Wednesday, November 29, 2017
Tuesday, November 28, 2017
Monday, November 27, 2017
i've now go to go in 2 days. it's super tedious since i've got to drop 1 thing off 1 day and another take a quiz and present a group project in another. when it comes to exams i'd rather get it all done in 1 day rather than have to extend my time. plus i'd rather be studying rather than going in to drop something off but i can study on campus but that means having to drag my backpack to campus and bring it home as well.
i think i know why someone asked if i wanted to give another talk soon i'm like no way. the reasons they asked i said no are: 1) my family is NOT coming back for a long time and 2) no way do i want to give another talk soon. i don't like public speaking. the reason they asked is because i was having fun.
The Santiago Maldonado case refers to the death of an Argentine citizen that had joined a road blockade by the Mapuche community on August 1, 2017. The death happened after Maldonado was allegedly chased during the removal of the road blockade by people from the Pu Lof Mapuche in Cushamen, located in the Argentine province of Chubut, with support from outsiders. Some people state that the discovery of Maldonado's body in a nearby river 78 days after the protest raises some questions regarding the events that occurred when his fate was unknown, especially after the corpse was found after a protected witness of the Mapuche Community in the Pu Lof informed where the body was with great accuracy. The official autopsy indicated that Santiago drowned and that his body showed no signs of violence while staying underwater for at least 60 days. The law-enforcement action was carried out by the Argentine National Gendarmerie, a security force that operates under the direct command of the National Security Minister, Patricia Bullrich, under the control of President Mauricio Macri. On October 20, 2017, the family of Santiago confirmed that the body found floating in Chubut River was that of Mr Maldonado. On October 21, a twelve-hour autopsy revealed no lesions in his body, leading some experts to believe that he had drowned. On November 24, 2017 the verdict of a commission of 55 forensic experts confirmed that Santiago Maldonado drowned in the Chubut river without external intervention, ruling out kidnapping and forced disappearance. The event: Santiago Andrés Maldonado (born 25 July 1989) was a craftsman and tattoo artist from the town of Veinticinco de Mayo, province of Buenos Aires. A few months before his disappearance he had moved to El Bolsón, province of Río Negro, about 70 kilometers north of the Lof of Cushamen. Maldonado supported the aboriginal communities in their land claims, but, according to his family, he had never before been politically active because "he does not believe in politics". The event in dispute took place on July 31 and August 1, 2017, at the Chubut Province. The location was the Pu Lof de la Resistencia of Cushamen, a mapuche establishment built in territories seized from the Benetton family by Facundo Jones Huala, leader of the Resistencia Ancestral Mapuche (RAM) separatist group. Huala was jailed because of the violent activities including destruction of properties that RAM undertook in several locations, and members of the Pu Lof organized a picketing protest at the National Route 40, advocating for his liberation. The people in the demonstration were hooded, and had completely blocked the road with trees, stones and fire, thus not allowing any transit through the road. The protest was carried out by eight people, Santiago Maldonado among them. Judge Guido Otranto instructed the Argentine National Gendarmerie to clear the blockade and disperse the protesters, who escaped. The judge had also instructed them to use minimal violence, and film the operation on video. The protesters tried to block the road again some hours later, on August 1. The protesters reacted violently to the Gendarmerie this time, and attacked them with stones. Commander Juan Pablo Escola reported that two gendarmes were gravely injured in their faces during the attack. He sent a group of 30 gendarmes to the Pu Lof. Although he did not have a judicial warrant to do so, he considered that the attack could be considered as in flagrante delicto, which would have allowed to skip that requirement. Some protesters attempted to escape by swimming across the Chubut River, and others tried to hide in a forest next to the river. Maldonado could not cross the river because he could not swim. The whereabouts of Santiago Maldonado were unknown after that point. Judicial case: A judicial case, led by a judge and three prosecutors, tries to determine the whereabouts of Maldonado. The national government and the provincial government of Chubut asked to be complainants in the case. The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights suggested that, in case of doubt about a case being a forced disappearance or not, it should be investigated as if it was. In line with this suggestion, the Gendarmerie was removed from taking an active role in the investigation. The United Nations Committee on Enforced Disappearances has requested to oversee the investigation, which was accepted by Argentina. As a result, both the judiciary and the Argentine government will have to keep the organization updated about every progress of the investigation. The case was initially investigated as a search and rescue, and was later rebranded as a forced disappearance. However, the change was made without any new evidence that may suggest an involvement of the Gendarmeria. A group of twenty mapuches occupied the court on September 20, asking for the removal of judge Otranto. The Maldonado family and the CELS accused the judge Otranto of not being an impartial jury. The federal chamber of appeals of Comodoro Rivadavia recused him from the case, but clarified in the sentence that they found no reason to doubt his intellectual honesty and respect to the procedures. He was recused instead because of an interview with the newspaper La Nación, where he made an extrajudicial commentary about the accuracy of the theories, before formally closing the case. Otranto was then replaced by judge Gustavo Llerald. The Maldonado family celebrated the removal of Otranto, but complained that their specific request had been rejected. Otranto is still in charge of the case over the road block that started the case. International cases: On August 7, 2017, the UN Committee on Enforced Disappearances expressed its "concern about the physical and psychological integrity" of Maldonado and requested the Argentine state to adopt "a comprehensive search strategy", taking "all the urgent measures that are necessary to search for him and find him, taking into account the information provided by the members of the Pu Lof Mapuche community that were present at the moment of the repression". The UN committee also requested that the Gendarmerie does not participate in the search and investigation of the disappearance and that the Argentine government protects all the evidence that may help to identify those responsible for the disappearance. The same day, the Minister of Security offered a reward to those who "while not having participated in the crime, offer useful information that can help find the whereabouts" of Maldonado. On August 23, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, of the Organization of American States, also took a precautionary measure asking the Argentine state to "adopt all the necessary measures to determine the situation and whereabouts of Mr. Santiago Maldonado" and to "inform about all the measures that have been adopted to investigate the facts". On October 6, the UN Committee on Enforced Disappearances published a document addressed to the Argentine national government in which the former expresses its concern about the lack of progress in the clarification of what happened to Santiago Maldonado. The UN demanded the Macri administration to set as a priority the clarification of the role of the Gendarmerie and to keep this force away from the investigation. It also accused the authorities of quickly rejecting the hypothesis according to which the Gendarmerie is the perpetrator of the enforced disappearance of Maldonado. The Committee expressed its concern regarding the lack of partiality of judge Guido Otranto. It finally pointed out that there are officials of the Macri administration that continue to stigmatize the members of the Pu Lof by portraying them as a threat to national security, when the government should be instead offering protection to the Mapuche community. Theories- Forced disappearance: According to witnesses, after the Argentine National Gendarmerie had an encounter with the Lof, agents from this security force carried somebody to a truck. The Gendarmerie denies having detained Maldonado, so does the minister of security, Patricia Bullrich. The witnesses made public comments, but refused to testify in court. They proposed to testify while concealing their identities with hoods, which was rejected by the judiciary. Other witnesses told before justice that Maldonado was taken by Gendarmerie agents. Eighty biological samples were retrieved from the vehicles used by the Gendarmerie during the operation, and used for a DNA test. Another fourteen samples were ignored, as they were unsuitable for testing. The results were released a month later: none of them matched the DNA of Maldonado. The value of this evidence has been disputed by public defender Fernando Machado, who argued that the samples would have been taken after the trucks had been washed. The judge dismissed those concerns. The prosecutor Silvina Avila made a report that established that there are no solid evidences that link the Gendarmerie with Maldonado. As of September 17, the judge does not consider the theory of a forced disappearance to be likely. Audio files were taken from WhatsApp conversations held by those involved in the operation on the day. One of the files, sent by a member of the gendarmeria, states that a sergeant had "Maldonado in a truck". A more detailed analysis revealed that the comment was made on August 16, only as part of a private joke between members of the Gendarmerie while Bullrich explained the case to the Congress. All 70 cell phones of the gendarmes were investigated, and none of them had been used to discuss an actual forced disappearance operation. Ariel Garzi, a fellow craftsman from El Bolsón, called Santiago Maldonado's cellphone on August 2. The call was answered by an unknown person. It lasted 22 seconds, during which Garzi heard the sound of steps. Ariel Garbanz, an engineer from the Communications Security Lab of the National Technological University, investigated the call and claims to know the location where the phone was answered. Judge Otranto refused to look at this evidence. Drowned: It is suspected that Maldonado could have escaped from the Gendarmerie by trying to cross the Chubut River. He could have received a stone throw that had rendered him unconscious, and he would have drowned in the river afterwards (the subsequent autopsy revealed no evidence of any injuries, and the "Witness E" who was last seen with Maldonado reported no such impact). As of September 17, the judge Guido Otranto considers it the most likely case. On September 22, 2017, judge Otranto was taken off the case after Santiago Maldonado's family complained that he was not impartial. In dialogue with La Nación newspaper, rescue experts from Esquel confirmed that it is highly unlikely that Santiago Maldonado might have drowned in the Chubut river. The government, however, considers it a likely possibility, and asked for further searches. The presence of many aquatic plants and the strong flows would make it more difficult to find a corpse. The autopsy conducted on 21 October 2017 confirmed that, in fact, forensic evidence clearly pointed to drowning as the cause of death. A new search revealed a corpse in the river on October 17, whose identity and autopsy is under investigation. There were no reports of other deaths or missing people in the area, and it was confirmed that it was a male, with light blue clothes as those that witnesses reported that Maldonado was wearing. The corpse was found 300 meters upstream from the area of the events. Received a mortal wound: Maldonado could have received a mortal wound during the escape, which would have caused his death at some later point. The Mapuches may have buried the body and then made up an accusation about an alleged forced disappearance in order to advance their political agenda. Hiding: Maldonado may still be alive, hiding in the Mapuche territory. A search with search and rescue dogs conducted on August 16 suggested that he would have been in the area in the previous 24 hours. However, those dogs are not considered a conclusive evidence. The government also considers that Maldonado may have never been in the protest to begin with. As