Saturday, September 30, 2017

Alicia Kozakiewicz

Alicia Kozakiewicz is an American television personality, and Internet safety and missing persons advocate. Kozakiewicz is the founder of the Alicia Project, an advocacy group designed to raise awareness about online predators, abduction, and child sexual exploitation. She is also the namesake of "Alicia's Law," which provides a dedicated revenue source for child rescue efforts. Kozakiewicz has joined the television network, Investigation Discovery (ID), to educate the public on, and effect change for, issues such as Internet safety, missing persons, human trafficking, and child safety awareness education. At the age of 13, Kozakiewicz was the victim of an Internet luring and child abduction that received widespread media attention. Her story and message have been chronicled on The Oprah Winfrey Show, Good Morning America, Dr. Phil, CNN, MSNBC, and the A&E Biography Channel. She has been the subject of an award-winning PBS internet safety documentary, "Alicia's Message: I'm Here to Save Your Life," as well as, the Emmy award-winning "Alicia's Story" produced by Enough is Enough. Kozakiewicz has been featured in numerous national and international publications, such as People and Cosmopolitan. Kozakiewicz has addressed Congress on the issue of internet safety for children and Federal child rescue funding. Abduction and rescue: Kozakiewicz had corresponded online with someone she thought to be a boy of her own age—actually Scott Tyree a 38-year-old man who lived in Herndon, Virginia—who approached her in a Yahoo chat room. Over the course of nearly a year, Tyree groomed the 13-year-old Kozakiewicz. The Kozakiewicz family computer was located in the family room where internet activity could be monitored, but Tyree often contacted her at night while the rest of the family was asleep. On New Year's Day in 2002, Tyree lured Kozakiewicz into meeting him near her Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania address. He coerced her into his vehicle and then drove her back to his home in Virginia. Over the course of 4 days, she was held captive, shackled, raped, and tortured in Tyree's basement dungeon. Tyree filmed the abuse and broadcast it online, live via streaming video for others to witness. A viewer in Florida recognized Kozakiewicz from news stories and a missing persons flier from the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children. He contacted the FBI, anonymously and via a payphone because he feared being charged as an accessory to the crime. The FBI, using the Yahoo username they had learned from the anonymous tip, found Tyree's IP address and hence his street address, at a townhouse in Herndon. When FBI agents stormed the house on January 4, 2002, Kozakiewicz feared that they were men Tyree had sent to kill her. At 4.10 PM on January 4, 2002, agents freed Kozakiewicz. Tyree was arrested half an hour later at his workplace in Herndon. After her rescue, Kozakiewicz was examined at a hospital and released to the custody of Fairfax County Child Protective Services. Her parents, Mary and Charles Kozakiewicz, were unable to take a commercial flight to reunite with their daughter due to the heightened media attention. They were privately flown to Virginia by the FBI on the following day. In the aftermath, Kozakiewicz has suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and significant memory loss. Much of her life leading up to the abduction is difficult or impossible to recall. She has used counseling as a treatment method. As an adult she said that in 2002 people found it impossible to understand how this had happened and she had been groomed; they mostly blamed the victim, although some people were supportive. Advocacy and education: One year after her abduction, at the age of 14, Kozakiewicz founded the Alicia Project. The Alicia Project is an advocacy group that raises awareness and provides education on topics such as internet safety for children, the prevalence of online child predators, and abductions. Kozakiewicz has shared her story at numerous schools and conferences, despite acknowledging that speaking about the incident can be triggering. In 2007, she testified before the House Judiciary Committee in an effort to raise awareness of the importance of internet laws to protect children. She successfully lobbied for the passage of the Protect Our Children Act of 2008 and has been lobbying alongside PROTECT for the passage of Alicia's Law in state legislatures. Alicia's Law provides a stream of state-specific funding to the Internet Crimes Against Children task forces (ICAC). In some cases, state and local agencies are able to pull finances accumulated from misdemeanor and felony convictions, while others employ mechanisms such as unclaimed lottery funding. This money is used for training, task forces, research, and rescue efforts for law enforcement agencies seeking child sexual exploitation victims. Alicia's Law has been passed in 8 states, including Virginia, Texas, California, Hawaii and Idaho. Kozakiewicz will advocate for its passage in all 50 states. Kozakiewicz's work has been acknowledged by the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children who honored her with the Courage Award in 2007. She was also honored with a Jefferson Award for Public Service in 2009. Kozakiewicz has trained the FBI National Academy, offering insight as part of the "Youth Violence: Victims and Perpetrators" program. In 2013, Kozakiewicz joined the Distinguished Speaker Series at the Clinton School of Public Service.[14] Her 2008 book, an OJJDP publication, You’re Not Alone: The Journey From Abduction to Empowerment, is a survival guide for recovered abduction victims. Recently teaming up with the Investigation Discovery network, Kozakiewicz provides insight on internet safety and awareness. Currently, she is an Airline Ambassadors International Human Trafficking Awareness trainer and spokesperson, teaching airport personnel to recognize and report the signs of human trafficking. She earned a BA in Psychology at Point Park University, and as of 2014 was working towards her master's degree in forensic psychology at the Chicago School of Professional Psychology.

Disappearance of Joanne Ratcliffe and Kirste Gordon

Joanne Ratcliffe and Kirste Gordon were two Australian girls who went missing while attending an Australian rules football match at the Adelaide Oval on 25 August 1973. Ratcliffe and Gordon's disappearance, and presumed abduction and murder, became one of South Australia's most well known crimes. The presumed murders are sometimes thought to be related to the Beaumont children disappearance in 1966. Disappearance: Joanne's parents and Kirste's grandmother had allowed the two girls to leave their group to go to the toilet. They were seen several times in the 90 minutes after leaving the oval, apparently distressed and in the company of an unknown man, but they vanished after the last reported sighting. The police sketch of the man last seen with the two girls resembles that of the man last seen with the Beaumont children. Investigation: Witness reports led police to believe that they were abducted by a middle aged man. Police were following leads as late as 2014. Aftermath: The case was mentioned in a Woman's Day 2011 article as part of a postscript on "Australian kidnapping mysteries involving children that tug at our heartstrings long after they faded from the news".

Ann Eliza Young

Ann Eliza Young also known as Ann Eliza Webb Dee Young Denning was one of Brigham Young's fifty-five wives and later a critic of polygamy. She spoke out against the suppression of women and was an advocate for women's rights during the 19th century. Early life: Ann Eliza Webb was born in Nauvoo, Illinois to Chauncey Griswold Webb and his wife Eliza Jane Churchill. The Webb family moved to the Salt Lake Valley with the Mormon pioneers. First marriage and divorce: Ann Eliza married James Dee monogamously on April 4, 1863, in Salt Lake City, Utah Territory. They had two children together and later divorced. According to her biographer Irving Wallace, "for the rest of her days Ann Eliza would always refer to James Dee as the man who 'blighted' her life." Polygamous marriage to Brigham Young: On the advice of her family, Ann Eliza married Brigham Young, the second president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), when he was 67 years old and she was a 24-year-old divorcee. Although Ann Eliza later called herself Young's "wife no. 19," others have referred to her as his "27th wife." One researcher concluded that she was actually the 52nd woman to marry Young. The discrepancies may be due, in part, to difficulties in defining what constitutes a "wife" in early Mormon polygamous practices. An official LDS Church book titled, Pictures and Biographies of Brigham Young and His Wives, provides brief descriptions of 26 wives. Divorce from Young: Ann Eliza filed for divorce from Young in January 1873, an act that attracted much attention. Her bill for divorce alleged neglect, cruel treatment, and desertion, and claimed that her husband had property worth $8 million and an income exceeding $40,000 a month. Young countered that he owned less than $600,000 in property and that his income was less than $6000 per month. Excommunication: Ann Eliza was excommunicated from the LDS Church on 10 October 1874. The divorce was granted in January 1875 and Brigham Young was ordered to pay a $500 per month allowance and $3000 in court fees. When Young initially refused, he was found in contempt of court and sentenced to a day in jail and a $25 fine. The alimony award was later set aside on the grounds that the marriage was polygamous and therefore legally invalid; the polygamous nature of the marriage also exposed them to potential indictments for unlawful cohabitation. Advocacy: Ann Eliza subsequently traveled the United States and spoke out against polygamy, Mormonism, and Brigham Young. She testified before the U.S. Congress in 1875; these remarks were credited, by some, to have contributed to a passage of the Poland Act (1874) that reorganized the judicial system of Utah Territory and made it easier for the federal government to prosecute polygamists. Wife No. 19: In 1876, Ann Eliza published an autobiography entitled Wife No. 19. In it she wrote that she had "a desire to impress upon the world what Mormonism really is; to show the pitiable condition of its women, held in a system of bondage that is more cruel than African slavery ever was, since it claims to hold body and soul alike." Her account of the "horrors of polygamy and masonry" is available from various sources. The autobiography was the basis for Irving Wallace's 1961 biography, The Twenty-Seventh Wife, and for David Ebershoff's 2008 novel, The 19th Wife. Third marriage: After her divorce from Brigham Young in 1875, Ann Eliza married 53-year-old Moses R. Denning of Manistee, Michigan, a non-Mormon and wealthy logger known to have only one arm. Two years prior to her marriage to Denning, Ann Eliza stayed at the home of Denning, who at the time was married with children. Ann Eliza scaled back her crusade against Mormonism and polygamy and stopped delivering lectures the week she married Denning. She eventually became estranged from her family, including her children; a grandson told Wallace that neither of her sons had contact with her after they reached early adulthood. In 1930, her older grandson told Wallace, "I hope to hell I never see her again." Divorce from Denning: Denning later left Ann Eliza after a series of alleged affairs she'd had with local townsmen. According to Wallace, Ann Eliza retaliated on the advice of her attorney by charging large amounts of money to Denning's accounts, as she had previously done in her divorce from Brigham Young. A 1907 article on the 30th anniversary of Young's death updated the public on his then-surviving widows and stated that Ann Eliza was divorced for the third time and living in Lansing, Michigan. The 1900 U.S. census had reported her living in Breckenridge, Summit County, Colorado. Ann Eliza eventually returned to Utah to claim a $2,000 legacy from her first husband, whom she had previously described as the "blight of my life." Later years: In 1908, she published a revised version of Wife No. 19 entitled Life in Mormon Bondage, a revision which excluded any mention of her first marriage to Dee or her third marriage to Denning. By 1910, she had moved to Sparks, Washoe County, Nevada. She died at her home in Sparks of pneumonia incident to old age and was buried December 9, 1917, in Mountain View Cemetery, Reno, Nevada. Published works: -Young, Ann Eliza (1876). "Wife No. 19, or The Story of a Life in Bondage ; Being a Complete Exposé of Mormonism, and Revealing the Sorrows, Sacrifices and Sufferings of Women in Polygamy". Hartford, Connecticut: Dustin, Gilman & Co.

