAPPI (Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industries) published an article about his professional and volunteer activities in their "Member Spotlight" on their website. He has a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from Brigham Young University, where he was a National Science Foundation Graduate Fellow. He currently lives in China, where he is a frequent speaker at conferences and seminars on intellectual property, innovation, and the paper industry. LDS apologetics: Apart from his professional activities, he is also known for his writings dealing with the purported plausibility of the Book of Mormon and to a lesser extent for his work in Mormon history, in particular responding to various statements from anti-Mormon sources and frequently asked questions about the LDS Church. His writings are primarily on his website at, particularly his LDSFAQ section (LDS Frequently Asked Questions), though he has blogged regularly on the Mormanity Blog since 2004. More recently, he was selected as one of the bloggers for Orson Scott Card's Nauvoo Times where he blogs weekly. The Mormon Interpreter, a pro-LDS website featuring scholarship and apologetics, prominently featured Lindsay in the 2014 article "Eye of the Beholder, Law of the Harvest: Observations on the Inevitable Consequences of the Different Investigative Approaches of Jeremy Runnells and Jeff Lindsay" by Kevin Christensen. According to Christensen, Lindsay deals with the issues raised in Runnells' popular critical work "at greater length, over a much broader span of time, consulting a wider range of sources, providing far more documentation, and including far more original research than Runnells." Original contributions from Lindsay mentioned include his satirical treatment of Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass as "evidence" of Book of Mormon plagiarism as well as treatments of the Book of Abraham and other topics. At the Mormon Interpreter, Lindsay has also been cited for a "thoughtful blog response to a New York Times article". Several of Lindsay's writings have been published or cross-posted at another pro-LDS website,, including his analysis of a critical response to one aspect of the Arabian Peninsula evidence for the Book of Mormon. Lindsay has written an article Does DNA Evidence Refute the Book of Mormon?, in which he concluded that many Latter-day Saints incorrectly assumed that Lehi's group was the primary genetic source for all Native Americans and recommended that such errant assumptions be abandoned. Additionally, he noted that the Book of Mormon does not make such claims regarding Lehi and therefore only encourages a more enlightened view rather than complete abandonment of the Book of Mormon. This was one of the early articles on DNA-Book of Mormon issues noted by the Church and made available as a PDF file on their LDS Newsroom at Lindsay's work in Mormon history has attracted the attention of various Mormon research groups, including the Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. Some of Lindsay's claims have been criticized. For example, Richard Abanes, a writer critical of Mormonism, refers to Lindsay's work as "numerous self-published articles, not scholarly, extremely biased, articles often based on misinformation". Some LDS people also disagree with some of Lindsay's viewpoints. Professional career: From 2007 to 2011, Lindsay served as chair of the Forest Bioproducts Division (formerly the Forest Products Division) of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE). The Division "promotes knowledge sharing and networking on topics dealing with products (materials, chemicals, and energy) obtained from forest resources and other lignocellulosic materials" and deals with "pulp and paper, forest products and associated industries, bio-based composites, biomass processing, biorefineries and a variety of other products and processes." Lindsay has been involved in various leadership roles with the Division since his days as a faculty member (assistant and later associate professor) at the Institute of Paper Science and Technology on the Georgia Tech Campus (originally the Institute of Paper Chemistry in Appleton, Wisconsin), where he was employed from 1987 to 1994. He was recognized by AIChE with both the Division-related Andrew Chase Award in 2012 and by being recognized as a fellow of the Society in 2014. Lindsay has published more than 50 technical papers, including several dealing with the use of fluid dynamics in the paper and pulp industry for the Tappi Journal by the Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry. In his previous position at Kimberly-Clark as corporate patent strategist and senior research fellow, he was an inventor, listed or co-listed on more than 100 United States patents filed for his employer, in the fields of chemical treatments of cellulose, RFID-related products, personal care products and paper engineering. Lindsay currently works as head of intellectual property at Asia Pulp and Paper in China, where he has been since 2011. From 2007 to 2011 he was director of Solution Development at Innovation Edge, a consulting firm in Neenah, Wisconsin. He was at Kimberly-Clark Corporation in Neenah, Wisconsin, from 1994 to 2007, where he became corporate patent strategist and senior research fellow. Prior to that he was assistant professor and then associate professor at the Institute of Paper Science and Technology, now the Renewable Bioproducts Institute at Georgia Tech in Atlanta, Georgia. In his role at IPST, his research received several awards, such as the 1988 George Olmsted Award from the American Paper Institute (now AF&PA) for best technical paper (shared with another winner), Best Paper Award for 1993 from the Tappi Journal, and Best Paper of the 1992 TAPPI Engineering Conference. He was also named Teacher of the Year at Institute of Paper Science & Technology, 1992. Lindsay's book, Conquering Innovation Fatigue, is co-authored with Cheryl Perkins, CEO and president of Innovationedge, and with Mukund Karanjikar, formerly of Chevron Energy Ventures and currently with Technology Holding LLC, a Salt Lake City firm seeking breakthrough energy solutions. The book is supported by a blog, Lindsay was also program chair for PIMA (Paper Industry Management Association) for their 2010 PaperCon conference (Atlanta, May 2–5, 2010). He is also a member of the Honors Committee of the Paper Industry International Hall of Fame. In his role at Asia Pulp and Paper, Lindsay was interviewed by the Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel for their special report, "Paper Cuts: Wisconsin's Paper Industry Battles the Threat of Digital, China as a Paper Power" by journalist John Schmid. In Part Two of the report, "Bankrolled and Bioengineered, China Supplants Wisconsin's Paper Industry," Lindsay was quoted and videotaped in the embedded video, where he discusses innovation and sustainability in the paper industry. National Public Radio's All Things Considered in turn interviewed John Schmid on the "Paper Cuts" story and discussed Lindsay and played an excerpt of Lindsay's comments. Lindsay has written about the Hmong people in the United States. An essay about the reasons for the Hmong presence in the United States has been published by Future Hmong magazine. In 2008, he was quoted by The Christian Science Monitor in an article on the Hmong. Lindsay was named as BYU Chemical Engineering Department's Outstanding Alumnus of the Year in 2004.