all people in the protest were hooded, it is not possible to properly recognize him in photos or filmings of the event. The Maldonado family reported that he was a quiet and peaceful man, which would make it unlikely that he would take part in a violent protest in a road. The mapuches Beatriz Garay Neri, Soraya Noemí Guitart and Nicolás Jones Huala reported that they talked with him on August 1, in the morning, but did not provide further details about his presence or the topics of discussion. They did not report his absence either, and ignored his full name. Murder: Santiago Maldonado used his cell phone for the last time on July 21, 2017. That day, four or five hooded members of the RAM invaded the small house of Evaristo Jones, a worker for the Benetton family. Jones reported that he tried to defend himself by stabbing one of those people with a knife. As there are no cases of knife injuries treated in nearby hospitals on that day, or info about Maldonado's activities in the immediate days prior to the August 1 protest, it is suspected that he may be the stabbed thief, and that he had bled to death days before the protest. The family of Maldonado tried to refute this theory by providing a video of another picketing protest of the RAM that took place on July 31, which would have been attended by Maldonado. They also provide testimonials from numerous people who saw Santiago after the supposed attack. In addition, Evaristo Jones, the attacked worker, denied having hurt any of the attackers. The Maldonado family also affirms that they had telephone conversations with Santiago on July 25 (his birthday) and on July 27. Through DNA tests it was proved that Santiago Maldonado was not injured in said episode. Escape to Chile: The RAM operates in both Argentina and Chile, and knows several unguarded passages though the Argentina–Chile border. It was thus installed in the public by the media that Maldonado could have escaped to Chile. Argentina requested the INTERPOL to search him. As of August 31, no NN bodies resembling Maldonado were stored in South Chilean morgues, the search continued until he was found dead in Argentina. Reactions: Argentine human rights organizations condemned the disappearance, demanding the national government to adopt measures to bring back Maldonado alive, find who is responsible for the disappearance, and keep the Gendarmerie away from the investigation. They have also accused the government of not acting diligently to find Maldonado. The disappearance of Maldonado has also mobilized international human rights organizations, such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch. In Buenos Aires, La Plata, Bariloche, Mar del Plata, Bahía Blanca, General Madariaga, Mendoza, Malargüe, El Bolsón, Rawson, Viedma, Gualeguaychú, Rosario and Neuquen thousands of people marched in demonstrations demanding that Maldonado appears alive and the resignation of Bullrich. People also marched to demand that Santiago Maldonado is brought back alive in Bogotá (Colombia), Asunción (Paraguay), Montevideo (Uruguay), Canelones and Fray Bentos (Uruguay). In Spain, several Argentine residents marched to Plaça de Catalunya to ask for Santiago Maldonado. On August 11, there was a large mass demonstration in Plaza de Mayo, Buenos Aires. On August 21, during the 49th ordinary session of PARLASUR, in Montevideo, Argentine representatives condemned the disappearance of Santiago Maldonado. The disappearance of Maldonado took place shortly before the 2017 midterm elections. Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, leader of one of the opposition parties, mentioned the case repeatedly during her rallies. Kirchner and several Kirchnerite politicians used it to draw controversial comparisons between the presidency of Mauricio Macri and the 1970s Dirty War. However, political analysts consider that the case is unlikely to have an impact on the election results, and that the aggressive rhetoric of Kirchner may actually scare independent voters and increase the chances of the Cambiemos official coalition. August 30 is the International Day of the Disappeared, and several teachers affiliated to the CTERA union mentioned the event during school classes. This action was rejected by groups of parents because it described the involvement of the Gendarmerie as a confirmed fact, and it was considered a case of political indoctrination. The Macri administration first negated the disappearance of Maldonado. As the days went by, members of Mr. Macri's cabinet send contradictory messages. On September 1, 2017, a month after Santiago Maldonado's disappearance, thousands of people expressed themselves through rallies and demonstrations asking for his appearance alive. The largest demonstration took place in Plaza de Mayo and was organized by Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo, Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo (Línea Fundadora), Relatives of the Disappeared and Imprisoned for Political Reasons, HIJOS, the Center for Legal and Social Studies (CELS), the Argentine League for the Rights of Man, and the Permanent Assembly for Human Rights, among other organizations. In other cities, such as Mendoza, Mar del Plata, San Luis, San Juan, Neuquén, Salta, Posadas, Jujuy, Santiago del Estero, Villaguay, Concepción del Uruguay, Gualeguaychú and Concordia there were rallies and demonstrations with the same demand. In Rosario and Córdoba there were rallies with an attendance of 40000 each. There were also protests in Spain, Brazil, France, Uruguay, Chile, Mexico, Austria and the United States which were organized through social media. In London, São Paulo, Berlin, Montevideo, Rio de Janeiro, Madrid, Barcelona, Sidney, Santiago, Mexico City, Vienna, Washington DC and New York City, groups of people expressed their solidarity with the demand for the appearance of Santiago Maldonado alive. On September 2, 2017, former Spanish judge Baltasar Garzón stated that the disappearance of Santiago Maldonado had "all the characteristics of a forced disappearance". On September 3, 2017, bishop Ángel José Macín, president of the Catholic Aboriginal Ministry of the Argentine Episcopal Conference, criticized both the Macri administration and certain communication media because of the labels they have been using to refer to the Mapuche community ("terrorists", "undemocratic", "violent", trained by "ETA, FARC, and the Turkish Kurds"). Monsignor Macín argued that this way of referring to the indigenous peoples "has not been seen in this country for a long time (and) make us baffled, astonished, outraged". Conclusions: On 21 October 2017, after a 12-hour autopsy involving 55 experts, Judge Gustavo Lleral confirmed that Maldonado's body did not have any signs of violence and the cause of death was established as death by drowning. On November 24, 2017 the veredict of the 55 experts confirmed that Maldonado drowned without external intervention.
Sunday, November 26, 2017
Saturday, November 25, 2017
Friday, November 24, 2017
Wednesday, November 22, 2017
i'm hoping i'm reading a friend right. he said he rarely ever goes to another ward to hear someone give a talk as well as occasionally giving me a ride to the singles ward if i need it. the reason i'm hoping i'm reading him right is i'm hoping he's somewhat interested in me as a friend.
i understand i'm pretty animated and lively when i gave my talk but why did someone ask if i wanted to do it again? i barely understood the principles of what i said, rarely used scripture of it and used secular references. many people were telling me "great talk" and 1 person came up to me and said thanks for my inspirational words. it was torture for my family and me.
Tuesday, November 21, 2017
The Mineral, Washington murders, dubbed by the media as "the Tube Sock Killings," is a series of unsolved murders that occurred in remote areas of Lewis and Pierce County, Washington, near the remote community of Mineral, Washington, in 1985. The murder cases were widely publicized, and were featured on the television series Unsolved Mysteries in 1989. Case- Harkins and Cooper: On August 10, 1985, Steven Harkins, 27, and his girlfriend, Ruth Cooper, 42, left their Tacoma, Washington home for a weekend camping trip at Tule Lake in Yelm, Pierce County. When the two did not return to their jobs at a Tacoma vocational school the following Monday, their families reported them missing. Four days later, on August 14, hikers passing through Pierce County found Harkins' body near a remote campsite. He had been shot in the head, and his body, still in a sleeping bag, suggested he had been murdered while sleeping. Nearby, searchers also found Harkins' and Cooper's pet dog, who had been shot to death as well. At the time, law enforcement suspected that the case may have been connected to the murders of Edward Smith and Kimberly Diane La Vine, a couple from Kent, Washington who were abducted, murdered, and disposed of in a gravel pit near the Columbia River in March 1985. On October 26, a skull was found at the dead end of Eighth Avenue South, near Harts Lake, about 1.5 miles from where Harkins' body was found. Dental records confirmed the skull belonged to Cooper, and two days later on October 28, her body and her purse were also recovered from the area, fifty feet from where her skull had been found. A tube sock had been tied around Cooper's neck. According to the autopsy, Cooper had died of "homicidal violence," though a spokesman later stated she had died of a gunshot wound to the abdomen. After the discovery of Cooper, the murders were publicized by Crime Stoppers in an attempt to recover information leading to the arrest of those responsible. Riemer and Robertson: Over a month after the discovery of Ruth Cooper, on December 12, 1985, Mike Riemer, 36, his girlfriend, Diana Robertson, 21, and their daughter, Crystal Louise Robertson, age 2, traveled from their Tacoma home to Pierce County, planning to find a Christmas tree near the Nisqually River. Riemer, an animal trapper, also planned to check on traps he had set in the area. Later that evening, customers at a Kmart store thirty miles north in Spanaway found the couple's daughter, Crystal, standing outside the store entrance. Crystal was placed in temporary foster care until her maternal grandmother saw her photograph on a local news broadcast two days later. When asked where her mother was, the dazed two-year-old told her grandmother that her "Mommy was in the trees." According to investigators, the two-year-old was "not nearly verbal enough" to provide any information. Police searched the area both on foot and by air, looking for evidence of Riemer's red 1982 Plymouth pickup truck, but efforts remained fruitless. On February 18, 1986, over two months after the couple's disappearance, the body of Diana Robertson was discovered half-buried in snow by a motorist near a logging road off of Washington State Route 7 in Mineral. Bloodhounds scoured the area in the following days, but six inches of snowfall impeded the search Riemer's pickup truck was also found near Robertson's body. In the truck, police discovered a note on the dashboard that read "I love you, Diana." It was written on a manila envelope. Robertson's mother claimed the handwriting was that of Riemer. Bloodstains were also found on the seat of the truck. An autopsy revealed that Diana Robertson had been stabbed seventeen times, and, as with Ruth Cooper, was also found with a tube sock tied around her neck. Due to Riemer's disappearance, investigators believed he may have been responsible for Robertson's murder, and had abandoned his daughter at the Kmart store and then subsequently fled. Police theorized that Riemer may have been responsible for Harkins' and Cooper's murders as well; an alternate theory, however, claimed that Riemer was also a victim of the same killer who had murdered Robertson, Harkins, and Cooper. In February 1986, after the discovery of Robertson's body, the Seattle Post-Intelligencer published an article revealing that Riemer had been charged with domestic assault against Robertson on October 19, 1985. However, the couple had reconciled by December, the month in which they disappeared. Riemer, who worked as a roofer at Seattle’s Queen City Sheet Metal and Roofing Inc., was described by his employer as a "typical roofer who worked hard and played hard." 2011 development: On March 26, 2011, hikers discovered a partial human skull later determined to be that of Mike Riemer. It was found in an area within a mile radius of where Robertson's body had been discovered in 1986. After recovery of the skull, Lewis County investigators stated that they believed Riemer could have been a possible victim of homicide as well, though his cause of death could not be determined. Based on the condition of the skull, however, authorities were able to rule out a gunshot wound to the head. Depictions in the media: In September 1989, the case featured prominently on the series Unsolved Mysteries, which i've seen.