so here i am

so i was at the mall once and i was like i had nothing better to do so here i am. a friend said that's why all of them were there.

scary but funny

so i was in the public library once goofing off. i turned my head and lo and behold the bishop was standing over me for when knows how long. i got scared and my eyes had to readjust (glasses and all). he asked if i'd be at church tomorrow. i said "yes sir."

Murder of Phylicia Barnes

The murder of Phylicia Barnes is believed to have occurred in Baltimore, Maryland, US, on December 28, 2010, in relation to a crime. Her body was recovered in the Susquehanna River on April 20, 2011, following a series of searches and national media coverage from various outlets, including the Today Show. The investigation into her death, was ruled a homicide. About a year later, on April 25, 2012, her sister's ex-boyfriend, Michael Johnson, was arrested and charged with her murder. At the time, police declined to provide any details as to how the murder occurred, how they identified him as a suspect, or a motive in the case. Johnson was convicted on February 6, 2013, of second-degree murder. All charges against Johnson were dropped on January 20, 2015. The case has been considered unusual because Barnes had no criminal history or any family problems. Baltimore City Police considered the case the most vexing missing person case they had ever investigated. They labeled it as Baltimore's Natalee Holloway case. The victim: Phylicia Simone Barnes, born on January 12, 1994, and age 16 at the time of her disappearance, was an honor student from Monroe, North Carolina. She was on track to graduate early and had plans to attend Towson University. She was visiting her relatives in Baltimore when she disappeared. Disappearance: Barnes initially was believed to have disappeared while walking to the Reisterstown Road Plaza in Baltimore from a nearby apartment complex on December 28, the last day she was seen. Following her disappearance, she never used her cell phone or credit cards or updated her Facebook page. On January 3, police stated they were 'enormously concerned' about the missing girl. On January 22, America's Most Wanted aired a short feature during commercials. Search: Three months after her disappearance came a renewed effort for prayers. A $36,000 reward was offered. Billboards were placed along major highways advertising for clues on her disappearance. On April 9, 2011, Maryland State Police conducted a massive search of Patapsco Valley State Park using more than 100 members of law enforcement and volunteers. The search did not turn up Barnes's body, but another body with no ties to Barnes was found. Police declared themselves 'back at square one' after the search did not find her. Friends and classmates of Barnes in Monroe held a carnival to raise money in her honor on April 9. Body found and homicide investigation: At 7:30 am on April 20, 2011, workers spotted a body floating in the Susquehanna River near the Conowingo Dam. Another body was later found nearby. Police confirmed the next day through a tattoo and dental records that the first body was that of Barnes. The body of the other victim, an adult male, was identified and deemed not connected to the case of Barnes. Police at the time did not rule out foul play. They said the investigation into forensics and determining how Barnes died and how she got to a location 45 miles from where she disappeared could take weeks. On May 4, following an autopsy, the death was officially ruled a homicide. The cause of death was determined, but was withheld at that time for investigative purposes in fear or jeopardizing the investigation. Soon after, a security expert discussed the Barnes case. On September 6, WSOCTV obtained court documents that showed Barnes's sister was attempting to obtain a restraining order against her former boyfriend Michael Johnson just two months following the disappearance. He was reportedly the last person to see Barnes alive. Johnson's attorney stated that Johnson was not responsible for the murder, and that he had a new girlfriend and had moved on. Johnson had been questioned 8 times by police. Suspect named: On April 25, 2012, Michael Johnson, the ex-boyfriend of Barnes' sister, was arrested in connection with the disappearance and murder. At the time, police did not release details on the connection between Johnson and Barnes; only that Johnson was the last to see Barnes alive. At a hearing on April 27 was the first time details of the murder became public. Assistant State's Attorney Lisa Goldberg testified at a hearing that Johnson asphyxiated Barnes at her sister's apartment, and then carried her body out of the apartment in a 35-gallon plastic tub. He was reportedly seen sweating and struggling to move the container. No motive for the murder was presented at the hearing. But it was reported that Johnson had just broken up with Barnes's sister. He was reported to have been using the tub that he was alleged to have carried out the body in to remove his belongings from her apartment. The tub has not been recovered. It had been reported that during the visit, Johnson had made Barnes feel uncomfortable. He had exchanged 500 phone calls and text messages with Barnes and considered her his 'little sister.'. Homicide count: On May 8, 2012, the city of Baltimore officially added Barnes to their 2010 homicide count. This increased the year's homicide total from 196 to 197. Considered to be nothing more than an administrative move, it still did not push the total count to 200. 2010 had been the first year since the 1970s in which the city of Baltimore recorded fewer than 200 homicides. Final plans: On April 28, more than 700 people gathered at the school Barnes used to attend to remember her. Her funeral, which was private, took place in Georgia on May 7, 2011. Trial: On February 6, 2013, Johnson was acquitted of first-degree murder but convicted of second-degree murder. During the trial, Barnes's sister and Johnson's former girlfriend Deena testified that Johnson had allowed Phylicia to consume alcohol and then made sexual advances on her. A neighbor testified that he had seen Johnson carrying a container out of the apartment, the one Barnes was believed to have been transported in. A petty criminal testified that he had helped Johnson dispose of the body. The defense argued that no physical evidence proved that Johnson was the killer. The defense stated that the case was entirely circumstantial, and that Johnson did not have time to kill Barnes, clean the apartment of forensic evidence, and dispose of the body within the timeframe given, and altogether, he had no motive to commit the crime. Sentencing was scheduled for March 20. Johnson could have received up to 30 years in prison. Johnson's attorneys sought a new trial, alleging that the prosecution bolstered the credibility of the petty criminal who testified on their behalf. At Michael Johnson's sentencing hearing on March 20, the judge threw out the murder conviction and ordered that he receive a new trial. Johnson's new trial was originally set for February 21, 2014, but was postponed until April 28, 2014 at the request of his new attorneys. On January 20, 2015, Judge John Addison Howard dropped all charges against Michael Johnson, stating there was insufficient evidence to continue the trial. Long-term impact on society: The Barnes case has resulted in increased advocacy for the missing. One year later: On the one-year anniversary of Barnes's disappearance, a vigil was held by family and friends in her memory at the believed site of her disappearance. Her father stated he did not believe she was murdered after having gone out and that whatever took place was in the apartment. Police said they are closer to solving the case but did not want to divulge details in order to avoid jeopardizing the investigation. Barnes' half-brother Bryan joined the Baltimore Police Department in 2012, inspired by the work detectives did. Phylicia's Law: In 2012, a bill known as Phylicia's Law passed in the Maryland General Assembly, named after Barnes. The bill, sponsored by Maryland State Delegate Jill P. Carter, leg. dist. 41., requires the state to publish a list of missing children along with statistics, and a list of volunteers who can aid law enforcement in the search for missing children. While similar laws exist in other states, this became the first such law named after a minority-race child. The bill was signed into law by Governor Martin O'Malley on May 1, 2012. Phylicia Barnes Foundation: A foundation was started in Barnes' memory. Fundraising was done at an area Chick-Fil-A.


i'm super excited for Halloween. i can have fun. i'm hoping my dad's out of town so we can go trick or treating and spend time with our aunt. not that i don't love my dad it's more that we don't get to see our aunt every day


i am listening to a prophet and i'm shocked since there are things i'm hearing about things that are resonating in my life.

vegan stir fry

i make a ton of vegan stir frys. i can make them and they're usually tasty. i made 1 with alcohol and that's super sweet.