Coffee cupping

Coffee cupping, or coffee tasting, is the practice of observing the tastes and aromas of brewed coffee. It is a professional practice but can be done informally by anyone or by professionals known as "Master Tasters". A standard coffee cupping procedure involves deeply sniffing the coffee, then loudly slurping the coffee so it spreads to the back of the tongue. The coffee taster attempts to measure aspects of the coffee's taste, specifically the body (the texture or mouthfeel, such as oiliness), sweetness, acidity (a sharp and tangy feeling, like when biting into an orange), flavour (the characters in the cup), and aftertaste. Since coffee beans embody telltale flavours from the region where they were grown, cuppers may attempt to identify the coffee's origin. Aromas: Various descriptions are used to note coffee aroma. -Animal-like – This odour descriptor is somewhat reminiscent of the smell of animals. It is not a fragrant aroma like musk but has the characteristic odour of wet fur, sweat, leather, hides or urine. It is not necessarily considered as a negative attribute but is generally used to describe strong notes. -Ashy – This odour descriptor is similar to that of an ashtray, the odour of smokers' fingers or the smell one gets when cleaning out a fireplace. It is not used as a negative attribute. Generally speaking this descriptor is used by the tasters to indicate the degree of roast. -Burnt/Smoky – This odour and flavour descriptor is similar to that found in burnt food. The odour is associated with smoke produced when burning wood. This descriptor is frequently used to indicate the degree of roast commonly found by tasters in dark-roasted or oven-roasted coffees. -Chemical/Medicinal – This odour descriptor is reminiscent of chemicals, medicines and the smell of hospitals. This term is used to describe coffees having aromas such as rio flavour, chemical residues or highly aromatic coffees which produce large amounts of volatiles. -Chocolate-like – This aroma descriptor is reminiscent of the aroma and flavour of cocoa powder and chocolate (including dark chocolate and milk chocolate). It is an aroma that is sometimes referred to as sweet. -Caramel – This aroma descriptor is reminiscent of the odour and flavour produced when caramelizing sugar without burning it. Tasters should be cautioned not to use this attribute to describe a burning note. -Cereal/Malty/Toast-like – This descriptor includes aromas characteristic of cereal, malt, and toast. It includes scents such as the aroma and flavour of uncooked or roasted grain (including roasted corn, barley or wheat), malt extract and the aroma and flavour of freshly baked bread and freshly made toast. This descriptor has a common denominator, a grain-type aroma. The aromas in this descriptor were grouped together since tasters used these terms interchangeably when evaluating standards of each one. -Earthy – The characteristic odour of fresh, wet soil or humus. Sometimes associated with moulds and reminiscent of raw potato flavour, a common flavournote in coffees from Asia. -Floral – This aroma descriptor is similar to the fragrance of flowers. It is associated with the slight scent of different types of flowers including honeysuckle, jasmine, dandelion and nettles. It is mainly found when an intense fruity or green aroma is perceived but rarely found having a high intensity by itself. -Fruity/Citrussy – This aroma is reminiscent of the odour and taste of fruit. The natural aroma of berries is highly associated with this attribute. The perception of high acidity in some coffees is correlated with the citrus characteristic. Tasters should be cautioned not to use this attribute to describe the aroma of unripe or overripe fruit. -Grassy/Green/Herbal – This aroma descriptor includes three terms which are associated with odours reminiscent of a freshly mown lawn, fresh green grass or herbs, green foliage, green beans or unripe fruit. -Nutty – This aroma is reminiscent of the odour and flavour of fresh nuts (distinct from rancid nuts) and not of bitter almonds. -Rancid/Rotten – This aroma descriptor includes two terms which are associated with odours reminiscent of rancidification and oxidation of several products. Rancid as the main indicator of fat oxidation mainly refers to rancid nuts and rotten is used as an indicator of deteriorated vegetables or non-oily products. Tasters should be cautioned not to apply these descriptors to coffees that have strong notes but no signs of deterioration. -Rubber-like – This odour descriptor is characteristic of the smell of hot tyres, rubber bands and rubber stoppers. It is not considered a negative attribute but has a characteristic strong note highly recognisable in some coffees. -Spicy – This aroma descriptor is typical of the odour of sweet spices such as cloves, cinnamon and allspice. Tasters are cautioned not to use this term to describe the aroma of savoury spices such as pepper, oregano and Indian spices. -Tobacco – This aroma descriptor is reminiscent of the odour and taste of tobacco but should not be used for burnt tobacco. -Winey – This terms is used to describe the combined sensation of smell, taste and mouthfeel experiences when drinking wine. It is generally perceived when a strong acidic or fruity note is found. Tasters should be cautioned not to apply this term to a sour or fermented flavour. -Woody – This aroma descriptor is reminiscent of the smell of dry wood, an oak barrel, dead wood or cardboard paper. Taste: -Acidity – A basic taste characterised by the solution of an organic acid. A desirable sharp and pleasing taste particularly strong with certain origins as opposed to an over-fermented sour taste. -Bitterness – A primary taste characterised by the solution of caffeine, quinine and certain other alkaloids. This taste is considered desirable up to a certain level and is affected by the degree of roast brewing procedures. -Sweetness – This is a basic taste descriptor characterised by solutions of sucrose or fructose which are commonly associated with sweet aroma descriptors such as fruity, chocolate and caramel. It is generally used for describing coffees which are free from off-flavours. -Saltiness – A primary taste characterised by a solution of sodium chloride or other salts. -Sourness – This basic taste descriptor refers to an excessively sharp, biting and unpleasant flavour (such as vinegar or acetic acid). It is sometimes associated with the aroma of fermented coffee. Tasters should be cautious not to confuse this term with acidity which is generally considered a pleasant and desirable taste in coffee. Mouthfeel: -Body – used to describe the physical properties of the beverage. A strong but pleasant full mouthfeel characteristic as opposed to being thin. Body can be compared to drinking milk. A heavy body is comparable to whole milk while a light body can be comparable to skim milk. -Astringency – an after-taste sensation consistent with a dry feeling in the mouth, undesirable in coffee. History: Cupping is a traditional practice; in the United States, cupping became a standard industry practice in the late 19th century (in what is retrospectively called the First Wave of American coffee), due to its use by Hills Brothers Coffee of San Francisco.

Thursday, December 24, 2015

Wednesday, December 23, 2015

Girly skateboarder

I'm a girly skateboarder. Its awesome as I'm unsure what we wear.