i'm going to have to clean up the house for my friends. hopefully we'll stay on the main floor and won't go upstairs or in the basement. obviously i'm going to get up a little earlier than usual (like when i normally do when i go to school). i'm going to need to prep my coffee so they don't see it.
Monday, November 20, 2017
Sunday, November 19, 2017
Saturday, November 18, 2017
i loved giving my talk last weekend. absolutely loved it. my family was there, people complimented me on it and i loved speaking. there was 1 MAJOR issue: i hated being in the center of attention. while i love speaking i don't like being in the center of attention. another issue was my brother had to get a hair cut as well as my brothers (and parents) had to be there. i don't think they liked being there.
Katherine Mary Lyon, and Sheila Mary Lyon were sisters who disappeared without a trace during a 1975 trip to a shopping mall in the Maryland suburbs of Washington, D.C.. Known colloquially as The Lyon Sisters, their case resulted in one of the largest police investigations in Washington Metropolitan Area history. It has long been "one of the most high-profile unsolved cases in the D.C. area." The girls' remains have never been found. In 2013, a team of cold case investigators with the Montgomery County, Maryland, police made a break in the case. They focused on Lloyd Lee Welch, by then serving a lengthy prison sentence in Delaware for child sexual abuse, the culmination of a long criminal record that had begun a few years after the girls' disappearance with a burglary arrest in their jurisdiction. Police records show that during the original investigation, Welch came forward a week after the girls' disappearance and falsely told a security guard at the shopping center visited by the girls (immediately before they disappeared) that he had witnessed another man abduct them there. The description Welch provided of the other man matched a description that newspapers and other media already had provided the public. According to that description, a conservatively dressed man had demonstrated a new type of audiocassette player at the shopping mall as children and teens, including the Lyon sisters, gathered near him. A short time after Welch told this story to the mall security guard trying to cast suspicion on the other man, he was questioned at a police station, failed a lie detector test, admitted he had lied, was released and was not questioned again until more than 38 years later. During the reopening of the case, police discovered that a mug shot taken of Lloyd Welch in 1977 bore a strong resemblance to a police sketch of a possible suspect who had been seen staring inappropriately at the Lyon sisters in the shopping mall. Detectives began interviewing Welch in prison; he made statements that further implicated him although he continued to protest his innocence. One of his relatives told them he had helped Welch burn two heavy, bloodied duffel bags in Bedford County, Virginia. In July 2015 Welch was indicted and charged with the girls' murders there; his uncle is a person of interest as well. Background to the sisters' disappearance: The two sisters were born to John and Mary Lyon in Kensington, Maryland. They had an older brother, Jay, who later became a policeman. Their father John Lyon was a well-known radio personality at WMAL, a local radio station then held by the owner of the ABC Television affiliate in Washington and the now-defunct Washington Star; he later worked as a victims' counselor. The sisters' disappearance continued to be featured in high-profile stories in the national media for months. Located a half-mile away from their home was Wheaton Plaza shopping mall (now Westfield Wheaton). On March 25, 1975, Katherine and Sheila Lyon walked to the mall to see the Easter exhibits. It was their spring vacation and they planned to have lunch at the Orange Bowl, which was part of the mall. They left home between 11:00 AM and noon. Their mother had instructed them to return home by 4:00 PM; when they had not arrived by 7:00 PM, the police were called and an extensive search was conducted. Police felt comfortable enough with the accuracy of this timeline to release it to the public. 11:00 AM to Noon: The girls leave home. 1:00 PM: A neighborhood child sees both of the girls together outside the Orange Bowl speaking to an unidentified man, according to what he later tells investigators. 2:00 PM: The girls' older brother sees them at the Orange Bowl eating pizza together. 2:30 to 3:00 PM: A friend sees the girls walking westward down a street near the mall which would have been one of the most direct routes from the mall to their home. This is the final sighting of the sisters that is absolutely confirmed by the police. 4:00 PM: This curfew set by their mother passes. The girls are expected home and do not arrive. 7:00 PM: Police are called. The investigation and an active search by professionals begin. Police investigation: Police were told by witnesses that the sisters were in the Wheaton Plaza mall at approximately 1 PM. A neighborhood boy, who knew the sisters, reported that he saw them together outside the Orange Bowl speaking with an unidentified man, about 6 feet tall, 50 to 60 years old, and wearing a brown suit. The man was carrying a briefcase with a tape recorder inside; there were also other children around who were speaking into a microphone he was holding. The witness's description of the man led authorities to view the unknown person as a prime suspect in the Lyon sisters' case and two composite sketches of the man were created. Police investigating the case followed up on reports from several people who said they recognized the sketch of the unknown man with the briefcase. Press reports indicated that a man matching the sketch was seen a few weeks earlier at the Marlow Heights Shopping Center and the Iverson Mall, both in neighboring Prince George's County, Maryland. These people reported that he had approached several young girls and asked them to read an answering machine message typed on an index card into his hand-held microphone. The police never publicly acknowledged a direct link between these reports and the Lyon sisters' disappearance. As the weeks wore on, numerous volunteer groups combed vacant lots and stream beds for the sisters. The search continued and press interest reached such a fever pitch that on May 23, 1975, Maryland Lt. Gov. Blair Lee ordered 122 National Guardsmen to participate in a search of a Montgomery County forest for the missing girls. No trace of the girls was ever found. A new lead was discovered as of September 20, 2014. The police searched the woods of Thaxton, Virginia and entered a house in Hyattsville, Maryland, seizing several items. These searches were relevant to the new suspect named Lloyd Welch and his relatives. False leads: On April 7, 1975, about two weeks after their disappearance, a witness in Manassas, Virginia, reported seeing two girls resembling Sheila and Katherine in the rear of a beige 1968 Ford station wagon. The witness stated that the girls were bound and gagged in the vehicle. The driver of the station wagon resembled the man in the publicly available sketch of the prime suspect. The witness further claimed that when the driver spotted the witness tailing him, he ran a red light and sped west on Route 234 towards Interstate 66 in Virginia. The station wagon had Maryland license plates with the possible combination "DMT-6**." The last two numbers are unknown due to the bending of the car's plate. The known combination was issued in Cumberland, Hagerstown, and Baltimore, Maryland at the time. This supposed sighting inspired a small army of mobile citizen band (CB) radio users to scour the area throughout the evening and into the night with a running commentary and chatter but without any tangible results. A search for matching plate numbers failed to produce any information. Although this witness's report was at first treated as credible, and a media firestorm erupted because of it, it was later deemed "questionable" by police. Despite its questionable nature, media continue to mention this report as credible. Several phone calls from people claiming to have the girls and offering to exchange them for ransom money were made to the Lyon family in the immediate aftermath of the sisters' disappearances. The one that went the furthest and that had seemed most credible began with an anonymous male voice on April 4, 1975, and demanded that John Lyon leave a briefcase with $10,000 inside an Annapolis, Maryland, courthouse restroom. The money was left just as the instructions from the caller required, but the money was never claimed. This same anonymous person called John Lyon later and maintained that police had surrounded the courthouse and he could not retrieve the ransom. The man was told that he would have to show some evidence of having the Lyon sisters in his custody before another attempt would be made to leave him a ransom. Although the caller then said he would be in touch with the family, he never contacted them again. Suspects: Fred Howard Coffey was convicted in 1987 for the 1979 beating, strangulation murder, and molestation of a 10-year-old girl in North Carolina and (as of 2012) is serving a life sentence (after an earlier death sentence was overturned) in a North Carolina prison. Authorities learned that he interviewed for a job (and was subsequently employed) in Silver Spring, Maryland, six days after the Lyon sisters vanished. Silver Spring is a short distance from Wheaton Plaza. Investigators have been unable to determine if Coffey is connected to the case, and he was never charged in the disappearances. Raymond Rudolph Mileski Sr. was another possible suspect named in press reports. Mileski resided in Suitland, Maryland in 1975, not far from the malls in Prince George's County that had reported a man with a microphone approaching young girls. In a family disagreement, Mileski murdered his wife and teenage son and wounded another son inside their home in November 1977. He was convicted of the homicides and sentenced to 40 years in prison. Based on both prison informants' tips and Mileski's own claims to know something about the Lyon sisters case, which he offered to share more fully in exchange for more favorable prison conditions, authorities searched his former residence in April 1982, but no evidence was discovered. Mileski died in prison in 2004. John Brennan Crutchley had also been considered a suspect. Lloyd Welch: After the disappearance, a friend of the Lyon sisters, a girl who was in their age bracket, described to detectives how a long-haired man at the mall had stared at the girls so long and so intently that she confronted him. A sketch artist made a drawing based on her description: white, late teens or early 20s, acne on his face, scars on his left cheek, shabbily dressed. That sketch, though, appears not to have been widely disseminated. The drawing shows similarities to a 1977 mug shot of Lloyd Welch. The description from the sisters' friend contrasted sharply with the only description of a possible suspect that was made public in 1975, that of the well-groomed, conservatively dressed person eventually labeled "tape recorder man." Aside from the strong differences in facial features, hair and clothing, the long-haired man and "tape recorder man" were several decades apart in age. The day that newspapers printed a description of the conservatively dressed man carrying a briefcase with audiocassette recorder and holding a microphone, Lloyd Welch returned to Wheaton Plaza mall and told a security guard that he had been there the week before. He said he had seen a man with a tape recorder talking to two girls and, later, forcing the girls into a car, according to court records. Montgomery investigators were summoned to the mall and took Welch to a nearby police station to interview him. They gave him a polygraph test. Told he had failed it, he admitted he had provided false information about witnessing the abduction and was released by police, according to documents in the case. For more than 38 years thereafter, information about Welch's possible involvement in the case was accessible only via a search of police records. The identity of the Lyon sisters' female friend who had told police about him was never published and remains confidential to this day. Welch's cousin, Henry Parker, told detectives in December 2014 that in 1975 he met Lloyd Welch at a property on Taylor's Mountain Road, in Thaxton, Virginia. Parker said he helped remove two army-style duffel bags from Welch's vehicle. Each bag "weighed about 60 or 70 pounds and smelled like 'death,'" according to a search warrant affidavit, which was filed and sealed in January 2015. Moreover, Parker said the bags had been covered in red stains. Without knowing their contents, Parker threw the bags into a fire. In February 2014, inmate Lloyd Welch was named as a person of interest in the case. Police said Welch, who was 18 years old in 1975, and has since been convicted of rapes in three other states, had been "seen 'paying attention' to the sisters." Over a year later, in July 2015, Welch, then serving a lengthy sentence in Delaware on a child-molestation conviction, was indicted on first-degree felony murder for his alleged involvement in deaths of Katherine and Sheila Lyon. He also was charged with abduction with intent to defile. The location of any remains of the girls' bodies is still unknown. If Welch is brought to trial without them in evidence, it would be the longest time to have elapsed between a murder and a trial in a bodyless murder conviction. On September 12, 2017 Welch pleaded guilty to two counts of first degree murder "for the abduction and killing of Katherine and Shelia Lyon in 1975.