Bobbie the Wonder Dog

Bobbie the Wonder Dog was a dog from the U.S. state of Oregon who became famous for traveling 2,551 miles (4,105 km) from the state of Indiana, to return to his master's home in the city of Silverton. History: In 1923, while on a family road trip in Indiana, Bobbie—a two-year-old Scotch Collie/English Shepherd mix—was separated from his owners and lost. After an exhaustive search the broken-hearted family returned to their home in Oregon never expecting to see their beloved dog again. Six months later, Bobbie appeared on their doorstep mangy and scrawny with feet worn to the bone; he showed all the signs of having walked the entire way back alone. During his ordeal he crossed 2,551 miles (4,105 km) of plains, desert, and mountains in the winter to return home, an average of approximately 14 miles (23 km) per day. After his return to Silverton, he experienced a meteoric rise to fame. He was the subject of newspaper articles including Ripley's Believe It or Not!, books, and film. Bobbie played himself in the 1924 silent film The Call of the West. He received hundreds of letters from people around the world and was honored with a jewel-studded harness and collar, ribbons, and keys to cities. Death and legacy: Upon his death in 1927, he was buried with honors at the Oregon Humane Society's pet cemetery in Portland. A week later, German Shepherd film star Rin Tin Tin laid a wreath at his grave. His grave is sheltered by a "fancy white and red dog house" received during a promotional appearance at the Portland Home Show. The gravestone has been moved outside the house for better viewing. Bobbie's demonstration of loyalty is celebrated during Silverton's annual children's pet parade that serves as a reminder of the special place animals and pets have in people's lives. The event was started several years after Bobbie's death and the first parade was led by his son, Pal. A 70-foot-long (21 m) outdoor painting featuring Bobbie's story is part of a series of murals that decorate the walls of businesses in Silverton. In late 2012, responding to public sentiment that his burial location in Portland did not properly honor his story and his connection to his hometown, a grassroots movement was started by a group of Silvertonians with the goal of repatriating Bobbie's remains to Silverton, for reburial and memorialization.


i can't physically watch 14 hours of tv regardless of content

Disappearance of Tammy Rothganger

Tammy Sue Rothganger is a missing woman who was last seen on May 16, 1984. Disappearance: The last time that Rothganger was seen was in front Eldon High School, when she was getting into a blue Plymouth at about 7:45 am. The school was across the street from where she lived in Eldon, Miller County, Missouri. Rothganger was last seen wearing a sweatshirt, a chain necklace, an arrowhead pendant, a leather wristband, and Nike shoes. Investigation and aftermath: When an investigation was conducted, detectives were informed that Tammy’s mother was dating a man named Martin Priest who was living with her and Tammy for a few months before Tammy disappeared in 1984. It was revealed that in 1980, Priest had been sentenced to 25 years in prison for the second-degree murder of a 12-year-old Nevada, Missouri girl, but was released three years later when the verdict was overturned on appeal. In January 2016, Priest was charged with the murder of Rothganger, 32 years after her disappearance. Priest was considered a suspect in the murder of a 15-year-old girl whose mother he had similarly befriended, and is also suspected of several other murders.

general confrence

my mom is encouraging me to watch general conference. i can't believe that. nearly 3 years ago she didn't want anything to do with this. i'm of course listening to it but of course i'm watching it in my nightgown on YouTube on my computer. i'm watching it and eating while at home in pajamas.

Friday, September 29, 2017

Disappearance of Cherrie Mahan

Cherrie Ann Mahan (disappeared February 22, 1985; declared legally dead November 5, 1998) disappeared on February 22, 1985 after getting off a school bus along a road in rural Winfield Township, Butler County. At the time of her disappearance, Mahan was eight years old with brown hair and hazel eyes. She was wearing a gray coat, denim skirt, blue leg warmers, and beige boots. The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, which opened in 1984, featured Mahan as its first child listed on their mass-mailed "Have You Seen Me?" search cards. Mahan's case was also featured on CNN in January 2011. Background: Mahan was last seen getting off a school bus on February 22, 1985. Nearby was a blue-green van with a skier painted on the side. Most of the leads given to police have been sightings of Mahan or the van, but none have materialized. In January 2011, Pennsylvania police received a new tip that they deem very promising, but will not release the details as they fear it will endanger the investigation.

scoliosis and dancing

scoliosis might be a little bit of a hindrance but i'm able to make it work. my legs are uneven but i can still dance.


i signed up for a dance class as it works within my learning style. i love dancing and it works