Tuesday, December 22, 2015


Nespresso is the brand name of Nestlé Nespresso S.A., an operating unit of the Nestlé Group, based in Lausanne, Switzerland. Nespresso machines brew espresso as well as full size coffee from coffee capsules (pods in bar machines), a type of pre-apportioned single-use container of ground coffee and flavorings. The company sells its system of machines and capsules worldwide, as well as the VertuoLine system in North America. History: In 1976, Eric Favre, an employee of Nestlé, invented, patented and introduced the Nespresso system to the business market in Switzerland without significant success. In 1988, due to the efforts of Jean-Paul Gaillard — a business man, the inventor of «Le Club» community —, the product became a market success. In 1990, the firm signed a contract with Turmix, which started to sell Nespresso machines in Switzerland. Thereafter, other contracts were signed with Krups, Magimix, Alessi, Philips, Siemens and De'Longhi. The first patent application for Nespresso's process of brewing espresso from capsules containing ground coffee was filed in 1996. The Nespresso Company manufactures both machines and the capsules they use, and makes most of its money from the capsules. Nespresso machines and their capsules can be purchased in Nespresso stores, by mail-order, or many other consumer appliance stores. The company fights off producers of cheaper compatible capsules in court. However, following an adverse ruling in a French court, Nespresso decided against continuing to fight such cases in other European countries. In 2014, discount retailer Lidl started to offer a limited range of Nespresso compatible capsules at a much lower price in countries where Nespresso was otherwise available. Marketing: Social media, such as Facebook, have been used to promote the product in the form of an interactive Facebook page and celebrities, such as George Clooney, Danny DeVito, Matt Damon, Jack Black and John Malkovich, have been used to market the product. The brand's current slogan is What else?. The brand Nespresso is the subject of continued promotional campaigns around the world. Promotions include bonus coffee capsules sold with the machine. TV commercials also feature Penelope Cruz, including a longer promotional video on Nespresso's site and YouTube with Cruz and Jimmy Kimmel. Market: Packaged portions of espresso coffee like those from Nespresso has become one of the fastest growing segments of the coffee market, accounting for 20 to 40 percent of the value of ground coffee sales in the European coffee market which totals USD 17 billion. In August 2010, it was reported that Nespresso sales have been growing at an average of 30 percent per year over the past 10 years and more than 20 billion capsules have been sold since 2000 at a current selling price equivalent to about USD 0.43 to USD 0.62 per capsule. Nespresso reported annual sales of CHF 3 billion in 2011, growing by 20% during the fiscal year.

Hazen Aldrich

Hazen Aldrich (January 10, 1797 – 1873) was an early leader in the Latter Day Saint movement. After the death of Joseph Smith, Aldrich went on to lead a small denomination of Latter Day Saints known as the Brewsterites. Aldrich was born in Lebanon, New Hampshire to Andrew H. Aldrich and Annis Sweetland. In April or May 1832, Aldrich was taught about the Latter Day Saint movement by missionaries Orson Pratt and Lyman E. Johnson and was baptized in Bath, New Hampshire. Aldrich was baptized at the same time as future Apostle and member of the First Presidency Amasa M. Lyman. On July 4, 1832, Aldrich was given the Melchizedek priesthood and ordained to the office of elder by Pratt. On June 8, 1833, Pratt ordained him a high priest. In 1834 Aldrich participated in the Zion's Camp expedition to Missouri. On February 28, 1835, Joseph Smith ordained Aldrich to the office of seventy and chose him as the presiding president of the newly organized First Quorum of Seventy. However, when it was discovered by Smith that Aldrich had previously been ordained a high priest, he asked Aldrich to stand down from his position and join the quorum of high priests. Aldrich did so on April 6, 1837, which left Joseph Young as the presiding president of the Seventy. In 1836, Aldrich was the first Mormon missionary to preach in Lower Canada, in what today is the province of Quebec. Aldrich apostatized from the church in 1837 in Kirtland, Ohio. After the succession crisis, Aldrich joined the church led by James Strang. On December 16, 1846, Strang excommunicated Aldrich from the church for incest with his daughter, either Betsy or Louisa. In November 1847, Aldrich became a member of the Church of Christ (Whitmerite). After this denomination died, Aldrich and James C. Brewster created the Church of Christ (Brewsterite) in 1848. On September 29, 1849, Aldrich became the president of this Latter Day Saint denomination, and edited a Brewsterite periodical entitled the Olive Branch. In August 1850, Brewster led about 85 of his followers (including Hazen Aldrich's pregnant daughter, Betsy Aldrich Wilder and her family) from Independence, Missouri to the edenic "Land of Bashan" that Brewster had seen in visions, lying at the confluence of the Gila and Colorado rivers, in the southwestern United States. Inadequate preparation and lack of supplies along the route led to dissension in the group. One dissenting family, the Oatmans, split from the main body of migrants, and were mostly slain by Apache Indians. Two surviving young girls were held in captivity several years, one eventually starving to death. Olive Oatman, however, survived and was eventually recovered from the Mohave tribe, who had gotten her from the Apache. Betsy and her husband were also dissenters from the group but made it safely to Los Angeles, California, where she divorced her husband in February 1853 and married Wesley Fielding Gibson and raised more children. Aldrich, who did not follow Brewster to Arizona, resigned his position as church president in January 1853, and emigrated to California to support his daughter Betsy through her divorce, and to live with his other daughter, Louisa Aldrich Geary and her family, in El Monte, Los Angeles, California. Aldrich died in El Monte in 1873, and was buried in Rosemead, California.