Friday, November 17, 2017
Thursday, November 16, 2017
Brewed coffee is made by pouring hot water onto ground coffee beans, then allowing to brew. There are several methods for doing this, including using a filter, a percolator, and a French press. Terms used for the resulting coffee often reflect the method used, such as drip brewed coffee, filtered coffee, pour-over coffee, or simply ground coffee. Water seeps through the ground coffee, absorbing its oils and essences, solely under gravity, then passes through the bottom of the filter. The used coffee grounds are retained in the filter with the liquid falling (dripping) into a collecting vessel such as a carafe or pot. Paper coffee filters were invented in Germany by Melitta Bentz in 1908 and are commonly used for drip brew all over the world. In 1954 the Wigomat, invented by Gottlob Widmann, was patented in Germany being the first electrical drip brewer. Drip brew coffee makers replaced the coffee percolator in the 1970s due to the percolators' tendency to over-extract coffee, thereby making it bitter. One benefit of paper filters is that the used grounds and the filter may be disposed of together, without a need to clean the filter. Permanent filters are now also common, made of thin perforated metal sheets or fine plastic mesh that restrain the grounds but allow the coffee to pass, thus eliminating the need to have to purchase separate filters which sometimes cannot be found in some parts of the world. These add to the maintenance of the machine, but reduce overall cost and produce less waste. Filter coffee is central to Japanese coffee culture and connoisseurship. Drip brewing is a widely used method of coffee brewing. There are several manual drip-brewing devices on the market, offering a little more control over brewing parameters than automatic machines, and which incorporate stopper valves and other innovations that offer greater control over steeping time and the proportion of coffee to water. There also exist small, portable, single-serving drip brew makers that only hold the filter and rest on top of a mug or cup. Hot water is poured in and drips directly into the cup. Brewing with a paper filter produces clear, light-bodied coffee. While free of sediments, such coffee is lacking in some of coffee's oils and essences; they have been trapped in the paper filter. Metal filters do not remove these components. It may be observed, especially when using a tall, narrow carafe, that the coffee at the bottom of the coffeepot is stronger than that at the top. This is because less flavor is available for extraction from the coffee grounds as the brewing process progresses. A mathematical argument has been made that delivering comparable strength in two cups of coffee is nearly achieved using a Thue-Morse sequence of pours. This analysis prompted a whimsical article in the popular press. A less familiar form of drip brewing is the reversible or "flip" pot commonly known as Napoletana.
Coffee-Mate is a non-dairy creamer manufactured by Nestlé, available in powdered, liquid and concentrated liquid forms. It was introduced in 1961 by Carnation. An unopened bottle of Coffee-Mate can last up to two years with no refrigeration and can stay fresh for two weeks once it is opened. The product is popular in offices where refrigeration may not be available. A benefit of the non-dairy creamer is that it is good for those individuals who are lactose-intolerant. Once opened, liquid non-dairy creamer should be refrigerated. Varieties: The original product was introduced in 1961, and followed by Coffee-Mate Lite and Coffee-Mate Liquid in 1989. In the US, where the product is manufactured by Nestlé in Glendale, California, the product is available in liquid, liquid concentrate and powdered forms. American Coffee-Mate comes in over 25 different flavours, including gingerbread, Parisian almond creme, and peppermint mocha. Discontinued varieties include Coffee-mate Soy and Coffee-mate Half & Half. In Europe, it is only available in powder form as a coffee creamer in one or two varieties depending on the country with no added flavours. The European version of Coffee-mate is manufactured without the use of hydrogenated fat, which is linked to heart disease. The powdered form of Coffee-Mate has more calories than liquid half-and-half milk with 30 calories per tablespoon, however in liquid form the calorie counts are the same (i.e., 20 calories per tablespoon). Ingredients: Coffee-mate Original contains: Glucose Syrup, Palm Oil (including partially hydrogenated soybean and/or cottonseed oil), Milk Proteins, Stabilisers (Sodium Hexametaphosphate, Sodium Citrate), Acidity Regulator (Dipotassium Phosphate), Emulsifiers (Mono- and Diglycerides of Fatty Acids, Mono- and Diacetyl Tartaric Acid Ester of Mono- and Diglycerides of Fatty Acids), Anti-Caking Agent (Silicon Dioxide), Colour: Riboflavin Logos: In 2003, the heart logo of Coffee-Mate appeared.
Sally Ann McNelly and Shane Paul Stewart were two teenagers who were murdered near Lake Nasworthy in San Angelo, Texas after spending the evening watching a fireworks display on the Fourth of July in 1988. Their murders, which remain unsolved, were attributed to rumors of a Satanic cult in which they both were involved. The case received national attention among the Satanic panic phenomenon of the 1980s, and was profiled in national media as well as on Unsolved Mysteries. Background: Sally and Shane were both teenagers from San Angelo, Texas, who began dating in 1987 while in high school. After a prolonged breakup, they reunited on the evening of July 4, 1988, and made plans to watch the annual firework show at Lake Nasworthy. During their relationship, Sally's friends had witnessed her attending parties with occult activities and where black magic was being practiced; they alleged that she and Shane had been involved with a Satanic cult. In March 1988, Sally and Shane turned a gun over to local police, claiming that they had been given it by a member of the cult and told it had been used in a murder-robbery. Police searched its serial number, and discovered it had been reported stolen. On the evening of July 4, 1988, Sally and Shane were seen alone on the shore of Lake Nasworthy before midnight by a fisherman offshore. On July 7, they both were reported as missing persons. Discovery of bodies: On November 11, 1988, Sally's remains were found off FM 584, roughly 4 miles (6.4 km) south of where they were last seen, near the Twin Buttes Reservoir's South Pool. Three days later, on November 14, Shane's remains were discovered in the vicinity. According to their autopsies, they had both died from shotgun blasts to the head. The case remains unsolved. 2017 developments: In June 2017 San Angelo police pulled over a local man, John Cyrus Gilbreath, on suspicion of marijuana possession. A female passenger in his car told them Gilbreath was dealing, and on that basis they obtained a warrant to search his house. Among the items they found in the house were what they described as writings, audio tapes and "biological material" that they said may be connected to the McNelly and Stewart homicides. They announced Gilbreath is now considered a person of interest in that case.