Murder of Imette St. Guillen

Imette Carmella St. Guillen was an American graduate student who was brutally raped and murdered in New York City. She was studying criminal justice at John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York City. Her murder captured national attention; together with the later murder of Jennifer Moore, it was a catalyst for passage of legislation to require background checks of bouncers in bars and a security plan for nightclubs. A bouncer was convicted of Guillen's murder. Life and murder: Imette St. Guillen was born in Boston, Massachusetts to Seimundo Guillen and Maureen St. Hilaire. Her surname–and that of her elder sister– was a combination of their parents' surnames. Their mother was French Canadian. Their father, Seimundo Guillen, a Venezuelan immigrant, died of AIDS when Imette was nine years old. Her widowed mother later remarried. St. Guillen graduated from Boston Latin School in 1999 and moved to Washington, D.C. to attend George Washington University. Like her father, St. Guillen studied criminal justice. She graduated magna cum laude in 2003 and enrolled at John Jay College of Criminal Justice to pursue a master's degree. Although originally intending to study forensic psychology, St. Guillen changed her major to criminal justice. Ranked in the top 5% of her class, she was scheduled to graduate in May 2006. After celebrating her upcoming birthday with her mother and sister in Florida, St. Guillen took a plane back to New York. On February 24, 2006, St. Guillen met with her best friend Claire Higgins to continue celebrating her birthday, a few days away. Out at a nightclub around 3:30 a.m. on February 25, the two women argued over whether to go home. Higgins left; later, in a 3:50 a.m. phone call, St. Guillen assured Higgins that she would soon be leaving for home. She was last seen at 4:00 a.m at a bar named 'The Falls'. Seventeen hours after St. Guillen spoke with her friend, Brooklyn police received an anonymous phone call alerting them to a dead woman's body. They soon identified it as St. Guillen. Her body was nude, wrapped in a comforter. Her broken fingernails showed she fought against her attacker. Her hands and feet were tied, a sock had been shoved down her throat, and her head was wrapped in packing tape. Some of her hair had been cut off. An autopsy revealed that she had been beaten and sexually assaulted before being asphyxiated. According to forensic psychologist Dr. Stephanie Stolinsky, the killer "tried to dehumanize her completely. ... Whenever you hide someone's face, it means that you don't want to see them as a human being. You want to pretend that they're just an object". The murder case of Imette St. Guillen was handled by the Special Victims Squad of the NYPD. Arrest: Darryl Littlejohn, one of two bouncers at The Falls where St. Guillen was seen the night she was murdered, was charged with first-degree murder, kidnapping, and unlawful imprisonment. DNA that was proven to be Littlejohn's, most likely caused from a nosebleed, was found in blood on the plastic ties used to bind St. Guillen's hands. Littlejohn was asked to escort St. Guillen out of The Falls just before closing, and was later seen talking to the young woman in front of the bar. His basement apartment in Queens and vehicles were searched by police and crime scene investigators. Carpet fibers found in Littlejohn's home were a match to fibers discovered on the adhesive tape wrapping St. Guillen's face. Additional evidence that Littlejohn was in the area at the time, date, and place where St. Guillen was killed and dumped was found using cell phone tower records. These "indicated movement from his home to near the spot in Brooklyn where Ms. St. Guillen's body was found." Due to the nature of St. Guillen's murder and other high-profile cases, The Village Voice suggested that the Internal Affairs Bureau (IAB) was devoting more of its time to tracing the cellular phones of detectives. The article discussed efforts to uncover leaks to the media in these cases. A source that communicated with The Village Voice said that police in St. Guillen's murder case had received "punitive 'letters of instruction' in their files and were docked days of pay." Littlejohn, an ex-convict, had spent more than 12 years in prison for drug possession and robbery charges. He was on parole at the time of his employment at The Falls and, by working late hours at the bar, was violating the curfew of his parole agreement. Some blame was placed on his parole officer. Since 2006, Littlejohn has been held at Rikers Island prison; he was initially held by authorities because of the parole violation. He was later charged with one count of first-degree murder and two counts of second-degree murder for the death of St. Guillen. During that time, Littlejohn was tried and convicted in the attempted abduction of a Queens woman on October 19, 2005. He abducted her from the street and held her in his van, but she managed to escape. She left DNA evidence in the van, which was identified after a search. This abduction attempt was later linked to St. Guillen's case, as the woman called police after seeing the suspected van on TV news reports. Littlejohn's initial defense attorney was Kevin O'Donnell, but he was dismissed after Littlejohn complained about his work. Littlejohn's second lawyer, Joyce David, was known for her book What You Should Know If You're Accused of a Crime. She filed a 36-page legal brief on her defendant's behalf alleging a "wide-ranging conspiracy" related to Littlejohn and the St. Guillen murder. She claimed that he was "being framed to protect members of a rich and powerful family who have the connections and the motive to see that he gets convicted of killing St. Guillen." Rudy Giuliani was "named in the conspiracy," supposedly because the "Dorrians are part of Giuliani's family;" they managed the Falls Bar and other nightclubs. According to prosecutors, Littlejohn started his criminal career at age 12, first stealing a 70-year-old woman's purse with the help of a friend. Prosecutors in the 2005 abduction sought court permission to discuss Littlejohn's crimes, and prosecutor Frank DeGaetano said that the crimes "fairly reflect his character." Littlejohn's lawyer wanted discussion of his past banned from the trial. License for The Falls bar: During the investigation, there were revelations that The Falls bar manager, Daniel Dorrian, had allegedly lied about elements of St. Guillen's disappearance and murder. Jeff Ragsdale, a New York City writer, organized a group of people through Craigslist to start a protest demonstration in front of The Falls bar. Their goal was to inform passers-by and others of St. Guillen's murder by a bar bouncer and to bring pressure on the New York State Liquor Authority to have The Falls bar closed and its liquor license permanently revoked. The demonstrations lasted a few months, and around June 2006 The Falls bar lost its liquor license. The Pioneer bar was associated with the disappearance of St. Guillen that night, but it is not related to her murder. But, the bar suffered negative publicity, and news reports showed images of its facade in coverage of the murder. The bar later changed its name to the R Bar and it is still in business. Littlejohn's pre-trial and trial in previous abduction: Littlejohn went on trial in 2007 for the 2005 abduction, which was held before the murder trial for St. Guillen. Observers were concerned that this suggested that St. Guillen's murder case was not strong enough. Prosecution, however, stated that they were prepared to proceed with the murder trial. In January 2009, Littlejohn was convicted of kidnapping a college student in October 2005. The victim testified that he had approached her while dressed as a police officer, handcuffed her, and forced her into a vehicle. She escaped. Litllejohn was sentenced to 25 years-to-life in prison. Trial for St. Guillen's murder: Pre-trial hearings began on September 11, 2007. In January 2008, the judge assigned to St. Guillen's murder case, Cheryl Chambers, was reassigned to the state's Appellate Division. Littlejohn's defense attorney Joyce David challenged the autopsy findings as well as the search warrants giving police the authority to search Littlejohn's van, his apartment, and to investigate his cell phone records. Prosecutors were given permission by Justice Abraham Gerges to admit evidence from Littlejohn's other crimes. Trial: Opening arguments were given on May 11, 2009. Prosecution headed by Kenneth Taub laid out the case that Littlejohn was a sex fiend. According to the Daily News, Taub said that "He (Littlejohn) did the same thing to two other women three months before" and "Until this case, he got away with it." They briefly described the circumstantial evidence against Littlejohn. Littlejohn wore glasses in the courtroom. Some defense lawyers have described this as the "nerd defense, which is a tactic used to make felons and other criminals appear less menacing to the jury during a trial." The defense was headed by Joyce David, who said that the case was a "racially charged frame-up by police eager to close a blockbuster case," according to the Daily News. David said, "He's a black man with a long criminal record," and "Who's going to care about him?" David pointed her finger at bartender Daniel Dorrian of The Falls bar and said that "Darryl Littlejohn is being framed to protect Danny Dorrian". Prosecution's case: Claire Higgins, St. Guillen's best friend, was among the first to take the witness stand. She described the time she had shared with St. Guillen on the night of her disappearance. Daniel Dorrian, manager of the bar where St. Guillen was last seen, indicated during the trial that Littlejohn and St. Guillen had "a screaming match" that night. The New York Daily News quoted him as saying ""It might have been a loud conversation. "By the end ... it came out she was screaming." According to the Daily News, "Dorrian insisted he didn't lie when he initially stonewalled cops about St. Guillen's kidnapping and murder." But, he later admitted telling police that he did not remember St. Guillen being in The Falls bar. Dorrian attributed his initial statements to a fear of backlash against his bar; two decades earlier, his father's bar had suffered poor publicity and lawsuits after a patron was murdered. Defense lawyers suggested that Dorrian might have been the real killer. Under David's questioning, Dorrian admitted that he had told police that he was "banged up" after a quarrel with his girlfriend some days after St. Guillen's body was found; however, NYPD never investigated him as a possible suspect. Dorrian said, "I don't believe I had any bruises. It was just a figure of speech." David suggested during the trial that St. Guillen might have returned to The Falls bar and "hooked up with Dorrian". Littlejohn's ex-girlfriend, Sandra Smith, testified on Thursday, May 14, the fourth day of the trial. She said that, after St. Guillen's death, he asked her to lie about his using her Chrysler Sebring to see his ailing mother in a Queens nursing home. "He called me and said if anyone calls, to say he had my car;" however, she informed police that he did not use the vehicle. Police suspect that Littlejohn used another van to abduct and sexually molest St. Guillen. Using cell phone tower records, detectives in the murder case determined that Littlejohn had been in the area of Fountain Avenue where St. Guillen's body was later found. Nicholas Petraco, a retired NYPD forensics evidence expert, testified that fibers from two fur coats and a rabbit-collared leather jacket gathered by police at Littlejohn's home were found in his van, on tape binding St. Guillen, and on a quilt used to wrap her battered body. He indicated that fiber analysis is not as good as DNA evidence. A representative of the medical examiner's office testified that DNA of Littlejohn was found on a snow brush found alongside St. Guillen's body. Hairs found on a bedspread used to wrap St. Guillen's body belonged to Littlejohn's mother. In addition, besides those of St. Guillen, hairs were also identified as coming from eight other people. The zip-ties found in the Windstar used to bind St. Guillen were presented to the court. Medical examiner Ewelina Bajda said that traces of Littlejohn's blood were found in the locking mechanism of one of them. Prosecutors called several witnesses to testify to previous cases in which Littlejohn was alleged to have abducted young women. The victim in the 2005 attack (for which he was convicted) described that she recognized Littlejohn's van during TV news coverage of St. Guillen's murder. She testified that Littlejohn had tied her up in his van and drove off with her during his kidnapping attempt. The district attorney who prosecuted him in that case, testified as to the evidence that had led to his conviction. Justice Gerges allowed her testimony in order to prove " ...the identity of the perpetrator in this case;” however, the justice’s warned jurors should not take Woodard’s testimony as proof of Mr. Littlejohn’s “propensity” to commit such crimes. Littlejohn's lawyer Joyce B. David later admitted that Ms. Woodard’s testimony hurt their case. Prosecutors later called a Japanese woman, also a student, who had been raped four months before St. Guillen's death in a manner similar to that of the 2005 Woodard case for which Littlejohn was convicted. According to one Daily News article, she testified that Littlejohn had taped her face "almost exactly like St. Guillen's." David, who objected to both Woodard's and the Japanese woman's testimonies, verbally attacked the second victim's inability to identify Littlejohn in a lineup, stating: "My client has scars on his face and a tattoo that's very noticeable under his eye and that's something that one would expect that she would have noticed and had them put either in the sketch or at least mentioned it". While Littlejohn had not been charged in the Japanese student's attack, prosecutors insisted there was “compelling proof” that he was her attacker, based on the DNA evidence from the T-shirt and the manner in which she was attacked, similar to Woodard and St. Guillen. Prosecution rested its case on Thursday, May 28. Defense: The defense continued to suggest that the DNA-testing of evidence that the city-hired firm, Bode Technology, may have been contaminated in order to frame Littlejohn and to clear bar manager Danny Dorrian. The prosecution criticized the defense’s argument that police framed Littlejohn to protect his former employer Dorrian. Prosecutor Kenneth Taub said to the jury: "I can't even begin to describe how ridiculous that is". David in reply said the evidence may suggest her client dumped the body, but it did not prove that Littlejohn killed her and said: "There is no proof at all, not a scintilla of proof, that Ms. St. Guillen had been to my client's home". David also said: "Darryl Littlejohn was the solution to all their problems: solving the city's biggest crime at the time, protecting Danny Dorrian and protecting Rudy Giuliani from another scandal while he was running for President." After questioning two detectives about the 25-hour search for evidence in Littlejohn’s residence, concluding that none of the more than 50 items confiscated was linked to St. Guillen, and DNA testing had failed to yield a match, the defense rested its case. Prosecutors had “presented proof that Littlejohn's blood, tissue and DNA were found on the plastic ties that were used to bind St. Guillen's hands.” The six men / six women jury took less than seven hours to convict Littlejohn of murdering Imette St. Guillen and found him guilty of first degree murder. One juror, Marian Mallero, said: "The DNA said a lot about it. They gave us evidence and it was obvious"; and, "He's guilty, that's all I'm going to say." Another juror said, "All the evidence pointed to the defendant," despite the defense case that Littlejohn was railroaded. Before the jurors' verdict, David said to CNN that she believed in the innocence of her client. She repeated that Littlejohn was framed and another man was a likely suspect, saying: "He was a convenient scapegoat who has a long criminal record". Afterward, David said: "We're going to appeal. We're disappointed. I'm hoping this gives the family of the victim some closure. But I think that the wrong man was convicted." Sentencing: Speaking to St. Guillen’s relatives, Judge Abraham G. Gerges said, “I hope that the conclusion of these proceedings today will provide you with some small measure of solace.” Judge Gerges directed comments to and about Littlejohn, calling him an unrepentant "predator" who should never taste freedom again. He sentenced him to life without parole. The Judge also paid tribute to St. Guillen, describing her as a ‘promising woman who never deserved to die’ saying, "If there were truly justice in this world, I would have the power to bring her back to you," addressing Maureen and Alejandra, who cried in the courtroom. He said, "To my great sorrow, that is not possible." "This defendant is not fit to remain in civilized society." Gerges noted, "While the defendant committed this horrific crime, what is also so disturbing about this case is the indifference of the people employed at the bar that night. This court cannot speak to the legal implications of serving someone who is intoxicated, and indeed that issue may be before another judge, but this court can decry the complete indifference and inhumanity of the workers there that night. They were all focused on finishing their shift and leaving. Not one of those people spared a thought to the wisdom of sending an intoxicated young woman out into the deserted streets of Manhattan at 4 a.m. If only one of them had the common decency to call a taxi, we might not be here in this courtroom today." Littlejohn is to serve his sentence consecutively with his previous 25-year-to-life term for kidnapping a Queens woman. David indicated after the sentencing that she would file a notice of appeal and indicated that Littlejohn remained silent. She maintained that he was framed to protect Dorrian. She said, “there was really nothing for him to say. It’s hard for him to say he’s sorry for something he didn’t do.” Civil lawsuits: In 2009 St. Guillen's family settled a confidential suit they brought against The Falls bar in 2007. In early 2008, St. Guillen's mother brought a civil action against the federal government for US$200 million for their failure to keep track of Littlejohn under his parole. The suit names the Department of Justice, and the U.S. Probation and Pretrial Services Program as defendants. The suit was dismissed in May 2010 by Court of Claims Judge Faviola A. Soto, quoting an NYS Appeals decision that reaffirmed the standard that, “an agency of government is not liable for the negligent performance of a governmental function unless there existed ‘a special duty to the injured person, in contrast to a general duty owed to the public.’” In March 2011, the St. Guillen family settled with the Federal government for $130,000. Tracking software for post-release offenders was later named after St. Guillen. On the third anniversary of St. Guillen's death, her mother filed suit against the bounty hunter school, US Recovery Bureau Inc, accusing the proprietors, Ralph Rios and Robert Neves, of giving the accused, Darryl Littlejohn, fake badges that enabled him to get hired as a bouncer. Lastly, the St. Guillen family in March 2011 filed a wrongful-death lawsuit against Darryl Littlejohn. Legacy: According to New York's NightLife Association, since St. Guillen's death, crime rates around bars and clubs in New York City have decreased. Her death was one of several high-profile incidents of women murdered after leaving a nightclub. The combined media scrutiny resulted in new and modified laws governing nightclub operations, including their screening of personnel. Soon after authorities realized that a bouncer may have been the perpetrator, nightclub owners and local politicians met to discuss ways to improve nightlife safety. In February 2007, New York City enacted a law requiring security cameras at the entrances and exits of the 200 nightclubs that held a cabaret license. City officials were also empowered to close any business that hired an unlicensed bouncer. New York City club owners also agreed to voluntary guidelines which encourage the use of scanning machines to record the identification of their patrons and also encourage screening patrons for weapons. The guidelines provide for more care in dealing with intoxicated female patrons who are alone. The following month, Boston enacted a similar law, requiring all nightclub and bar owners to conduct criminal background checks on their employees. At the same time, Boston Mayor Thomas Menino signed an executive order authorizing the cancellation of liquor licenses granted to anyone found to have hired a violent felon. A joint fundraising effort by the John Jay College of Criminal Justice of the City University of New York, the Association for a Better New York, and the New York Daily News resulted in establishing the Imette St. Guillen Scholarship for second-year students at the John Jay College of Criminal Justice. Recipients of the scholarship have included Johanna Vespe, Kevin Barnes-Ceeney, Shea Donato, and Negar Farshbaf. Another scholarship in her name was endowed at Boston Latin School. St. Guillen's family has created the Spirit of Imette Foundation, intended to support education for underprivileged children. Representation in other media: -The murder has been fictionalized in the novels Killer Heat by Linda Fairstein and Angel's Tip by Alafair Burke. -St. Guillen's murder is discussed in the Jodi Picoult novel House Rules. New York band Interpol wrote a song titled "Pioneer to the Falls," which is believed to refer to St. Guillen's murder. The title likely refers to the walk from the Pioneer bar to The Falls bar. -St. Guillen is memorialized by Periel Aschenbrand in "In Memory of Imette", an article in A Memory, A Monologue, A Rant, and A Prayer. This collection of writings edited by Eve Ensler, author of The Vagina Monologues, is read as part of annual V-Day performances that raise funds to stop violence worldwide against women and girls.