Disney Springs

Disney Springs is an outdoor shopping, dining, and entertainment complex at the Walt Disney World Resort in Bay Lake, Florida, near Orlando. The complex opened on March 22, 1975 as the Lake Buena Vista Shopping Village and has been expanded and renamed at other times over the years. It was first renamed Walt Disney World Village in 1977; then to Disney Village Marketplace in 1989; and afterward to Downtown Disney in 1997. In 2013, plans were announced for a three-year renovation of the complex, and on September 29, 2015, the name officially changed from Downtown Disney to Disney Springs. The current complex includes three areas: West Side, the Landing, and the Marketplace. Disney Springs is open year-round and requires no admission or parking fees. Buses and water taxis operated by Disney Transport provide free transportation to and from Disney Springs to Walt Disney World resort guests. Notable tenants include Cirque du Soleil's La Nouba, Disney Quest, the House of Blues, Planet Hollywood, the Lego Imagination Center, World of Disney, The Art of Disney, AMC Movies at Disney Springs 24 with Dine-In Theatres, and Rainforest Cafe. History- Early expansion; multiple rebrandings: The Lake Buena Vista Shopping Village, which opened on March 22, 1975, was originally envisioned as an area shopping mall that would be mainly perused by people living in Walt Disney World. However, since more hotel rooms than residences were being built, the complex mainly became targeted toward Disney World guests, and just two years after its opening, the complex was renamed Walt Disney World Village. With the advent of new management under Michael Eisner in 1984, Disney began looking for ways to keep vacationers on Walt Disney World property longer, and entice them with offerings to prevent them from leaving for entertainment beyond Disney's borders. To compete with the popular Church Street Station clubs in downtown Orlando, Disney announced the addition of Pleasure Island, featuring adult nightclubs showcasing Disney's quality and creativity, to Walt Disney World Village on July 21, 1986. Construction began the following August and Pleasure Island was opened on May 1, 1989, the same day as the Disney's Hollywood Studios theme park. Later that year, the complex was renamed Disney Village Marketplace. In the mid-1990s, the growth of Walt Disney World created the potential for further expansion, leading to a $1 billion investment in projects across the resort. On June 20, 1995, major enhancements and expansions were announced for the area, with the Disney Village Marketplace and Pleasure Island being combined into a newly branded district named Downtown Disney. The re-branding was introduced on September 7, 1997. On September 15, Downtown Disney West Side, a 66 acres (27 ha) expansion, opened as a third shopping, dining, and entertainment area featuring more eclectic venues such as La Nouba (a permanent show which is part of Cirque du Soleil), DisneyQuest, and Tower Records (later a Virgin Megastore). Major changes to the complex also included the conversion of Mickey's Character Shop into the World of Disney, becoming the world's largest Disney store, in addition to the expansion and upgrade of the AMC Pleasure Island Theatres, as well as the opening of Rainforest Cafe and Planet Hollywood. The Downtown Disney complex gained a sister district in California on January 12, 2001, with the addition of Downtown Disney at the Disneyland Resort. Similar complexes also exist, such as Disney Village, which opened on April 12, 1992 at Disneyland Resort Paris, and Ikspiari, which opened on July 7, 2000, at the Tokyo Disney Resort. A fifth version is expected to open at Hong Kong Disneyland. Pleasure Island's quality started to degrade after it became free to the public in 2004. On September 27, 2008, the Pleasure Island nightclubs closed to make room for new shopping and dining offerings. Renovation and renaming to Disney Springs: On March 14, 2013, Walt Disney Parks and Resorts chairman Tom Staggs announced that Downtown Disney would be redesigned as Disney Springs, a revitalized dining-retail-entertainment district inspired by Florida's waterfront towns. The expansion project will include 150 new tenants and the construction of two parking structures. The Disney Springs will expand twice in size with Team Mickey and similar stores will grow with more merchandise. Popular stores like American Girl and Dior have been rumored to be placing locations at Disney Springs. The renovation was described as an "exciting, multi-year transformation of Downtown Disney at the Walt Disney World Resort". Common to other Disney theme park attractions, Disney Springs will offer a unique shopping and dining environment themed around an elaborate backstory and will feature the following areas: -The Marketplace -The Landing (formerly Pleasure Island) -Town Center -West Side In order to facilitate the construction of the area and the increase in capacity, two large parking structures are under construction in previous parking lot areas, and the entire area is expected to be completed in 2016. Plans include for new bridges connecting the area to Disney's Saratoga Springs resort, and a new causeway connecting the Marketplace to The Landing. Furthermore, High Line structures will be built in order to provide both theme and shade. The complex was renamed Disney Springs on September 29, 2015. Areas- Marketplace: The Marketplace houses many shops and restaurants. The first restaurant in the Earl of Sandwich chain is located here. T-Rex Cafe is a dinosaur-themed restaurant operated by Landry's Restaurants, which features life-sized animatronic dinosaurs developed by UCFab International, LLC. It is located at the site of a former valet parking traffic circle in the E parking lot, near the current location of the pedestrian bridge between Pleasure Island and Downtown Disney Marketplace and is adjacent to the Lego Imagination Center. Groundbreaking ran behind schedule, with construction beginning in October 2007 and completed in early October 2008, with its opening on October 14, 2008. Landry's Restaurants also operates Rainforest Cafe at this location. Small boat rentals for use on the waterway were offered by Cap'n Jack's Marina, which ceased operation in October 2013 as part of Disney Springs renovation plans. As part of these plans, a walkway spanning the Village Lake and connecting Rainforest Cafe with the Lego Imagination Center - The Marketplace Causeway - was constructed and opened 2015. Attractions: -Marketplace Express -Carousel -T-Rex Cafe Dinosaur Dig presented by Build-a-Bear Workshop -Disney Springs Marina Restaurants: -Earl of Sandwich -Ghirardelli Soda Fountain & Chocolate Shop -Starbucks Coffee (walk up only) -Rainforest Cafe -T-Rex Cafe -Wolfgang Puck Express Shopping: -Build A Dino by Build-a-Bear Workshop -Disney's Design-a-Tee presented by Hanes -Disney's Pin Traders -Disney's Days of Christmas Shop -Goofy's Candy Company -Lego Imagination Center -Once Upon A Toy -Marketplace Co-Op -Tren-D (The Dooney and Bourke hub of the Walt Disney World Resort.) -World of Disney Closed: -McDonald's (replaced by Pollo Campero) -Pollo Campero (closed and demolished for construction of The Landing at Disney Springs) The Landing: This area contains restaurants, shops and attractions. The Landing was formerly Pleasure Island, which was primarily a nighttime entertainment complex with two comedy clubs and four dance clubs. These clubs closed permanently on September 27, 2008. New shops and restaurants were planned to open to replace the closed clubs, but the economic recession of 2009 delayed plans. Only one new restaurant has opened to date. While the Marketplace and West Side have always been free to enter, Pleasure Island required the purchase of admission and was closed during the day. Beginning in summer 2004, Pleasure Island became free to enter, and only those guests entering the nightclubs were charged admission. On November 18, 2010, Walt Disney World Resort announced a project named Hyperion Wharf, which was planned to replace the Pleasure Island complex. Pleasure Island would have undergone extensive renovations and re-theming to transform into the early twentieth century wharf-themed entertainment area. New shopping and dining locations would have also been added. In July 2011, it was announced that these plans have been delayed. These plans were later cancelled in favor of Disney Springs with the area currently known as Pleasure Island, along with part of the current parking lot, eventually becoming The Landing. The Empress Lilly: The structure originally known as the The Empress Lilly is a static full-size replica of a paddle steamer riverboat on Village Lake. It is 220 feet long and 62 feet wide. Though it resembles a boat, it is actually a boat-shaped building on a submerged concrete foundation. The Empress Lilly was designed by Walt Disney Imagineering to look as authentic as possible. The gingerbread scrollwork and stained-glass detailing hearkened back to the days of Mark Twain's Mississippi River. The paddlewheel at the aft end constantly churned, though the ship never moved. It greeted guests for the first time on May 1, 1976, when it was christened by Walt Disney's widow, Lillian Disney, for whom it was named. It originally housed four separate entertainment and dining areas: -The Baton Rouge Lounge, located forward on the main deck. Here patrons could relax at the bar and enjoy the music and comedy of the Riverboat Rascals.[13] Many of these musicians played in the Baton Rouge for years and became local legends. Some of them included "Fast Eddie" Erickson, Dave Tobiasen, Tom Bucci, Denny Zavett, Ralf Reynolds, Mike Gentry, Randy Morris, Dan Riley, John Charles, Andy Fielding and Bill Dendle. -Steerman's Quarters, in the main deck's aft section, specialized in certified Angus beef. Its décor featured nostalgic imagery of America's western cattle. In the aft end of the room, giant windows overlooked the churning paddlewheel. -The Fisherman's Deck, a seafood restaurant, was located forward on the promenade deck. -The Empress Room, aft on the promenade deck, was a formal dining room that required reservations. It was extravagantly decorated with gold-trimmed walls and Rococo (Louis XIV) style appointments. Hungarian chef Garry Reich developed the original menu to cater to upscale tastes. The Empress Lilly was also one of the first locations of the famous Disney Character Breakfasts. In the mid-1990s, as a cost-cutting move, Disney began to engage outside partners to take over operations of many of its restaurants. It was decided the Empress Lilly would come under new management, and Levy Restaurants signed a contract to operate the "ship" for 20 years. On April 22, 1995, the Empress Lilly served her last meals. All interiors were subsequently ripped out and a new décor for a single restaurant put in place. The old smokestacks and paddlewheel were removed because they had rusted and rotted to a large extent; these were not replaced. The restaurant opened as Fulton's Crab House on March 10, 1996. West Side: The Disney Springs West Side is home to many full service restaurants, large stores, and entertainment venues. On May 12, 2009, the Virgin Megastore closed permanently and was replaced by a Ridemakerz store. The Ridemakerz store later closed in favor of the existing store inside Team Mickey Athletic Club located in the Marketplace and was replaced by a Splitsville bowling alley. Planet Hollywood opened on December 17, 1994. Jenny, the shrimping boat used in the 1994 film Forrest Gump, is located on the northwest corner of that restaurant. haracters in Flight opened in Spring 2009 and features a giant tethered balloon that rises 400 feet, providing 360-degree views of the Downtown Disney area. It is operated by Aérophile and is similar to PanoraMagique located at Disney Village at Disneyland Paris. This Aéro30 balloon is custom-built and hand painted with classic flying Disney characters. It contains a 19-foot-diameter basket that holds 29 people and one pilot, and is purportedly the largest tethered helium balloon in the world. Expansion of the existing AMC Theatres Pleasure Island 24 venue opened with Downtown Disney West Side in 1997. In late 2010, renovations began which created theaters offering food service. The complex was renamed AMC Downtown Disney 24. In 1997, there were plans to open a Planet Movies by AMC entertainment complex at this location by combining the Planet Hollywood restaurant with a re-branded AMC megaplex. However, these plans were abandoned due to Planet Hollywood's continued financial problems. The complex has now been renamed AMC Disney Springs 24. Entertainment: -AMC Disney Springs 24 with Dine-In Theatres -Characters in Flight -Cirque du Soleil's La Nouba -DisneyQuest indoor theme park -Splitsville Restaurants: -Bongos Cuban Cafè -House of Blue -The Smokehouse (at House of Blues) -Planet Hollywood -Wolfgang Puck Cafè -Starbucks Coffee (full service store) -Wetzel's Pretzels (kiosk) -Häagen-Dazs (kiosk) Shopping: - Sunglass Hut Flagship Store (branded as Sunglass Icon by Sunglass Hut) -Other various shops. Former shopping: -Virgin Megastore -Magic Masters -Magnetron -Planet Hollywood on location -LittleMissMatched