In Australia, a coffee palace was a temperance hotel built during 1880s. They were hotels that did not serve alcohol, built in response to the temperance movement and, in particular, the influence of the Independent Order of Rechabites in Australia. James Munro was a particularly vocal member of this movement. Coffee Palaces were often multi-purpose or mixed use buildings which included a large number of rooms for accommodation as well as ballrooms and other function and leisure facilities. The beginnings of the movement were in 1879, with the first coffee palace companies founded in the cities of Melbourne, Sydney and Adelaide. The movement in particular flourished in Melbourne in the 1880s when a land boom that followed the Victorian gold rush created an environment in which it was the construction of lavish buildings and richly ornamental high Victorian architecture, often designed in the fashionable Free Classical or Second Empire styles to attract patrons. Many of the larger establishments were bestowed prestigious names such as "Grand" or "Royal" in order to appeal to the wealthier classes. Coffee palaces were popular in the coastal seaside resorts and for inner city locations attracting catering for families as well as interstate and overseas visitors. Ironically as the temperance movement's influence waned, many of these coffee palaces applied for liquor licences. Many have since been either converted into hotels or demolished; however, some significant examples still survive. Australia-- Victoria- Melbourne: -Collingwood Coffee Palace. 232 Smith Street, Collingwood (now in Fitzroy) (1879 – constructed as a four-storey building) (demolished - though two levels of the facade remain atop a Woolworths supermarket) -Brunswick Coffee Palace, Brunswick (1879) -The Coffee Palace. Flinders Street. (1880) -Victoria Coffee Palace. Collins Street East (1880 - began as the Victoria Club) (demolished) -Melbourne Coffee Palace. Bourke Street. (1881) -Grand Coffee Palace (1883) (now renamed the Hotel Windsor) -Gladstone House Coffee Palace, North Melbourne -The Biltmore, Albert Park (1887) -Victoria, Albert Park -The George, St Kilda (1887) -Mentone Coffee Palace, Mentone (1887) (now Kilbreda College) -Auburn Hotel, Auburn (1888) -St Kilda Coffee Palace, St Kilda -Prince of Wales Coffee Palace -Federal Coffee Palace. Corner of Collins and King Streets, Melbourne (1888) (demolished 1972) -Garand Open House, Melbourne (demolished) -Parer's Crystal Cafe. 103 Bourke Street, Melbourne (demolished) -Burke & Wills Coffee Palace. Corner of Collins and Russell Streets, Melbourne (demolished) -Queen's Coffee Palace. 1 Rathdowne Street, Carlton (demolished 1970) -Hawthorn Coffee Palace, Hawthorn (demolished) -Moris's (West Melbourne) Coffee Palace, West Melbourne (demolished) -Sandringham House, Sandringham (demolished) -James' Coffee Palace, Williamstown (demolished) -Prahran Coffee Palace, Prahran, Victoria Ballarat: -Reid's Coffee Palace (1886) -Victoria Coffee Palace. Cnr Lydiard and Doveton Crescent. Soldiers Hill. (demolished) Bendigo- -Sandhurst Coffee Palace (demolished) -Central Coffee Palace (demolished) Queenscliff- -Palace (1879) -Baillieu (1881) (later renamed Ozone Hotel) -Vue Grande (1883) -Queenscliff Hotel (1887) Other: -Mildura Coffee Palace, Mildura, Victoria -Ozone Coffee Palace, Warrnambool -Marnoo Coffee Palace, Marnoo, Victoria -Wimmera Coffee Palace, Horsham, Victoria Tasmania: -Imperial (Hobart) Coffee Palace, Hobart, Tasmania (built in two sections, firstly in the 1880s then extended in 1910. Cast iron verandah, balcony and mansard roof were removed during the 1950s and the 1910 extension was demolished in the 1960s) -Tasmanian Coffee Palace, Hobart, Tasmania, 89 Macquarie St (established in Ingle Hall which was built c1814). Also known as Norman's Coffee Palace, the Orient, and Anderson's. Now home to the Mercury Print Museum. -Federal (Sutton's) Coffee Palace (later Metropole), 67 Brisbane Street, Launceston, Tasmania (demolished 1976) -Shield's Temperance Hotel (Shield's Coffee Palace), 77 Esplanade, Launceston, Tasmania. Ironically established in the former Burten Brewery in 1859, the building was eventually reduced in size as the Monds Flour Mills expanded in the early 20th century with the building finally being demolished in the 1950s. -Commonwealth Coffee Palace, 23-29 Tamar Street, Launceston, Tasmania (demolished 1960s) South Australia: --Grand Coffee Palace, Hindley Street, Adelaide, built 1890. Grayson's Coffee Palace, Adelaide (demolished 1918) -Coffee Palace, 110 Hindley Street, Adelaide, built 1903. Known as Grant's 1908-1919 and West's 1919-. Identified by architects as one of the most significant 20th century buildings in South Australia. -Port Pioneer Coffee Palace. Hindley Street, Adelaide. (1879) New South Wales: -Sydney Coffee Palace, Sydney, New South Wales (founded 1879, rebuilt 1913-1914) (demolished ?) -Sydney Coffee Palace, Woolloomooloo, New South Wales -Grand Central Coffee Palace (1880), Sydney -North Queensland Coffee Palace, George Street, Sydney -Canberra Coffee Palace, Manly, New South Wales (built 1912, demolished 1955) -Dorrigo Coffee Palace, Hickory St, Dorrigo, New South Wales (burnt down sometime after 1923) -Bee Hive Coffee Palace, Sydney NSW -Great Western Coffee Palace, Sydney NSW -Town Hall Coffee Palace, Sydney NSW -Johnsons Temperance Coffee Palace. York Street, Sydney. (built 1879 -Rose and Crown Coffee Palace. Knightsbridge, Sydney. -Alpine Heritage Motel (built as: Goulburn Coffee Palace) Goulburn, New South Wales Queensland: -People's Palace, Brisbane (built 1910-11, in 2015 operating as a backpackers' hotel) -Canberra Hotel, Brisbane (built 1929, sold 1985 and later demolished) -Royal George, Nambour, Queensland (built 1911, licensed in 1912 and destroyed by fire on 15 February 1961) -Hill's Coffee Palace Dalby, Queensland Western Australia: -Horseshoe Coffee Palace, Perth WA -Burnett's Coffee Palace and Temperance Hotel (Perth's first 'Coffee Palace', although the building, constructed c1834, was previously the (licensed) Devonshire Arms, prior to that The Mason's Arms), corner Hay and Barrack Streets, diagonally opposite Town Hall, Perth WA -Ellis's Grand Central Coffee Palace (still standing as the Grand Central Hotel), Wellington St, Perth WA -Continental Coffee Palace (Wellington St, Perth WA -Rechabite Coffee Palace, Wellington St, Perth WA (Opposite Central Railway Station) -Royal Coffee Palace, 165-167 Murray St, Perth WA -Musson's (Sydney) Coffee Palace (Hotel), Murray St, Perth WA -Cornwall Coffee Palace (previously the Yankee Coffee Palace), 239 Murray St (between William and Barrack Sts), Perh WA -Prince of Wales Coffee Palace, Murray St, Perth WA -(Shafto's) Victoria Coffee Palace, Wellington St, Perth WA -Wilson's Coffee Palace, King St, Perth WA -Paris Coffee Palace, corner of James and Pier Sts, Northbridge WA -Worsleys Coffee Palace, Katanning, Perth WA -Metropolitan Coffee Palace, Stirling St, Northbridge WA -Britannia Coffee Palace, 323 William St, Northbridge WA -Perth Coffee Palace, William St, Northbridge WA -1904 Wise Directory has 20 coffee palaces listed in Perth and other locations in W.A> United Kingdom: -Douglas Coffee Palace, Douglas, Isle of Man (demolished 1930) -Newport Street Coffee Palace, Swindon -Ossington Coffee Palace, Newark-on-Trent
The Edgecombe County serial killer, also known as the Seven Bridges Killer, is an as yet unidentified serial killer in the surroundings of Edgecombe and Halifax counties in North Carolina, United States. There are ten suspected victims, all African-American women, and the remains of eight have been recovered. It is suspected that Antwan Maurice, a registered sex offender who was charged with a murder fitting a similar profile, was responsible for the Edgecombe deaths. All of the victims had a history of drugs and/or prostitution. History: In June 2008, the sheriff's office requested assistance from the State Bureau of Investigation (SBI) and formed a task force of local, state and federal officials to try to find out if the killings are connected. In 2010, the remains of Roberta Williams, missing since 2008, were discovered off Seven Bridges Road between Battleboro and Whitakers, North Carolina. In January 2011, more human remains were found by a hunter in Edgecombe County. The remains were as 37-year-old Yolanda Lancaster, who was listed as missing. In September 2009, a suspect, Antwan Maurice Pittman, a registered sex offender, was charged with at least one of the cases, that one of Taraha Shenice Nicholson, 28, who was found strangled. Authorities are still questioning whether Pittman may have been connected to some of the other killings. The first victim found was Melody Wiggins, 29, back in 2005. In 2007, Jackie Thorpe, 35, was found nude in a pile of trash. 2008, the body of Ernestine Battle, 50, was found in a wooded area. In June 2009, a farmer found the skeleton of Jarniece Latonya Hargrove, 31, also in a wooded spot. Conviction of Antwan Pittman: On September 28, 2011, a jury convicted Antwan Pittman of first-degree murder of one of the women, 28-year-old Taraha Nicholson. Although he has never been charged in the death of any of the other alleged victims of the Edgecombe County serial killer, authorities have stated that Pittman is a suspect in at least seven of the other cases. Public awareness: In July 2012, a motorcycle ride was held in contribution to the five women found murdered. The ride was organised to help raise awareness for the nine women found dead who are suspected to be victims of the Edgecombe killer.
The South County car bomber was a person (or persons) who terrorized south St. Louis County, Missouri with a series of fatal car bombings in 1977. Two people – Shirley Marie Flynn and Robert Curtis Jackson – were killed in bombings on October 18, 1977 and November 3, 1977, respectively. A third victim, Ronald Sterghos, escaped injury in an earlier attack on October 7, 1977. The bombings ceased after that and were never solved, despite an extensive effort by police. The bombings appear to have been random and some investigators believed that they were the work of a deranged individual, although authorities have also noted similarities between the St. Louis County bombings and a car bombing on March 7, 1978 in Paducah, Kentucky in which William Ohlhausen, who had been Shirley Flynn's boyfriend, was seriously injured.