Murder of Destiny Norton

Destiny Anne Norton was a victim of kidnapping and murder. Murder: Until her death, she lived in Salt Lake City, Utah. On July 16, 2006, she disappeared from her home. Her body was found fewer than 100 feet from her home in the basement of her neighbor, 20-year-old Craig Roger Gregerson. She was last seen as she left her home after arguing with her parents about going to bed. She lived in a small ranch house with her parents, and about ten other couples and friends who shared the house for economic reasons. Volunteers posted missing posters throughout Salt Lake City, describing her several silver capped teeth on the bottom row of her mouth, blonde hair and green eyes, and dressed in a grey shirt with black stripes. Investigation: After a massive eight-day search by about 5,000 community volunteers, FBI and police, Destiny's body was found on July 24, 2006, less than 100 feet from her home in the basement of her neighbor, 20-year-old Craig Roger Gregerson. Family and friends were initially outraged after the search ended, and accused authorities of mishandling the investigation. An apology on behalf of the family and friends was later issued in a press conference. Aftermath: Gregerson was formally charged on July 27, 2006 with kidnapping and aggravated murder. He waived his rights to a speedy trial, and later waived his rights to a preliminary hearing which had originally been scheduled for October 3 and October 4, 2006. In a plea bargain to avoid the death penalty, he pleaded guilty to capital murder and child kidnapping on December 4, and was sentenced to life in prison without parole for the murder, and fifteen years to life for the kidnapping. The sentences will be served consecutively. In 2007, the Destiny Search Project was formed in memory of Destiny Norton. The group is organized to assist with volunteer operations in missing persons cases.

Thursday, September 28, 2017


Gardenburger is the brand name of a veggie burger. It originated in 1985 and is owned by the Kellogg Company. History: -The Gardenburger was developed by Paul Wenner around 1981 or 1982 in Wenner's vegetarian restaurant, The Gardenhouse, in Gresham, Oregon. The company was originally incorporated as Wholesome & Hearty Foods, Inc., in March 1985. Initial funding was given to founders Paul Wenner and Allyn Smaaland, as part of a venture capital investment program of Louisiana-Pacific Corp., whereby L-P took immediate controlling interest. A second round of venture capital financing was provided about a year later. -In 2005, Gardenburger filed for bankruptcy, though it continued operation by becoming privately held. -In 2006, Gardenburger announced that it had taken eggs out of all of its products except for one private-sourced item which now contains organic, cage-free eggs. -In 2006, the company changed its name back to Wholesome & Hearty Foods. -In 2007, the Kellogg Company purchased the Wholesome & Hearty Foods company, makers of the Gardenburger. Products: The company makes a variety of vegetarian and vegan products and meat substitutes. According to the company's website, the original Gardenburger is made from mushrooms, onions, brown rice, rolled oats, cheese, eggs, garlic and spices. Gardenburger is a registered trademark of the Wholesome and Hearty Foods Company a subsidiary of Kellogg Company. Although all Gardenburger products are vegetarian, some of them are not vegan and include animal-derived ingredients such as eggs or dairy products, such as milk and cheese. In 2012, Gardenburger sold five types of veggie burgers: Veggie medley (vegan), The Original (vegetarian), Black Bean Chipotle Veggie Burger (vegan), Sun-Dried Tomato Basil (vegetarian), and Portabella (vegetarian).

Veggie burger

A veggie burger is a hamburger-style, or chicken-style, patty that does not contain meat, but may contain animal products such as egg or milk. The patty of a veggie burger may be made from vegetables (like potato or corn), textured vegetable protein (like soy), legumes (beans), tofu, nuts, mushrooms, or grains or seeds, like wheat and flax. History: The patties that are the essence of a veggie burger have existed in various Eurasian cuisines for millennia, including in the form of disc-shaped grilled or fried meatballs or as koftas, a commonplace item in Indian cuisine. These may contain meats or be made of entirely vegetarian ingredients such as legumes or other plant-derived proteins. While it is not possible, or even necessary, to identify the 'inventor' of the veggie burger, there have been numerous claimants. The veggie burger, by name, may have been created in London in 1982 by Gregory Sams, who called it the 'VegeBurger'. Gregory and his brother Craig had run a natural food restaurant in Paddington since the 1960s; a Carrefour hypermarket in Southampton sold 2000 packets in three weeks after its launch. Using the name Gardenburger, an early veggie burger was developed by Paul Wenner around 1980 or 1981 in Wenner's vegetarian restaurant, The Gardenhouse, in Gresham, Oregon.

Morningstar Farms

Morningstar Farms is a division of the Kellogg Company that produces vegetarian food. Many of their offerings are meatless variations of traditionally meat-based products, including some that are vegan. Morningstar is currently the largest vegetarian food producer in the United States. Morningstar Farms was introduced by Worthington Foods (originally a division of Miles Laboratories) in the 1970s. Kellogg purchased Worthington Foods in October 1999 at which point it acquired the Morningstar Farms brand. Both Kelloggs and Morningstar Farms have drawn criticism from consumers due to concerns over products containing GMO soy and GMO sugarbeets. Morningstar Farms offers a few products made with organic soy. Products- Veggie burgers: -MorningStar Farms Roasted Garlic and Quinoa Burger -Morningstar Farms Asian Veggie Patties -Morningstar Farms Chipotle Black Bean Burger -Morningstar Farms Garden Veggie Patties Veggie Burgers -Morningstar Farms Grillers Original -Morningstar Farms Grillers Prime Veggie Burgers -Morningstar Farms Grillers Vegan Veggie Burgers -Morningstar Farms Mushroom Lover's Burger -Morningstar Farms Spicy Black Bean Veggie Burgers -Morningstar Farms Tomato & Basil Pizza Burgers -Morningstar Farms Classic Burger made with Organic Soy -Morningstar Farms Tex Mex Burger made with Organic Soy -Morningstar Farms Zesty Tomato Basil Burger made with Organic Soy -Morningstar Farms Thai Burger made with Natural Ingredients Chik'n- -Morningstar Farms Buffalo Wings Veggie Wings -Morningstar Farms Chik' n Nuggets -Morningstar Farms Chik Patties Original -Morningstar Farms Grillers Chik'n Veggie Patties -Morningstar Farms Italian Herb Chik Patties -Morningstar Farms Original Chik'n Tenders Dogs: -Morningstar Farms Veggie Italian Style Sausage -Morningstar Farms Veggie Corn Dogs Meal starters: -Morningstar Farms Hickory BBQ Riblets -Morningstar Farms Meal Starters Chik'n Strips -Morningstar Farms Meal Starters Grillers Recipe Crumbles -Morningstar Farms Meal Starters Sausage Style Recipe Crumbles -Morningstar Farms Meal Starters Chik'n Strips made with Natural Ingredients Breakfast: -Morningstar Farms Maple Flavored Veggie Sausage Patties -Morningstar Farms Hot & Spicy Veggie Sausage Patties -Morningstar Farms Veggie Bacon Strips -Morningstar Farms Veggie Sausage Links -Morningstar Farms Veggie Sausage Patties -Morningstar Farms Breakfast Patties made with Organic Soy Snacks: -Morningstar Farms Veggie Bites Broccoli Cheddar -Morningstar Farms Veggie Bites Spinach Artichoke Cakes: -Morningstar Farms Ginger & Teriyaki Veggie Cakes -Morningstar Farms Southwestern Style Veggie Cakes