Books-A-Million, Inc., also known as BAM!, is a company that owns the second largest U.S. bookstore chain and is headquartered in Birmingham, Alabama. The company operates over 200 stores in the South, Midwest, and Northeast United States. As of 2010, the company had about 5,500 employees. In addition to its flagship Books-A-Million superstore division, the company also operates the stores branded Books & Company and book and greeting card stores under the name Bookland. The company's stores mainly operate within either shopping malls or lifestyle centers. Most Books-A-Million stores feature Joe Muggs cafés. In addition to its primary retail component, the corporation includes a book wholesale and distribution subsidiary, American Wholesale Book Company (AWBC), an e-commerce division operating as, and an internet development and services company, NetCentral, in Nashville, Tennessee. In 2011, Books-A-Million became the second largest book retailer in the United States, trailing only Barnes & Noble, after the announcement from larger rival Borders Group that it was liquidating all of its assets and going out of business. Divisions- Bookland: Bookland was the precursor to Books-A-Million. It began as a newsstand on the corner of Court St and Seminary St in Florence, Alabama, started by Clyde W. Anderson. The profits from the stand allowed him to buy a bookstore, which was then inherited by his sons. They opened new stores and incorporated them under the name Bookland in 1964. Bookland survives as a subsidiary of BAM, focusing on smaller stores, though the number of their stores has shrunk significantly from what was at one point 72 locations to 24 different locations in the US, mostly dispersed through the Southeast. Books-A-Million Superstores: The Books-A-Million superstore is the main retail entity of the Books-A-Million corporation. The first superstore was opened in 1988, though the company did not post on the NASDAQ until 1992. Today there are over 200 Books-A-Million superstores. The stores range in size from 8,000 to 36,000 feet, most typically around 30,000. They sell a range of goods including books, periodicals, gifts, and food offered in the Joe Muggs newsstands. Books & Company: Books-A-Million purchased the original Books & Co. store, located in the Dayton, Ohio area, in 1992. A second Books & Co. store, also in Dayton, was opened in 2006. The original Books & Co. store closed on July 17, 2011 and was set to reopen as a 2nd & Charles used bookstore in August 2011. is the website for the Books-A-Million superstore chain, launched in 1998, but is specifically listed as its own brand. The site offers online dealings in essentially what the superstore also offers, including books, ebooks, toys and gifts, audio, magazines, movies, and music. Books-a-Million's stock price soared by over 1000% in one week when the company announced its updated website on November 25, 1998, a notable example of speculation during the dot-com bubble of the late 1990s. The company's share price rose from around $3 previously to an all-time closing high of $38.94 on November 27 and an intra-day high of $47.00 on November 30, before quickly pulling back to around $10 two weeks later. By 2000, the share price had returned to $3. NetCentral: NetCentral was acquired by Books-A-Million in 1998, in order to manage their recently opened website. The company is classified in "On-Line Data Base Information Retrieval" and located in Nashville, TN. Upon acquisition, NetCentral "designed and developed the newly refurbished web site for Books-A-Million" The unit designed the current logos for Books-A-Million. Joe Muggs: Joe Muggs are coffeehouses within Books-A-Million superstores. Books-A-Million began including Joe Muggs cafes in their superstores in 2001. Books-A-Million owns and operates the brand. There are a few standalone Joe Muggs Newsstands. The cafe is similar to the Starbucks chain, offering coffee and pastries. 2nd & Charles: 2nd & Charles is a division of Books-A-Million that specializes in trading used books, audio books, CDs, DVDs, video games, game systems, vinyl records and accessories. It opened on September 25, 2010 in Hoover, Alabama across from Riverchase Galleria. They buy and sell based on the condition and popularity of the product. Bulk quantities of discounted remaindered books and magazines are not part of the in-stock inventory, unlike its competitor with a similar product mix in the used media space, Half Price Books. Yogurt Mountain: Yogurt Mountain is a division of Books-A-Million acquired on April 1, 2010. According to the press release, "Yogurt Mountain, an exciting self serve yogurt concept features 16 rotating flavors all of which are fat free or low fat and offers over 50 toppings for consumers to choose from. Yogurt Mountain's stores cater to the growing trend in healthy foods in a unique and entertaining environment." Yogurt Mountain currently operates over 30 locations in 14 states. Controversy: In 2014, Books-A-Million was identified by the publication 24/7 Wall St. as America's worst company to work for, citing low satisfaction among employees due to "high stress and low pay... low chance of promotion, and hours are based on magazine and discount card sales." Since release of the 2014 survey, Books-A-Million's rating has risen and they were not included in the 2015 list of companies.