Wednesday, November 15, 2017
Jessica Whitney Dubroff was a seven-year-old girl who died while attempting to become the youngest person to fly a light utility aircraft across the United States. On day two of her quest, the Cessna 177B Cardinal single-engine propeller aircraft, piloted by her flight instructor, crashed during a rainstorm immediately after takeoff from Cheyenne Regional Airport in Cheyenne, Wyoming, killing Dubroff, her 57-year-old father, and her flight instructor. Jessica was born in Falmouth, Massachusetts to Lisa Blair Hathaway and Lloyd Dubroff and moved to the San Francisco Bay Area in California when she was four. Although billed by the media as a pilot, Dubroff did not possess a medical certificate or a student pilot certificate, since they require a minimum age of 16 or a pilot certificate that requires a minimum age of 17, according to U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations. At the time of her trip, there was no record-keeping body that recognized any feats by underage pilots. Nevertheless, local, national, and international news media picked up and publicized her story, and closely followed her attempt until its tragic ending. The U.S. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) investigated the crash and concluded that the fatality was caused by the pilot's improper decision to take off in poor weather conditions, his overloading the aircraft, and his failure to maintain airspeed. The three factors resulted in a stall and subsequent fatal crash in a residential neighborhood. The NTSB also determined that "contributing to the instructor's decision to take off was a desire to adhere to an overly ambitious itinerary, in part, because of media commitments." "Sea to Shining Sea" flight: Dubroff began taking flight lessons from flight instructor Joe Reid on her sixth birthday and became enthusiastic about flying. Her father suggested the idea of a coast-to-coast flight, which Jessica readily accepted, and Reid agreed to provide flight instruction and his aircraft for the endeavor. They decided to name their flight "Sea to Shining Sea"; Lloyd ordered custom-made caps and T-shirts with that logo to distribute as souvenirs during their stops. Although she had received over 33 hours of flight training, seven-year-old Jessica did not hold an FAA medical certificate, nor any pilot or student certificate. In the U.S., a person must be at least 16 years of age to be eligible for a student pilot certificate, and 17 for a pilot certificate. Since Dubroff was not certified to fly the plane, a rated pilot (normally her flight instructor Reid) had to be at the controls during all flight operations. While the coast-to-coast flight was promoted as a "record" attempt because of Dubroff's young age, there was no known body recognizing record flights by underage "pilots" at the time of her flight (The Guinness Book of Records had officially discontinued its "youngest pilot" categories seven years earlier, because of the risk of accidents). The flight would be made in Reid's Cessna 177B Cardinal, a four-seat single-engine propeller aircraft manufactured in 1975, registered N35207, which like most aircraft had dual flight controls in the front. Jessica would sit in the front left seat, Reid in the front right, and Lloyd in the back. It was agreed that Reid would be paid for his services at normal flight instruction rates, plus compensation for the layover time. Reid reportedly told his wife that he considered the flight a "non-event for aviation", simply "flying cross country with a 7-year-old sitting next to you and the parents paying for it." Nevertheless, Jessica became an instant media celebrity. ABC News gave Lloyd a video camera and blank cassettes to tape the flight; once the journey began, it was vigorously followed by supporters, media outlets, and others who monitored its progress, reporting each time Dubroff landed or took off. Dubroff slept during one of the flight segments en route to Cheyenne, and was assisted by Reid in one of the landings due to high winds. Final flight segment: After a long day of flying from their Half Moon Bay, California departure point, Jessica, her father, and her flight instructor arrived in Cheyenne the evening before their ill-fated flight. They were welcomed in Wyoming's capital city by Mayor Leo Pando. After some media interviews, they got a ride to their hotel in the car of a local radio station program director, who recalled them discussing the forecast weather conditions for the next day. As forecast, the weather on the morning of the scheduled flight consisted of an area of heavy precipitation over and to the north and west of Cheyenne, with better conditions to the east, where the flight was headed. As the group was about to board their aircraft, the program director who had taken them to their hotel the previous evening interviewed Dubroff by telephone. When rain began to fall at the airport and the weather seemed to be deteriorating, the director invited her to stay in Cheyenne, but Dubroff's father declined, explaining that they wanted to "beat the storm" that was approaching. After a telephone discussion with a Casper weather briefer, Reid decided to take off despite the worsening conditions at the airport, and to try to escape the poor weather by turning immediately eastward. He decided to file a visual flight rules (VFR) flight plan, and depart under VFR, to be better able to cope with the heavy weather in his immediate takeoff path and the vicinity of the airport. As the aircraft began taxiing to the departure runway, the rain intensified and visibility at the airport fell below the three mile minimum required for VFR flight. Cheyenne's control tower advised the Cessna about the reduced visibility and that the "field is IFR". In general, when an airport is officially IFR (normally because of reduced visibility or low cloud ceiling), only IFR or special VFR operations are allowed. Reid then requested and received from the control tower a special VFR clearance to allow him to exit the airport's control zone visually, despite the reduced visibility. Crash: At 8:24 a.m. MDT, Reid's aircraft began its takeoff from Runway 30 to the northwest, in rain, strong gusty crosswinds and turbulence. According to witnesses, the plane lifted off and climbed slowly, with its nose high and its wings wobbling. It began a gradual right turn, and after reaching an altitude of a few hundred feet, the plane rolled out of its turn, then descended rapidly, crashing at a near-vertical angle into Kornegay Court, a street in a residential neighborhood. Dubroff, her father, and Reid were killed instantly by blunt force trauma sustained from impact forces. Reid, who was legally the pilot in command for all of Dubroff's flights, was allegedly manipulating the controls during this particular flight segment. Investigation: The National Transportation Safety Board investigated the accident and published a detailed final report eleven months later on March 11, 1997. From the official point of view, the pilot in command was flight instructor Reid, who was the only one on board rated to fly the aircraft. The investigation focused on his decision-making prior to takeoff and his actions once airborne. Several experienced pilots who were at the airport at the time of the accident testified that they considered the weather at that time unsuitable for flight, as a thunderstorm seemed to be forming or moving over the field. In addition, investigators determined that the weight of the aircraft during its takeoff roll exceeded its maximum allowable takeoff weight by 96 lbs, which would have increased the stall speed by about two percent. Since the aircraft was flying in moderate to heavy rain, the NTSB calculated that the water flowing on the wings would have further increased the stall speed by about 1.5%. A higher stall speed reduces the margin of safety at slower airspeeds, such as during a climb. Like most flight instructors giving dual instruction, Reid was seated on the right side, while the aircraft's primary flight instruments were mounted on the left, in front of Dubroff in this case. Investigators speculated that because of the heavy rain in his immediate climb path, Reid's forward visibility became greatly restricted. To maintain control through the climbing right turn, he would have had to turn his head to the left to see the flight instruments (most critically the attitude and airspeed indicators) and to the right to see the ground through the side window. Such side-to-side head motion, combined with the worsening flight visibility during the climb and the reduced stall margin, could have led to spatial disorientation and loss of control. Probable cause: The NTSB concluded that the probable cause of the accident was Reid's "improper decision to take off into deteriorating weather conditions (including turbulence, gusty winds, and an advancing thunderstorm and associated precipitation) when the airplane was overweight and when the density altitude was higher than he was accustomed to, resulting in a stall caused by failure to maintain airspeed." The NTSB further determined that "contributing to the pilot in command's decision to take off was a desire to adhere to an overly ambitious itinerary, in part, because of media commitments." Aftermath- Child Pilot Safety Act: The accident and its associated publicity led to federal legislation to prevent similar "record" attempts by underage pilots from taking place in the future. The legislation passed the House on September 11, 1996, and the Senate on September 18, 1996. On September 27, 1996, differences between the House and Senate versions of the bill were resolved. On October 9, 1996, President Bill Clinton signed the Federal Aviation Reauthorization Act of 1996, including the Child Pilot Safety Act, into law. The statute prohibits anyone who does not hold at least a private pilot certificate and a current medical certificate from manipulating the controls of an aircraft, if that individual "is attempting to set a record or engage in an aeronautical competition or aeronautical feat." Since a medical certificate and a private pilot's license have a minimum age requirement of 16 and 17 respectively, the new rule prohibits "child pilots" such as Jessica Dubroff and Vicki Van Meter from manipulating the flight controls if they are pursuing a record, and the pilot in command's pilot certificate may be revoked for allowing such activity. Media responsibility: After the crash, there were claims that the media frenzy around the "bogus" record attempt contributed to the accident by helping promote the flight and pressuring its schedule. This was supported by the NTSB, which determined that the pressure induced by the intense media attention was a "contributing factor" in the accident. ABC's Ted Koppel reflected on the media's role in the tragedy on Nightline: "We need to begin by acknowledging our own contribution...We feed one another: those of you looking for publicity and those of us looking for stories." Koppel ended by asking "whether we in the media...by our ravenous attention contribute to this phenomenon", and answered: "We did." Time featured Jessica's portrait on its front cover, in which she is seen wearing a gray cap with the inscription, Women Fly. The headline reads, "Who Killed Jessica?" The child pilot was also featured on the cover of People. Civil litigation: Lloyd Dubroff was Lisa Blair Hathaway's common-law husband when Jessica and her brother were born. In 1990, he separated from Hathaway, and in 1991 he was 52 years old when he married 19-year-old Melinda Anne Hurst, with whom he had a child the following year. In December 1992, Hathaway gave birth to Jessica's full sister, Jasmine, who was conceived while she lived for a time with Lloyd and Melinda in California. Before his death in the crash, Dubroff bought four separate life insurance policies, each for $750,000. Two of the policies named Hathaway as beneficiary and two named Melinda Dubroff, so that each was to receive $1.5 million in the event of his death, ensuring adequate child support for his underage children living with the two women. His grown son and daughter (both in their 30s) from a previous marriage, were not addressed by these policies. After the crash, Melinda Dubroff sued Hathaway for Hathaway's $1.5 million: Melinda Dubroff's attorney Roy Litherland said in a San Mateo County court that the $1.5 million Hathaway was designated was "in excess of any reasonable level of child support." In December 1996, Lisa Hathaway filed a counter-suit against Melinda Dubroff and Lloyd Dubroff's estate for $1.5 million, the exact amount of money Lloyd Dubroff intended, saying Lloyd Dubroff "gave his word he would care for and support her for the rest and remainder of her natural life." On December 18, 1997, San Mateo County Superior Court Judge Judith Kozloski ruled that the $1.5 million insurance benefits should be equally split between the two women; the other claims were dismissed. Burial: Dubroff was buried at Mount Hope Cemetery in Pescadero, California.