A murder–suicide is an act in which an individual kills one or more other persons before killing themselves. The combination of murder and suicide can take various forms, often linked to the first form: -Murder linked with suicide of a mentally unstable person with a homicidal ideation; -Murder which entails suicide, such as suicide bombing or driving a car with one or more passenger(s) over a precipice; -Suicide after murder to escape state punishment(s); -Suicide after murder as a form of self-punishment due to guilt; -Suicide after (or before) murder by proxy; -Suicide after or during murder inflicted by others; -Murder to receive a death sentence willfully; -Joint suicide in the form of killing the other with consent, and then killing oneself; -Murder before suicide with the intent of preventing future pain and suffering of others including family members and oneself, such as -a parent killing their children before ending their own life; Suicide-lawful killing has three conceivable forms: -To murder one's assailant through proportionate self-defense killing oneself in the process; -Lawful killing to prevent an individual from causing harm to others, in so doing killing oneself; -Lawful killing indirectly resulting in or contributing to suicide. -Many spree killings have ended in suicide, such as in many school shootings. Some cases of religiously-motivated suicides may also involve murder. All categorization amounts to forming somewhat arbitrary distinctions where relating to intention in the case of psychosis, where the intention(s) is/are more likely than not to be irrational. Ascertaining the legal intention (mens rea) is inapplicable to cases properly categorized as insanity. Homicide and suicide theories: According to the psychiatrist Karl A. Menninger, murder and suicide are interchangeable acts – suicide sometimes forestalling murder, and vice versa. Following Freudian logic, severe repression of natural instincts due to early childhood abuse, may lead the death instinct to emerge in a twisted form. The cultural anthropologist Ernest Becker, whose theories on the human notion of death is strongly influenced by Freud, views the fear of death as a universal phenomenon, a fear repressed in the unconscious and of which people are largely unaware. This fear can move individuals toward heroism, but also to scapegoating. Failed attempts to achieve heroism, according to this view, can lead to mental illness and/or antisocial behavior. In a study specifically related to murder–suicide, Milton Rosenbaum (1990) discovered the murder–suicide perpetrators to be vastly different from perpetrators of homicide alone. Whereas murderer–suicides were found to be highly depressed and overwhelmingly men, other murderers were not generally depressed and more likely to include women in their ranks. In the U.S. the overwhelming number of cases are male-on-female. Around one-third of partner homicides end in the suicide of the perpetrator. From national and international data and interviews with family members of murder–suicide perpetrators, the following are the key predictors of murder–suicide: a history of substance abuse, the male partner some years older than the female partner, a break-up or pending break-up, a history of battering, and suicidal contemplation by the perpetrator. Though there is no national tracking system for murder–suicides in the United States, medical studies into the phenomenon estimate between 1,000 and 1,500 deaths per year in the US, with the majority occurring between spouses or intimate partners and the vast majority of the perpetrators being male. Depression, marital or/and financial problems, and other problems are generally motivators. Homicides which are later followed by suicide often make headline news; national statistics indicate 5% of all homicides are followed by suicide. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control reports that an estimated 1 million adults reported attempting suicide in 2011, and there were over 38,000 completed suicides in the same period. The estimate of 624 murder-suicide events per year, indicates that murders are associated with suicidal events (attempts and completions) only about 0.06% of the time. In 18th-century Denmark, people wishing to commit suicide would sometimes commit murder in order to receive the death penalty. They believed murder followed by repentance would allow them to end their life while avoiding damnation.

Susan Murphy-Milano

Susan Murphy-Milano was an American nonfiction author, violence expert and host of the weekly radio crime show "Time's Up" and author of a book by the same title. Murphy-Milano, who grew up in Chicago, lived in Surfside Beach, South Carolina. Murphy-Milano died in 2012 after suffering from cancer. Murphy Milano has four documented exhusbands and a son. Murder-suicide: In January 1989, Murphy-Milano's father, 30-year veteran Detective Phillip Murphy, a decorated Chicago Police violent crimes investigator, murdered her mother, Roberta, using his service weapon, a .44 magnum, and then committed suicide by shooting himself in the head. Afterward, Murphy-Milano, who discovered her parents' bodies, vowed to change the way intimate partner crimes and homicides were handled and investigated. She spent her career advocating for women and child victims of domestic violence. Education and career: Murphy-Milano graduated from William Howard Taft High School. She attended the University of Chicago from 1978 to '81. She was a nationally known women's advocate who lobbied for the passage of 1993's Illinois Stalking Law and the Lautenberg Amendment of 1996, a domestic violence offender gun ban. Murphy-Milano authored Defending Our Lives: Getting Away From Domestic Violence & Staying Safe, published by Doubleday, and Moving Out, Moving On, which focuses on when a relationship goes wrong. Her latest book, released by the publishing on demand publisher Dog Ear Press in 2010, is Times Up: A Guide on How to Leave and Survive Abusive and Stalking Relationships. Author and former prosecutor Robin Sax, in a review for Psychology Today, wrote about the Evidentiary Abuse Affidavit included in the book. "Murphy Milano reaches out and offers her hand -- with a key (almost literally). Thank you to Murphy-Milano for giving us ... a succinct, well-written guidebook that is a must-have for anyone who is a victim or who works with victims of domestic abuse." As of June 2012, WorldCat shows the book to be present in 13 libraries. She appeared on network TV and talk shows, including The Oprah Winfrey Show, 20/20, "American Justice," "Larry King Live," A&E Biography, "Sunday Today," E! True Hollywood, MSNBC, CBS, ABC and CNN. She regularly appeared on The Roth Show a syndicated show on the USA Radio Network, hosted by Dr. Laurie Roth, and was a regular contributor to TRUE CRIME UNCENSORED on Outlaw Radio, hosted by Burl Barer. She was a contributing writer for Women in Crime Ink, which the Wall Street Journal called "a blog worth reading." Murphy-Milano often spoke to law enforcement, at schools and before groups advocating victims' rights. Also, she worked with the Institute for Relational Harm Reduction and Public Pathology Education. Her biography, Holding My Hand Through Hell, released by Ice Cube Press in October 2012, details her life of abuse, murder, and domestic violence.

Loveland River House incident

The Loveland River House incident was a hostage crisis that occurred on January 3, 1989 at the River House Restaurant on the Big Thompson River about 4 miles west of Loveland, Colorado, Larimer County, Colorado on U.S. 34. The incident resulted in three deaths. After a 1 1⁄2 hour standoff, police wounded the gunman Wayne Strozzi who subsequently killed hostage waitress Sally Mills and then himself. Police mistakenly killed escaping hostage and restaurant patron Fenton Crookshank. Standoff: At about 7 pm on January 3, 1989, a Loveland police officer and Larimer County sheriff’s deputy responded to a domestic dispute on Glade Road off highway U.S. 34, about 6 miles (9.7 km) west of the Riverhouse Restaurant in Larimer County. The object of the complaint, two-tour Vietnam veteran of the 101st Airborne Division and paroled drug dealer Wayne Strozzi, age 35, armed with a 9 mm pistol confronted the police officers, wounded one, and then fled east down highway 34 with police in pursuit. Strozzi pulled his partly disabled pickup into the restaurant parking lot, entered the restaurant and initially took an off duty Loveland police officer’s wife, Belva Bethel, hostage at gunpoint at the checkout counter demanding the husband, Steve Bethel, retrieve his automobile for escape. Most patrons thought the action was a simple robbery. Most patrons were able to exit at rear and basement exits and several were allowed to leave by the gunman. The gunman was able to take control of about 10 to 15 remaining hostages that were a mixture of restaurant personnel and members of the Loveland Lions Club International who were meeting in the restaurant. The gunman initially established contact with police by phone, but later destroyed the phone and contact was limited to periodic appearances in the restaurant doorway shielded by waitress Sally Mills. His demands were for a helicopter to transport him to Libya where he said he had contacts. He informed both hostages and police that with any assault he would proceed to kill hostages. At one appearance at the doorway the gunman wounded a Loveland police officer who was part of the force surrounding the restaurant. As the crisis proceeded over the next 1 1⁄2 hours, hostages were continuously threatened as well as police. At one time the gunman had hostages line up single file for having their necks taped together for better control. About 45 minutes into the standoff a young hostage and employee of the restaurant locked himself in the frozen food locker. The distraction caused a burst of gunfire from Strozzi toward the rear doors in anticipation of a police assault. The distraction allowed one hostage to escape without harm through the front door of the restaurant. Another time the gunman ordered the carpets saturated with spirits from the restaurant bar indicating that he intended to burn the place down. The husband of an elderly couple was sent out with car keys needed to clear cars from the lot while his wife remained with the group. Strozzi announced that if he did not get demands met by 9 pm, he would proceed to kill hostages and burn the place down. Resolution and police error: Both the Loveland city and Larimer County police participated in the standoff. The crisis caught the Loveland city police, who had not before experienced a crisis of this magnitude, in a change of administration in which the previous chief had resigned and the new chief was to arrive the next day. The force was under command of an acting police chief and was criticized for not calling in the Denver, Colorado police force and SWAT team which was 60 miles and likely several hours away. At about 9 pm, a Loveland police sharpshooter positioned on a bluff overlooking the restaurant was given permission to fire and wounded the gunman with a shot through the front door window. The shot was fired from a rifle, striking the suspect in the left torso. The wounded gunman fell back but then fired three fatal shots into waitress Sally Mills, age 40, and killed himself with a single shot to the head. Concurrent with the gunfire, hostage Fenton Crookshank, who was at the Lions Club meeting when the crisis began, crawled through a bathroom window facing the front of the restaurant and was killed by five shots from the Colt .45 automatic pistol of a Loveland police sergeant. Eyewitness and official police reports differed about how Crookshank died. Police spokespersons contended that Fenton landed on his feet, pointed an object in his right hand at and ignored "don’t move" challenges by the Loveland police sergeant who mistook him for Strozzi and mistakenly shot him to death. A police investigation judged that all police shootings were justified. According to other eyewitnesses Crookshank was shot while still in the air coming out of the window and was dead when he landed on the hood of an automobile in the parking lot. The window was several feet south of the parking lot with a sidewalk between the vehicles and the building. The official autopsy report generally confirmed eyewitness reports stating Crookshank received five lethal shots while crawling out a front window. Attorneys for Crookshank’s family contended that his death was inexcusable, should never have happened and that police knew Strozzi was mortally wounded when Crookshank was shot. In 1990 the city of Loveland settled with the widow and children of Crookshank for a "substantial" amount of money and also settled a lawsuit filed by attorney’s for the heirs of hostage Sally Mills.