Monday, December 21, 2015

Dang it

I have a bad feeling about what I'll be getting for my Christmas present. I wanted forensic science anything or a skateboard but i think I'm getting clothes. You know what? If "Santa" won't get me a skateboard I'll just buy myself one.

Toni Jo Henry

Toni Jo Henry, (née Annie Beatrice McQuiston), was the only woman ever to be executed in Louisiana's electric chair. Married to Claude 'Cowboy' Henry, she decided to break her husband out of jail where he was serving a fifty-year sentence in the Texas State Penitentiary for murder. Together with Harold Burks, she took a ride with Joseph P. Calloway, whom they then robbed and murdered. Henry was convicted and sentenced to death, the sentence being carried out after three trials by electrocution on November 28, 1942. Her case was written about in several popular books and films including A Savage Wisdom and Stone Justice. Early life: Born near Shreveport, Louisiana, Henry was the third of five children. Her mother died of tuberculosis when Henry was six years of age. Henry worked in a macaroni factory at thirteen and thereafter in a local brothel as a prostitute. She became a regular user of alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine. Marriage: In 1939, she met Claude 'Cowboy' Henry in the brothel where she worked. A down-on-his-luck prize fighter, Cowboy fell in love with the young prostitute. Married on November 25, 1939, the couple honeymooned in southern California. During this time, Cowboy was able to wean his bride off her various drug addictions. Upon returning from California, Claude Henry was arrested for the murder of a Texas man prior to their marriage. He was found guilty in January 1940 and sentenced to fifty years in the Texas State Penitentiary at Huntsville. Murder of Joseph P. Calloway: Toni Jo then began contemplating plans to break her husband out of Huntsville Prison. She and accomplice Harold 'Arkie' Burks devised a plan to rob a bank, in hopes of securing money to aid in breaking Claude Henry out of jail. Joseph P. Calloway was delivering a Ford Coupe to a friend when he happened upon Toni Jo and Arkie Burks. Unaware of their plan, he offered to give the two a ride. As they drove past Jennings, Louisiana, Toni Jo and Arkie robbed Calloway at gunpoint. They proceeded to lock him in the trunk of his car and drive down a country road. The duo planned to use the Ford as a getaway vehicle; however, they soon decided to pull the car over near a small paddock. Calloway was ordered out of the car and told to undress. He was then ushered behind a haystack, told to kneel, and say his prayers. Calloway was shot once in the head with a .32 caliber revolver and died at the scene. After a brief stop in Arkansas, Toni Jo would return to Shreveport, where she would seek refuge with her aunt. She later was interviewed by a Shreveport police officer, during which she revealed the murder and disclosed the location of the body. Trials and appeals for murder: Her first trial was held from March 27–29, 1940. Because of Henry's good looks, the possibility of the death penalty and the severity of the charges, the trial gained much press coverage. She claimed that Burks was the one who fired the fatal shot, but after deliberating for six hours, the jury convicted her and sentenced her to death by hanging. Burks was later convicted and sentenced to death. Toni Jo appealed and was granted a new trial. The second trial took place in February 1941. Unlike in the first trial, Burks took the stand and testified against Toni Jo. After an hour of deliberations, she was again convicted and sentenced to death. She again appealed and was granted a new trial. The third trial was held in January 1942. Toni Jo was again convicted and sentenced to death. She appealed, but this time her appeal was denied. Execution: While Henry was incarcerated at Lake Charles Prison, she was befriended by Father Wayne Richard, head of a local Catholic parish. He would eventually baptize her. During the time Henry was being tried, Louisiana changed its method of execution from hanging to death by electrocution, the sentence being carried out on November 28, 1942. The district attorney was Griffin T. Hawkins of Lake Charles. Father Richard was present at her execution and would officiate her burial, days later. Four days prior to her execution, Claude "Cowboy" Henry escaped from prison to see his wife one last time, and was recaptured in Beaumont, Texas. Soon afterwards, Claude Henry was paroled due to ill health. He was killed by a café owner on July 15, 1945 in Dallas, while out on parole. Books and Film: A Savage Wisdom, a novel by Norman German, was inspired by the life, crimes and legends of Toni Jo Henry, née Annie Beatrice McQuiston. The book is fiction, a novel categorized in the subgenre of "alternative history." That is, it changes certain facts of the historical woman's life and posits what might have happened under different circumstances. Stone Justice by Debi King McMartin and Lyn Morgan, published by Sarah Hudson-Pierce's Ritz Publications in Shreveport, details the life of Toni Jo Henry. Henry's story is the focus of the 2013 film entitled The Pardon, which was shot on location in Shreveport. It stars actress Jaime King as Toni Jo Henry. John Hawkes plays Arkie Burks, with TJ Thyne, Jason Lewis, Leigh Whannell, and Tim Guinee. Tom Anton is the producer and director.

Faith Promise Church

Faith Promise Church is an American evangelical multi-site church with a central campus in Knoxville, Tennessee. History: The first worship service of Faith Promise Church was held on February 5, 1995, when 350 men, women, and children gathered to worship in the Garden Plaza Hotel in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. On July 1 of the following year, Faith Promise called Dr. Chris Stephens as its first senior pastor. In 1998, the church secured 33 acres (130,000 m2) and began planning and development of its Pellissippi Campus. The first campus facility was completed and occupied in September 2000. The church enjoyed continued growth throughout the next decade. By 2003, they had outgrown their existing facilities, and so Satellite-1 was opened for overflow space, and Building 2 was completed. In 2005, Faith Promise Church was named for the first time as one of Outreach Magazine '​s 100 fastest growing churches in America. In 2007, a 350-seat balcony was added to the worship center to allow for continued growth. In April 2009, Faith Promise added their second campus—an Internet campus where people from all over the world could connect to online services each weekend. In August of the same year, they expanded the online campus to include American Sign Language for deaf attenders. Faith Promise launched their third campus (the second physical location) in Blount County, Tennessee, on October 3, 2010. As of 2011, the church reported nearly 1,900 members and weekly attendance of more than 4,000 at its five Sunday services. It employed twelve ministers and had an annual operating budget of $4.8 million. As of 2014, the church had expanded to six sites. In addition to the Pellissippi main campus in West Knoxville, the online ministry and the Blount County site, campuses had been created in North Knoxville, Campbell County and Anderson County. An affiliate church has also been established in Costa Rica. Average weekly attendance encompassing all sites has grown to over 5,000. The 2014 edition of Outreach Magazine listed Faith Promise Church as the 22nd fastest growing church in America. Affiliation: Faith Promise Church is an autonomous and self-governing group. They participate with other groups of churches for missions, outreach, and support.