Holly Kristen Piirainen was a 10-year-old American murder victim from Grafton, Massachusetts. She and her brother had been visiting their grandparents in Sturbridge, Massachusetts when Holly was murdered. Holly and her brother had gone to a neighbor's house to see puppies. Her brother had returned to the cottage where the grandparents lived, but Holly did not. One of Holly's shoes was found by the side of a road. Searching for Holly took two months. On October 23, 1993, Holly's remains were found by hunters in Brimfield, Massachusetts. The killer still has not been found. Since Holly's death, the Holly Piirainen Scholarship Fund was established in her memory by her family. Later investigative leads: On January 3, 2012, Hampden County Attorney Mark Mastroianni announced that forensic evidence found near Holly's body had been linked to David Pouliot, a suspect who died in 2003. Investigators have not disclosed the nature of the forensic evidence, nor the type of testing that linked Pouliot to the evidence. Investigators said that, although Pouliot is a person of interest in the crime, as of January 2012 he has not yet formally been named a suspect. Pouliot frequently hunted and fished around the area where Holly's body was found. Connection to Molly Bish case: Fellow Massachusetts resident Molly Bish was murdered seven years later. Her body was also found in a wooded area in Worcester County. Police considered the possibility that the two cases could be related. Pouliot is considered a person of interest in both cases. In an unusual twist, it was discovered that Molly wrote Holly Piirainen's family a letter following Holly's disappearance. An excerpt from Molly Bish's letter: I am very sorry. I wish I could make it up to you. Holly is a very pretty girl. She is almost as tall as me. I wish I knew Holly. I hope they found her. — Molly Bish at age 10
The Newton County John Does, also dubbed Adam and Brad, or simply as Victims A and B or Victims 3 and 4, are two young unidentified males whose remains were discovered with those of two other men on October 18, 1983 in Lake Village, Newton County, Indiana by mushroom foragers. Their nicknames were given by Newton County coroner Scott McCord, elected in 2008, to remember that they were people. He learned that the "victims had never been identified, returned to any family or buried". He renewed the investigation, recruiting Stephen Nawrocki, a noted forensic anthropologist at the University of Indianapolis, to examine the remains and help develop descriptions of the victims. Nawrocki also gained the assistance of the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, whose experts drew portraits of the young men. Background: All four of the victims were murdered by Larry Eyler, a serial killer of young men in the 1980s who maintained residences in Terre Haute and Chicago. The Newton County victims had each been bound, drugged, and stabbed more than twenty-four times. Their remains were buried lying face up near an abandoned barn. Two of the four victims found at the scene have since been identified by dental records as Michael Bauer and John Bartlett. A major reason why neither Adam nor Brad has been identified is because Eyler did not know who they were, unlike the rest of his victims. In addition, he was known to dispose of any identification that he would find on his victims. Hoping to make a plea bargain, Eyler had made a list of his victims while awaiting execution in the 1990s for a 1984 murder in Chicago. He died of AIDS before his execution date. The two young men found in Newton County are possibly native to the Midwestern states of Indiana, Wisconsin or Illinois. However, it is possible that they could have been from anywhere in the United States, as Eyler also confessed to some killings in Kentucky. As of January 2014, neither has been buried, as the investigation is still being conducted. Their dental records and DNA are being stored in national databases. Eyler usually knew his murder victims to be gay. Adam and Brad may have been hitchhikers or male prostitutes who had been disowned by their families, if, in fact, they were gay. Besides these two, the Jasper County John Doe, also unidentified in Indiana, is another victim of Eyler. The two victims' faces were reconstructed several times, twice by sketching and once digitally, by the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children. The facial reconstructions by the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children reportedly took approximately eighteen months to complete. "Adam": ictim A, or Adam, a black male, was around fifteen to eighteen years of age, but may have been as old as twenty. He had a distinct red and black belt, inscribed with the word "devil" multiple times. The buckle contained the word "jeans". A pair of jeans and pajama bottoms were found on his remains, along with a pair of boots. The boots were made in the Hush Puppies design and had metal buckles to fasten them on each side. He was between five feet eight inches to six feet two inches and is believed to have been a hitchhiker who was picked up by Larry Eyler in 1983 before being murdered. Eyler described the boy to be between fifteen and twenty years old and confirmed the suspicion that he had been picked up near Terre Haute, Indiana. Eyler had previously targeted hitchhikers after he had relationship troubles with his partner. Investigator Scott McCord believes that Adam was likely native to the region, perhaps from around Chicago or St. Louis. He was also previously known as Victim 3, as he was one of four to be found at the burial site. McCord stated that he preferred to use names instead of numbers when he referred to the victims. Like most of Larry Eyler's other victims, Adam had his pants pulled down to his ankles. In a confession letter released by Larry Eyler's defense attorney Kathleen Zellner, Eyler said that after an argument with his boyfriend, he drove toward Terre Haute, Indiana in the third week of July 1983. While traveling through the town, he met a hitchhiker who matched Adam's description. Further in the document, it was described that the young man was offered seventy-five dollars to allow Eyler to "perform a sexual act" with him. After Eyler drugged the young man with alcohol and an unspecified drug, he took him to the barn; the young man's body was later found buried nearby. Subsequently, he was bound, blindfolded and was eventually stabbed multiple times in his upper and lower midsection. According to Eyler, his last words to the man were, "Okay, make your peace with God, nigger." Eyler wrote that he buried Adam separately from the three other victims he had previously murdered. He said it was "not proper" to bury an African American with European Americans. "Brad": Victim B, or Brad, was determined to have been a white male and, like Adam, could have been a hitchhiker. He was between seventeen and twenty-three years old, and may have been a smoker. He had two tattoos on his forearm, which were later photographed after his body was cleaned and rehydrated. One was a cross with two circular marks, located on the underside of his arm, near his wrist. The other was a rectangular, or possibly a "U" shape, containing one circular mark, which was found on the other side of his arm. He wore mismatched socks and jockey undershorts, along with brown slacks, which were partially removed, as was typical of other victims. Brad wore boots, which were ankle-high, hiking-style, with brown fleece interior. Metal eyelets were used to fasten them. Brad's boots are no longer available for examination. Because of the type of tattoos he had, he may have served time in jail or a juvenile detention center. He was likely shorter than Adam, approximately five feet two inches to five feet ten inches tall; weighing around 130 to 160 pounds. Some reports said that he could have been as old as twenty-eight and may have been as tall as six feet one inch. He had wavy reddish hair, and some dental fillings. His death was estimated as between 1981 and 1983, although his tattoos were still preserved and recognizable. He had at one time fractured his nose and ankle, breaks described as somewhat severe. His body was found buried in the same grave as Bartlett and Bauer. Like Adam, he was given a more generic name in the past, as Victim 4. Brad and Adam may have been from as far away as Canada, which is another reason why they remain unidentified. DNA was obtained from one of Brad's bones, intended for testing in comparison to a family who could have been related to him. Larry Eyler did not remember where or when he met Brad.
Monday, November 13, 2017
On August 28, 2017, a gunman fatally shot two people and injured four others at the Clovis-Carver Library, a public library in downtown Clovis, New Mexico, U.S. The alleged gunman is Nathaniel Jouett, a 16-year-old student at nearby Clovis High School. Shooting: The suspect entered the library at 4:15 p.m. on Monday, August 28, 2017, and went into the restroom. He began shooting shortly after he came out of the restroom. According to an eyewitness, the gunman entered the library and shot into the carpet, shouting “Run! Why aren’t you running? I’m shooting at you! Run!” before he began to move about the room shooting at people. Two people, Wanda Walters, 61, and Kristina Carter, 48, both library employees, were killed. Four people were wounded, who were identified as Howard Jones, 53, Jessica Thron, 30, Alexis Molina, 20, and Noah Molina, 10. Police received multiple emergency calls. About 15 minutes after the first call came in, police received a call from the suspect's father, who told them that suspect had taken his father's guns from the safe where they were kept, and left the house. The suspect surrendered immediately when police arrived; he did not struggle with the arresting officers. He told police that he had been planning an attack for a while, that he had intended to shoot up the school before killing himself. Legal proceedings: Curry County District Attorney Andrea Reeb has announced that she intends to prosecute the suspect as an adult. The suspect made his first court appearance on August 31, 2017. The court determined that he would not be released yet and set a date of September 8 for his first appearance before a grand jury. The suspect was indicted on September 8 for two counts of first-degree murder, seven counts of child abuse, four counts of aggravated battery, and twenty counts of assault with intent to commit a violent felony. He will be tried as an adult. Preparation for the trial is expected to take months, perhaps as long as a year.