Wednesday, September 27, 2017


so i went to a singles parish the other day and it was awesome after getting over my initial nerves. i tried playing the piano after not playing for several years. after that i had fun. it was a tiny ward.


i just had the most bizarre experience. friends of mine who are leaving stopped by to give me chocolate. that's so sweet. i was wanting something sweet. wish granted

1947 Glazier–Higgins–Woodward tornadoes

The 1947 Glazier–Higgins–Woodward tornadoes were a series of related tornadoes spawned by a single supercell that swept through Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas on April 9, 1947. Most of the damage and all the deaths are still blamed on one large F5 tornado, known as the Glazier-Higgins-Woodward Tornado, that traveled nearly 125 miles from Texas to Oklahoma. This event was often compared to the Tri-State Tornado, because it was originally thought to have left a 219-mile path, but it is now believed to have a been part of a family of 8 or 9 tornadoes. Event description: The tornadoes began in Texas, the first of which was an F2 that occurred in the White Deer area. That tornado derailed a train, damaged several homes and destroyed outbuildings. One farmhouse was lifted into the air and set back down onto its foundation by the tornado. After the White Deer tornado dissipated, a second tornado touched down near Pampa, remaining over open fields and causing no damage before dissipating. A third tornado developed near Canadian and passed near Miami. This large multiple-vortex F5 storm would become the main killer tornado of the event. The tornado first impacted a railway station near the small community of Codman, where one person was killed and work cars were thrown from the tracks. Several farms in the area sustained glancing blows from the tornado, though trees in the center-most part of the circulation were reportedly debarked. When it struck the tiny town of Glazier, it may have been as much as two miles (3 km) wide. Most structures in the town were swept completely away and scattered. Vehicles in the area were thrown hundreds of yards and mangled, shrubbery was debarked, and ground scouring occurred. Glazier was considered completely destroyed, with 17 dead, a major percentage of the populace. Press reports told of two people who were known to be together in Glazier before the tornado struck were found three miles (5 km) apart afterward. The tornado maintained its intensity as it slammed into Higgins, Texas, on the Texas-Oklahoma border, which was also devastated. The accepted death toll here was 51; again, a major fraction of the residents of the town were killed or injured. Much of downtown Higgins was completely demolished, and entire rows of homes were swept away in town. At one residence, a 4½ ton lathe was reportedly ripped from its anchors and broken in half. The tornado was at its worst in Oklahoma—this was the deadliest storm in that state's tornado-troubled history. Six more people were killed when the tornado swept away farms south of Shattuck, Gage, and Fargo. The tornado then moved into Woodward, where it devastated the town and killed an estimated 107 people. The damage that occurred in Woodward was catastrophic. There, the tornado was two miles (3 km) wide and destroyed 100 city blocks. Many homes and businesses were leveled, and as the tornado struck the town's power plant, a 20-ton steel boiler tank was lofted and thrown a block and a half. The tornado finally dissipated in Woods County, west of Alva, Oklahoma, while the tornado family pressed on to Kansas. The parent supercell continued through parts of Oklahoma and into Kansas, producing tornadoes intermittently along the way before dissipating near Topeka. Most of these tornadoes were about F2 in intensity and affected rural areas. However, one tornado near Fowler, Kansas reached F4 intensity, sweeping away two homes and injuring 3 people. Cleanup in the region was made more difficult because of cold and snow that followed the tornado. The Glazier-Higgins-Woodward tornado was the 6th deadliest in U.S. history, killing 181 and injuring 970. Joan Gay Croft disappearance: Four-year-old Joan Gay Croft and her sister Jerri were among refugees taking shelter in a basement hallway of the Woodward hospital. As officials sent the injured to different hospitals in the area, two men took Joan away, saying they were taking her to Oklahoma City. She was never seen again. Over the years, several women have come forth saying they suspect they might be Joan. None of their claims has been verified. Damage totals from the Red Cross: -Lipscomb County, Texas - 36 homes flattened, 1 damaged -Hemphill County, Texas - 83 homes leveled, 116 damaged -Texas total - $1,505,000 -Ellis County, Oklahoma - $1,264,000 -52 homes destroyed, 133 damaged -223 other buildings destroyed, 107 damaged -Woodward County, Oklahoma - $6,608,750 -430 homes destroyed, 650 damaged -925 other buildings destroyed, 975 damaged -Woods County, Oklahoma - $950,000 -25 homes destroyed, 34 damaged -110 other buildings destroyed, 90 damaged -Kansas total - $200,000 -Total damage estimates were $747,850,050-$173,489,564 (2008 dollars).

Disappearance of Katrice Lee

Katrice Lee was a British child who was abducted in Paderborn, West Germany (now Germany) on 28 November 1981. Background: Katrice Lee was born November 28, 1979, at the British Military Hospital in Rinteln, West Germany. Her father, Richard Lee, was a sergeant in the 15th/19th The King's Royal Hussars of the British Army stationed in West Germany, along with her mother Sharon and her elder sister Natasha, who lived in the Schloß Neuhaus area of Paderborn. Disappearance: On November 28, 1981, Katrice's second birthday, the family decided to go to the nearby NAAFI shopping complex in Schloß Neuhaus to buy things for her birthday party. Katrice's elder sister Natasha decided that she did not want to go shopping, while her aunt Wendy and uncle Cliff, who also worked for the British Army, had come over from Bielefeld for the birthday party. Wendy went to the NAAFI complex with Katrice and her parents while Cliff stayed at home with Natasha. Ritchie Lee drove them to the NAAFI and waited for them in the car-park. The day was the last payday before Christmas, so the NAAFI complex was exceptionally busy. Katrice decided she did not want to ride in shopping cart, so she was carried around the supermarket by her mother Sharon, who placed her down at the checkout. Sharon briefly left the checkout before returning to find Katrice was nowhere to be seen. Her aunt Wendy thought Katrice had followed her mother down the aisle, but she had vanished. Description: Katrice had curly light brown hair, brown eyes, a pink birthmark slightly to the right of the base of her spine which looked like a rash, and also had a strabismus in her left eye. At the time of her disappearance she was wearing red Wellington boots, a turquoise duffel coat, a green and blue tartan pinafore dress with frills round the shoulders, a white blouse underneath, and white tights. Despite spending her life in Germany, Katrice could only speak English. Investigation: The military police were effectively in charge, but had to negotiate with the German civil police because the NAAFI building was within a German town, not on military premises. Both the military and German police believed Katrice had fallen into the nearby River Lippe and drowned, but no body was ever discovered. The German police refused to go to the press, and it was six weeks before an item appeared in the local newspaper. The investigation produced little result, and despite dredging the river and conducting house-to-house inquiries, no trace of Katrice was found. Police re-opened the case in 2000, after computer technology helped them to form an image of how she could look now. People came forward who had never been interviewed, including a young man who had been standing behind the Lees at the checkout, and even one of the checkout ladies. One woman also came forward to say that her boyfriend at the time, who was in the same regiment at Katrice's father, had confessed to murdering a child. The man now lived in Northumbria, and the military police interviewed him but he denied it, and the woman who gave the details died soon after, therefore ending the lead. Afterwards the military police told the family they thought he was probably a fantasist. Three possible sightings of Katrice Lee came after her story appeared on the BBC television show Missing Live, where during the show a digital rendering of the potential appearance of Katrice as a 29-year-old was shown. Natasha Lee, Katrice's elder sister, appeared on Crimewatch to highlight the appeal, after which an anonymous woman phoned and left a message on Richard Lee's answer machine, saying to "look for your daughter in France". The police took the answer machine tape away, but there was nothing more to the investigation. Major Kevin Bell-Walker, who was leading the inquiry, said: "With the advances in crime detection like search techniques, forensic archaeology and DNA profiling, it does suggest the case can be progressed after all this time". Police believe Katrice was intentionally abducted from the NAAFI complex, and has possibly been raised by another family in Germany, the United Kingdom, or elsewhere in Europe, and is unaware of her true identity.