Energy drink

An energy drink is a type of beverage containing stimulant drugs, chiefly caffeine, which is marketed as providing mental and physical stimulation. They may or may not be carbonated and many also contain sugar or other sweeteners, herbal extracts and amino acids. They are a subset of the larger group of energy products, which includes bars and gels, and distinct from sports drinks, which are advertised to enhance sports performance. There are many brands and varieties of energy drinks. Coffee, tea and other naturally caffeinated beverages are usually not considered energy drinks. Other soft drinks such as cola may contain caffeine, but are also not energy drinks. Some alcoholic beverages, such as Buckfast Tonic Wine, contain caffeine and other stimulants. According to the Mayo Clinic, it is safe for the typical healthy adult to consume a total of 400 mg of caffeine a day. This is equivalent to 4 cups of coffee or 2 energy shots. Energy drinks have the effects caffeine and sugar provide, but there is little or no evidence that the wide variety of other ingredients have any effect. Most of the effects of energy drinks on cognitive performance, such as increased attention and reaction speed, are primarily due to the presence of caffeine. Advertising for energy drinks usually features increased muscle strength and endurance, but there is little evidence to support this in the scientific literature. Energy drinks have been associated with health risks, such as an increased rate of alcohol-related injury, and excessive or repeated consumption can lead to cardiac and psychiatric conditions. Uses: Energy drinks are marketed to provide the benefits among health effects of caffeine along with benefits from the other ingredients they contain. Health experts agree that energy drinks which contain caffeine do provide the effects of caffeine. The consumption of alcohol drinks combined with energy drinks is a common occurrence on many college campuses. The alcohol industry has recently been criticized for marketing cohesiveness of alcohol and energy drinks. The combination of the two in college students is correlated to students experiencing alcohol-related consequences, and several health risks. There is no good evidence that other ingredients in energy drinks provide further benefits, even though the drinks are frequently advertised in a way that suggests they have unique benefits. The dietary supplements in energy drinks may be purported to provide detoxification, sustain mental process, protect heart health, and reduce muscle fatigue. None of these claims are backed by good evidence. Various marketing organizations have described energy drinks by saying their beverage "gives you wings", is "scientifically formulated", or that it is a "killer energy brew". When mixed with alcohol, either as a prepackaged caffeinated alcoholic drink, a mixed drink, or just a beverage consumed around the same time as alcohol, energy drinks are often consumed in social settings.

Exaltation (Mormonism)