The Moscone–Milk assassinations were the killings of San Francisco Mayor George Moscone and San Francisco Supervisor Harvey Milk, who were shot and killed in San Francisco City Hall by former Supervisor Dan White on November 27, 1978. White was disappointed that Moscone had refused to reappoint him to his seat on the Board of Supervisors, from which White had just resigned, and that Milk had lobbied heavily against his reappointment. These events helped bring national notice to then-Board President Dianne Feinstein, who became the first female mayor of San Francisco and eventually U.S. Senator for California. White was subsequently convicted of voluntary manslaughter, rather than first-degree murder. The verdict sparked the "White Night riots" in San Francisco, and led to the state of California abolishing the diminished capacity criminal defense. It also led to the urban legend of the "Twinkie defense", as many media reports had incorrectly described the defense as having attributed White's diminished capacity to the effects of sugar-laden junk food. White committed suicide in 1985, a little more than a year after his release from prison. Preceding events: White had been a San Francisco police officer, and later became a firefighter. He and Milk were each elected to the Board of Supervisors in the 1977 elections, which introduced district-based seats and ushered in the "most diverse Board the city has ever seen". The city charter prohibited anyone from retaining two city jobs simultaneously, so White resigned from his higher paying job with the fire department. With regard to business development issues, the 11-member board was split roughly 6–5 in favor of pro-growth advocates including White, over those who advocated the more neighborhood-oriented approach favored by Mayor Moscone. Debate among the Board members was sometimes acrimonious and saw the conservative White verbally sparring with liberal supervisors, including Milk and Carol Ruth Silver. Much of Moscone's agenda of neighborhood revitalization and increased city support programs was thwarted or modified in favor of the business-oriented agenda supported by the pro-growth majority on the Board. Further tension between White and Milk arose with Milk's vote in favor of placing a group home within White's district. Subsequently, White would cast the only vote in opposition to San Francisco's landmark gay rights ordinance, passed by the Board and signed by Moscone in 1978. Dissatisfied with the workings of city politics, and in financial difficulty due to his failing restaurant business and his low salary as a supervisor, White resigned from the Board on November 10, 1978. The mayor would appoint his successor, which alarmed some of the city's business interests and White's constituents, as it indicated Moscone could tip the balance of power on the Board and appoint a liberal representative for the more conservative district. White's supporters urged him to rescind his resignation by requesting reappointment from Moscone and promised him some financial support. Meanwhile, some of the more liberal city leaders, most notably Milk, Silver, and then-California Assemblyman Willie Brown, lobbied Moscone not to reappoint White. On November 18, news broke of the mass deaths of members of Peoples Temple in Jonestown. Prior to the group's move to Guyana, Peoples Temple had been based in San Francisco, so most of the dead were recent Bay Area residents, including Leo Ryan, the United States Congressman who was murdered in the incident. The city was plunged into mourning, and the issue of White's vacant Board of Supervisors seat was pushed aside for several days. Assassinations- George Moscone: Moscone ultimately decided to appoint Don Horanzy, a more liberal federal housing official, rather than reappoint White. On Monday, November 27, 1978, the day Moscone was set to formally appoint Horanzy to the vacant seat, White had an unsuspecting friend drive him to San Francisco City Hall. He was carrying a five-round .38-caliber Smith & Wesson Model 36 Chief's Special loaded with hollow-point bullets, his service revolver from his work as a police officer, with ten extra rounds of ammunition in his coat pocket. White slipped into City Hall through a first floor window, avoiding the metal detectors. He proceeded to the mayor's office, where Moscone was conferring with Brown. White requested a meeting with the mayor and was permitted to meet with him after Moscone's meeting with Brown ended. As White entered Moscone's outer office, Brown exited through another door. Moscone met White in the outer office, where White requested again to be reappointed to his former seat on the Board of Supervisors. Moscone refused, and their conversation turned into a heated argument over Horanzy's pending appointment. Wishing to avoid a public scene, Moscone suggested they retreat to a private lounge adjacent to the mayor's office, so they would not be overheard by those waiting outside. As Moscone lit a cigarette and proceeded to pour two drinks, White pulled out the revolver. He then fired shots at the mayor's shoulder and chest, tearing his lung. Moscone fell to the floor and White approached Moscone, poised his gun 6 inches (150 mm) from the mayor's head, and fired two additional bullets into Moscone's ear lobes, killing him instantly. While standing over the slain mayor, White reloaded his revolver. Witnesses later reported that they heard Moscone and White arguing, later followed by the gunshots that sounded like a car backfiring. Harvey Milk: Dianne Feinstein, who was then President of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors, saw White immediately exit Mayor Moscone's office from a side door and called after him. White sharply responded with "I have something to do first." White proceeded to his former office, and intercepted Harvey Milk on the way, asking him to step inside for a moment. Milk agreed to join him. Once the door to the office was closed, White positioned himself between the doorway and Milk, pulled out his revolver and opened fire on Milk. The first bullet hit Milk's right wrist as he tried to protect himself. White continued firing rapidly, hitting Milk twice more in the chest, then fired a fourth bullet at Milk's head, killing him, followed by a fifth shot into his skull at close range. White fled the scene as Feinstein entered the office where Milk lay dead. She felt Milk's neck for a pulse, her finger entering a bullet wound. Horrified, Feinstein was shaking so badly she required support from the police chief after identifying both bodies. Feinstein then announced the murders to a stunned public, stating: "As President of the Board of Supervisors, it's my duty to make this announcement. Both Mayor Moscone and Supervisor Harvey Milk have been shot and killed. The suspect is Supervisor Dan White." White left City Hall unchallenged and eventually turned himself in to Frank Falzon and another detective, former co-workers at his former precinct. He then recorded a statement in which he acknowledged shooting Moscone and Milk, but denied premeditation. Aftermath of the shootings: An impromptu candlelight march started in the Castro leading to the City Hall steps. Tens of thousands attended. Joan Baez led "Amazing Grace", and the San Francisco Gay Men's Chorus sang a solemn hymn by Felix Mendelssohn. Upon learning of the assassinations, singer/songwriter Holly Near composed "Singing for Our Lives", also known as "Song for Harvey Milk". Moscone and Milk both lay in state at San Francisco City Hall. Moscone's funeral at St Mary's Cathedral was attended by 4,500 people. He was buried at Holy Cross Cemetery in Colma. Milk was cremated and his ashes were spread across the Pacific Ocean. Dianne Feinstein, as president of the Board of Supervisors, acceded to the Mayor's office, becoming the first and, to date, the only female to serve in office. The coroner who worked on Moscone and Milk's bodies later concluded that the wrist and chest bullet wounds were not fatal, and that both victims probably would have survived with proper medical attention. However, the head wounds brought instant death without question, particularly because White fired at very close range. Trial and its aftermath: White was tried for first-degree murder with special circumstance, a crime which potentially carried the death penalty in California. White's defense team claimed that he was depressed at the time of the shootings, evidenced by many changes in his behavior, including changes in his diet. Inaccurate media reports said White's defense had presented junk food consumption as the cause of his mental state, rather than a symptom of it, leading to the derisive term "Twinkie defense"; this became a persistent myth when, in fact, defense lawyers neither argued junk food caused him to commit the shootings and never even mentioned Twinkies. Rather, the defense argued that White's depression led to a state of mental diminished capacity, leaving him unable to have formed the premeditation necessary to commit first-degree murder. The jury accepted these arguments, and White was convicted of the lesser crime of voluntary manslaughter. The verdict proved to be highly controversial, and many felt that the punishment so poorly matched the deed and circumstances that most San Franciscans believed White essentially got away with murder. In particular, many in the gay community were outraged by the verdict and the resulting reduced prison sentence. Since Milk had been homosexual, many felt that homophobia had been a motivating factor in the jury's decision. This groundswell of anger sparked the city's White Night riots. The unpopular verdict also ultimately led to a change in California state law which ended the diminished-capacity defense. White was paroled in 1984 and committed suicide less than two years later. In 1998, the San Jose Mercury News and San Francisco magazine reported that Frank Falzon, a homicide detective with the San Francisco police, said that he met with White in 1984. Falzon said that at that meeting, White confessed that not only was his killing of Moscone and Milk premeditated, but that he had actually planned to kill Silver and Brown as well. Falzon quoted White as having said, "I was on a mission. I wanted four of them. Carol Ruth Silver, she was the biggest snake ... and Willie Brown, he was masterminding the whole thing." Falzon, who had been a friend of White's and who had taken White's initial statement at the time White turned himself in, said that he believed White's confession. He later added that at no time did White express remorse in any form at the deaths of Moscone and Milk. San Francisco Weekly has referred to White as "perhaps the most hated man in San Francisco's history". The revolver used, serial number 1J7901, has gone missing from police evidence storage, possibly having been destroyed. Cultural depictions: Journalist Randy Shilts wrote a biography of Milk in 1982, The Mayor of Castro Street, which discussed the assassinations, trial and riots in detail. The 1984 documentary film The Times of Harvey Milk won the Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature. Execution of Justice, a play by Emily Mann, chronicles the events leading to the assassinations. The play opened on Broadway in March 1986 and in 1999, it was adapted to film for cable network Showtime, with Tim Daly portraying White. The Moscone–Milk assassinations and the trial of Dan White were lampooned by the Dead Kennedys with their re-written version of "I Fought the Law" which appeared in their 1987 compilation album Give Me Convenience or Give Me Death. The photo on the front cover of their 1980 album Fresh Fruit for Rotting Vegetables, which shows several police cars on fire, was taken during the "White Night Riots" of May 21, 1979. The assassinations were the basis for a scene in the 1987 science fiction movie RoboCop in which a deranged former municipal official holds the mayor and others hostage and demands his job back. In 2003, the story of Milk's assassination and of the White Night Riot was featured in an exhibition created by the GLBT Historical Society, a San Francisco–based museum, archives and research center to which the estate of Scott Smith donated Milk's personal belongings that were preserved after his death. "Saint Harvey: The Life and Afterlife of a Modern Gay Martyr" was shown in the main gallery in society's Mission Street location; the emotional centerpiece was a section displaying the suit Milk was wearing at the time of his death. In 2008 the film Milk depicted the assassinations as part of a biographical story about the life of gay rights activist and politician Harvey Milk. The movie was a critical and commercial success, with Victor Garber portraying Moscone, Sean Penn playing Milk and Josh Brolin playing White. Penn won an Oscar for his performance and Brolin was nominated. In January 2012, the Berkeley Repertory Theater premiered Ghost Light, a play exploring the effect of Moscone's assassination on his son Jonathan, who was 14 at the time of his father's death. The production was directed by Jonathan Moscone and written by Tony Taccone.