Exaltation or eternal life is a belief in Mormonism, most prominently among members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), that mankind can return to live in God's presence and continue as families. Exaltation could be referred to as a more literal belief in both the ancient and modern Christian doctrine of deification or divinization. It is often referred to in Mormonism as "eternal progression" and is believed to be what God desires for all humankind. The LDS Church teaches that, through the atonement of Jesus Christ, believers may become joint-heirs with Jesus Christ. The objective of adherents is to strive for purity and righteousness and to become one with Jesus, as Jesus is one with the Father (God). The Doctrine and Covenants contains a verse that states that those who are exalted will "be gods" and, thus, will inherit God's glory through Christ's atonement. Overview of the doctrine: Members of the LDS Church believe that human beings can grow and progress spiritually until, through the mercy and grace of Christ, they can inherit and possess all that the Father has—they can become gods. As the primary source for this doctrine, Mormons look largely to the teachings of their modern (or what they refer to as "latter-day") prophets. When discussing the Mormons' belief in eternal progression, various Mormon and non-LDS scholars generally refer to a couplet written by Lorenzo Snow, the fifth president of the LDS Church, which states as follows: As man now is, God once was; As God now is, man may be. This doctrine is generally referred to by scholars both inside and outside Mormonism as the Christian deification. It has been noted by LDS and non-LDS scholars that the LDS expression of this Christian doctrine is often misrepresented and misunderstood when applied to Mormons. Because of this alleged misunderstanding, several LDS scholars (and occasionally LDS authorities and theologians) have sought to clarify the beliefs of Mormonism regarding the subject of exaltation. Latter-day Saints do not believe that human beings will ever be independent of God, or that they will ever cease worshipping and being subordinate to God. Rather, LDS members believe that to become as God means to overcome the world through the atonement of Jesus Christ. Thus the faithful become heirs of God and joint-heirs with Christ, and will inherit all things just as Christ inherits all things. LDS commentators have stated that, therefore, the Mormons believe they are received into the "church of the firstborn", meaning they inherit as though they were the firstborn. LDS scholars, particularly at the Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship at Brigham Young University, point out that there are no limitations on these biblical passages and declarations; those who become as God shall inherit all things. The LDS believe that, in that glorified state, those who overcome the world through the grace and mercy of Christ will resemble Christ; they will receive his glory and be one with him and with the Father. Biblical support: As stated above, Mormons believe that the primary source and references for their belief come from the teachings of their modern prophets. Nonetheless, members of the LDS (like other ancient and modern Christian faith groups who believe in a more literal form of deification) claim to find support for their belief in the Bible, which (along with other Christian faith groups) the LDS believe to be the "word of God." LDS commentators have highlighted many biblical passages which members of the LDS refer to in support of a more literal belief in Christian deification. Some of these passages are as follows: Paul the Apostle taught in numerous passages that men are sons of God (as in chapter 8 of Paul's Epistle to the Romans). Paul conceives of the resurrection as immortalization of both the body and the soul (1 Cor 15:42-49). 2 Corinthians 3:17-18 says that "we all, with unveiled face, beholding the glory of the Lord, are being transformed into the same image from one degree of glory to another." In John 10:34, Jesus defends himself against a charge of blasphemy by stating: "Have I not said that ye are gods?" It is widely believed that Jesus is referring to Psalms 82:6 in saying "Ye are gods and children of the most high." Christ's defence against the charge of blasphemy includes the following passages from John Chapter 10: -33 The Jews answered him, saying, For a good work we stone thee not; but for blasphemy; and because that thou, being a man, makest thyself God. -34 Jesus answered them, Is it not written in your law, "I said, Ye are gods'?" -35 If he called them gods, unto whom the word of God came, and the scripture cannot be broken; -36 Say ye of him, whom the Father hath sanctified, and sent into the world, Thou blasphemest; because I said, I am the Son of God? In (1 John 5:4—5;Revelation 2:7-11), the apostle, John the Beloved, speaks about how men can overcome the world, as Christ did, through Christ's sacrifice. In Philippians 2:6, Paul talks about deification and that it is not insulting to God to suppose that someone (Christ) could become equal to God. There are several Bible verses which, if summarized state that, through Christ, men may become "heirs of God and joint heirs with Christ" and "will inherit all things" just as Christ inherits all things. Like other Christian denominations that believe in a more literal meaning of deification, Mormons note that there are no limitations on these scriptural declarations; those who become as God shall inherit all things. Nonetheless, Mormons believe man will always be subject to God (1 John 3:2;1 Corinthians 15:28;2 Corinthians 3:18;John 17:21-23;Philippians 3:21). Patristic writings of early Christianity: According to LDS scholars, there are similarities between the Mormon belief of eternal progression and the beliefs found in the patristic writings of the first, second, and third centuries AD. There exist many references to a more literal belief in deification in the writings of the Church Fathers which some LDS and non-LDS scholars and early Church historians claim most closely resemble the beliefs of Mormonism than the beliefs of any other modern faith group derived from the Christian tradition. In the second century, Irenaeus, bishop of Lyons (c. 130–202) said that God "became what we are in order to make us what he is himself." Irenaeus also wrote, "If the Word became a man, It was so men may become gods." He added: "Do we cast blame on him God because we were not made gods from the beginning, but were at first created merely as men, and then later as gods? Although God has adopted this course out of his pure benevolence, that no one may charge him with discrimination or stinginess, he declares, "I have said, Ye are gods; and all of you are sons of the Most High." ... For it was necessary at first that nature be exhibited, then after that what was mortal would be conquered and swallowed up in immortality." At about the same time, Clement of Alexandria (c. 150–215), wrote: "Yea, I say, the Word of God became a man so that you might learn from a man how to become a god." Clement further stated that "if one knows himself, he will know God, and knowing God will become like God. . . . His is beauty, true beauty, for it is God, and that man becomes a god, since God wills it. So Heraclitus was right when he said, 'Men are gods, and gods are men.'" Clement of Alexandria also stated that "he who obeys the Lord and follows the prophecy given through him ... becomes a god while still moving about in the flesh." Justin Martyr c. 100–165) insisted that in the beginning men "were made like God, free from suffering and death," and that they are thus "deemed worthy of becoming gods and of having power to become sons of the highest." Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria (c. 296–373), stated his belief in literal deification:"The Word was made flesh in order that we might be made gods. ... Just as the Lord, putting on the body, became a man, so also we men are both deified through his flesh, and henceforth inherit everlasting life." Athanasius also observed: "For the Son of God became man so that we might become God." Augustine of Hippo (354–430) said: "But he himself that justifies also deifies, for by justifying he makes sons of God. 'For he has given them power to become the sons of God' referring to John 1:12. If then we have been made sons of god, we have also been made gods." "To make human beings gods," Augustine said, "He was made man who was God" (sermon 192.1.1). Augustine goes on to write that "they are not born of His Substance, that they should be the same as He, but that by favour they should come to Him... (Ibid)". Notable scholars and historians specializing in the studies of Early Christianity and the beliefs of first, second and third-century Christians have noted that of the above writers were not just important theologians in Christian orthodoxy, but all (in due time) became revered as saints as a result of the early church councils. LDS historians and scholars Robert L. Millet and Noel B. Reynolds also point out that three of the above early fathers of Christianity wrote within a span of less than one hundred years from the period of the apostles. Non-LDS Christian beliefs on deification: According to LDS scholars Millet and Reynolds, there are similarities between the Mormon belief of eternal progression and certain statements made by C. S. Lewis about his personal belief in the subject of deification: It is a serious thing to live in a society of possible gods and goddesses, to remember that the dullest and most uninteresting person you talk to may one day be a creature which, if you saw it now, you would be strongly tempted to worship. In a fuller statement on his beliefs in literal deification, Lewis explained in his book, Mere Christianity: The command Be ye perfect is not idealistic gas. Nor is it a command to do the impossible. He is going to make us into creatures that can obey that command. He said (in the Bible) that we were "gods" and He is going to make good His words. If we let Him—for we can prevent Him, if we choose—He will make the feeblest and filthiest of us into a god or goddess, dazzling, radiant, immortal creature, pulsating all through with such energy and joy and wisdom and love as we cannot now imagine, a bright stainless mirror which reflects back to God perfectly (though, of course, on a smaller scale) His own boundless power and delight and goodness. The process will be long and in parts very painful; but that is what we are in for. Nothing less. He meant what He said. For a more recent example of commentary on the doctrine of deification in modern Christianity, M. Scott Peck stated the following in his book The Road Less Traveled as follows: For no matter how much we may like to pussyfoot around it, all of us who postulate a loving God and really think about it eventually come to a single terrifying idea: God wants us to become Himself (or Herself or Itself). We are growing toward godhood. Authors Millet and Reynold have noted the similarities between these statements of modern-day, non-LDS Christian commentators and the resemblances to the correlating Mormon belief in a more literal form of deification. Ordinances: According to LDS beliefs, certain ordinances, such as baptism, are required of all those who hope to obtain exaltation. For those who have lived and died throughout history without having performed these ordinances, it is believed that exaltation will be available through LDS Church vicarious temple work. LDS doctrine teaches that all individuals will have an equitable and fair opportunity to hear the 'fullness of the gospel' as taught in this life, or in the life to come, and will subsequently have the opportunity to either accept the message of Jesus Christ and His gospel or reject it. Some ordinances are performed in LDS temples (all ordinances done vicariously on behalf of deceased persons; endowment and sealings for living persons). Latter-day Saints are taught that they can become kings and queens in God's kingdom through performing ordinances such as the endowment, and by doing their best to be faithful to the covenants that the ordinances represent. Celestial marriage, or sealing, is also part of the requirement for being exalted. Members of the LDS Church perform ordinances vicariously on behalf of those who have died without the opportunity of hearing the LDS gospel. They feel obligated to perform ordinances so that all may have an equal opportunity to receive the blessings of the Celestial Kingdom if they choose to do so through their faith in Jesus Christ as their redeemer. It is their belief that those who have died without these ordinances need them in order to progress beyond this life. Acceptance of the ordinances by those who have died is entirely voluntary in the spirit world, and in no way takes away the agency of those individuals. Should an individual who is in the spirit world subsequently reject ordinances performed for them, it would be as if these ordinances were never performed. It is taught that some will accept them, and others will reject them. Different kingdoms: Those who reject the ordinances are still believed to have the opportunity to inherit a kingdom of glory distinct from, and of less glory, than the celestial kingdom: either the terrestrial kingdom or the telestial kingdom.The celestial kingdom is reserved for people who were baptized—either while living or by proxy for the dead—who have a testimony of Christ and lived a Christian life. Children who died before age 8 will also receive exaltation in the celestial kingdom. The terrestrial kingdom is for the honorable and virtuous people of the world who rejected the gospel message and for those who were baptized but who were subsequently not valiant followers of Christ. The telestial kingdom is for murderers, robbers, adulterers, whoremongers, and liars. The celestial kingdom has two separate classes, those who are sealed to a spouse and those who are not, who will be servants to others. Only those residents of the celestial kingdom who are sealed to a spouse will receive exaltation. However, the official doctrine of the church is that those who do not have the opportunity to marry in this life will not be denied future blessings in the world to come; including the blessings of an eternal family and being eternally sealed to a spouse.