Lost Children of the Alleghenies

The Lost Children of the Alleghenies is a folk story from the Appalachia region of the United States. Joseph and George Cox are known through the Allegheny Mountains as The Lost Children of the Alleghenies. George and Joseph Cox, then aged seven and five respectively disappeared from their home in Pavia on 24 April 1856. Their dead bodies were found several days later in the surrounding woods and they were buried in the Mount Union Cemetery. There is a small memorial to them in the Spruce Hollow forest in Blue Knob State Park, Pennsylvania. Legend behind the story: George, 7, and Joseph, 5, were the sons of Samuel and Susannah Cox. The Cox family lived in a cabin built by Samuel for his wife and kids. At this time old-growth logging had not yet begun in this area of Pennsylvania and the area was still heavily forested. During the morning of April 24, 1856, Samuel Cox heard his dog barking in the forest and thought that it must have treed a squirrel. Samuel retrieved his rifle and headed into the woods. It is thought that while Samuel was gone, the boys must have strayed from home to follow their father. Susannah thought that Samuel had taken the boys with him. It was only when Samuel returned without them that they realized their children were gone. They called for the boys but received no replies. Samuel went for help from his nearest neighbors and by that evening more than one hundred men were searching for the children. Fires were lit in the forest in the hope that the boys would see one and approach. Nearly a thousand people showed up to search the next day. A nearby stream, Bob's Creek, was surging with spring snow melt and it was thought that there was no way the boys could have crossed to the other side without drowning. A search of the creek was performed but the boys were not found. On the third day, suspicion fell on Samuel and Susannah Cox. It was thought that they might have murdered their children in the hope of gathering donations from a sympathetic population. The Cox cabin and garden were searched but no bodies were located. The searchers went so far as to bring in a dowser and a witch from Somerset County. The dowser found nothing and the witch, despite claiming to know the children's location, led a search team through the woods for hours without turning up anything. The legend tells that the night after the disappearance a local farmer, Jacob Dibert, heard about the missing children and remarked to his wife that he wished to be able to dream of the boys' location. On May 2nd he had a dream in which he walked a path through the woods past a dead deer, a child's shoe and a fallen birch tree and eventually to a copse of birch trees in a small ravine. Here he found the bodies of the Cox boys. The dream reoccurred on the two following nights. Dibert told no-one but his wife about the dream, however he felt that the dream was prophetic and on May 7th he told his brother-in-law Harrison Whysong. Whysong recognised elements from Dibert's dream and the two men decided to make a search, culminating in the discovery of the bodies just as the dream had described - under birch trees in a small ravine reached along a track with a dead deer, a child's shoe and a fallen birch. Cultural impact: -In 1906, for the 50th anniversary of the event, the community of Pavia took up donations for a Lost Children of the Alleghenies Monument to honor the Cox family. In 1910, they erected the monument at the spot where Joseph and George Cox were found over 50 years earlier. -Alison Krauss released a song written by Julie Lee and John Pennell about the story entitled "Jacob's Dream".

Joe Pichler

Joseph David Wolfgang "Joe" Pichler (disappeared January 5, 2006) is an American former child actor who has been missing since January 5, 2006. Life and career: The fourth of five children, Pichler relocated to Los Angeles as a child to pursue his acting career. He had some success, most notably appearing in several movies and television shows. With the exception of a handful of memorable supporting roles, he is probably best known for his recurring role as Brennan Newton in the third and fourth (direct-to-video) installments of the Beethoven movies—family-oriented comedies about the antics of a mischievous St. Bernard. In 2003, at the insistence of his family, he returned to his hometown of Bremerton, Washington (which is across Puget Sound and about 16 miles west of Seattle), and graduated from high school there in 2005. According to family, Pichler had planned to return to Los Angeles in the following year (after the braces were removed from his teeth) to continue with his acting career. At the time of his disappearance, Pichler lived on his own in Bremerton across town from his parents, his younger brother Matthew "A.J." Pichler and his older sister Samantha. Disappearance: Pichler was last seen on January 5, 2006. Pichler had been playing cards with some friends, who reported he was in good spirits during the evening. His car, a silver 2005 Toyota Corolla, was found January 9, 2006, at the intersection of Wheaton Way and Sheridan Road. He was reported as officially missing by his family on January 16. According to his family's statements to the media at the time, the last outgoing call on Pichler's cell phone was placed at 4:08 a.m., on January 5, to a friend who had said that he had been visiting with Pichler earlier in the day.

2017 Mississippi shootings

On May 27, 2017, Cory Godbolt allegedly shot and killed eight people at three different houses in Lincoln County, Mississippi. Shootings: The shootings began at around 11:30 p.m. at a house in Bogue Chitto. Three women and police officer William Durr were shot dead at that house. Two boys were found shot to death at a house in Brookhaven and an adult male and female were found shot to death at another house. The suspect, 35-year-old Cory Godbolt, was shot and wounded by police and taken to hospital for treatment. While being arrested Godbolt told a reporter that he had intended to commit suicide by cop and that he deserved to die for his actions. The victims have not been publicly identified but include Godbolt's wife's mother, aunt, two sisters and brother-in-law. Godbolt's wife and their children were unharmed in the incident. Suspect: The suspect in the shootings is Cory Godbolt. Godbolt has an extensive criminal record dating back to 2005 that includes arrests for armed robbery, aggravated assault, simple assault, driving with a suspended license and disorderly conduct. He was most recently arrested in 2016 for assault. Godbolt stated to the reporter who interviewed him that he had gone to the Bogue Chitto house to talk with his estranged wife, her mother and stepfather about taking his children back home and that one of them called the police, ultimately leading to the shooting.

Chevie Kehoe

Chevie O'Brien Kehoe is an American self-proclaimed white supremacist and convicted murderer. He was born in Mars Hill, North Carolina, United States. He is serving three consecutive life sentences for the kidnapping, torture, and murder of William Mueller and his family, in January, 1996. Early life and education: Kehoe, the oldest of eight sons born to Kirby and Gloria Kehoe, was named after his father's favorite brand of automobile (Chevrolet). His father had served in the Navy during the Vietnam War. When Kehoe was an infant, his father moved the family to Madison County, North Carolina. In 1985, Kirby moved the family again, this time to near Deep Lake in Stevens County, Washington. Kehoe entered Colville Junior High School as a ninth grader in 1987 where he was an honor student.[5] Coincidently, future serial killer Israel Keyes was a family friend. In 1988, his parents pulled him and his younger brother Cheyne out of public school, and from then on they were home-schooled. Raised with increasingly extreme anti-government and white supremacist beliefs, Kehoe formed an ambitious plan to bring down the United States government with his self-styled "Aryan People's Republic" militia. To attract recruits, Kehoe embarked upon a series of firearms and property crimes that would eventually lead him from his home in Eastern Washington to Arkansas (the home of the Mueller family) as he followed gun show events. Meanwhile, Kehoe had married Karena Gumm, and the couple had three children. Kehoe married a second wife, Angie Settle (also known as Angie Murray), near Hayden Lake, Idaho, on July 9, 1993, espousing that polygamy was a way to further the Aryan race. Crimes: In February 1995, Kehoe and his father robbed the Tilly, Arkansas home of William Frederick Mueller, a gun dealer who had a large collection of weapons, ammunition and cash. In June 1995, Kehoe and an accomplice kidnapped and robbed Malcolm and Jill Friedman, a Jewish couple, who owned a store at which Kehoe was once employed. In January 1996, Kehoe and another accomplice, Daniel Lewis Lee, returned to the home of Mueller. Kehoe and Lee murdered Mueller, his wife Nancy Ann Mueller (nee' Branch), and his 8-year-old stepdaughter, Sarah Elizabeth Powell, and dumped their bodies in a swamp. Kehoe and his family took the stolen property to a motel in Spokane, Washington, by way of the Christian Identity community of Elohim City, Oklahoma. In February 1997, Kehoe and his brother Cheyne were involved in shootout with an Ohio State Highway Patrol trooper and a deputy sheriff in Wilmington, Ohio. The shootout was recorded on the trooper's dash cam and was widely broadcast. Video from the dashboard camera of a patrolman's car was aired in 1997 on FOX's World's Scariest Police Shootouts. In federal court Kehoe was charged with: -Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) statute -Murdering in aid of racketeering -Robbery Conspiracy Kehoe denies the criminal accusations against him and has filed appeals. His appeals have been denied. Sentencing: On February 20, 1998, Kehoe plead guilty in Ohio state court to felonious assault, attempted murder, and carrying a concealed weapon related to a February 15, 1997, shootout in Wilmington, Ohio with an Ohio State Highway Patrol Trooper and a Clinton County sheriff's deputy during a traffic stop resulting from expired tags on his 1977 Chevrolet Suburban. In 1999, Kehoe was convicted in federal court of the January 1996 murders of gun dealer William Mueller, his wife Nancy Mueller, and her 8-year-old daughter, Sarah Powell. He received three sentences of life in prison without the possibility of parole. Kehoe's mother Gloria and his younger brother Cheyne served as prosecution witnesses and testified against him at the trial. However, they both kept the secret until he got caught. Daniel Lewis Lee was also convicted for his role in the Mueller murders, and was sentenced to death. Kehoe is currently imprisoned at the Florence ADMAX USP, Colorado, under Federal Bureau of Prisons register number: #21300-009. Media: -The Discovery Channel's docudrama series The FBI Files reenacts the behavior of the predators while also showing the forensic science used by the FBI to apprehend the criminals, season 2, episode 16, "Deadly Mission", originally aired: 2000. -The A&E criminal justice series American Justice, profiled Chevie Kehoe's white supremacist actions on season 10, episode 14, "Raised on Hate", originally aired: August 8, 2001.

Sunday, September 24, 2017

Murder of Tori Stafford

Victoria Elizabeth Marie "Tori" Stafford was a Canadian girl who was abducted from Woodstock, Ontario on April 8, 2009, raped and murdered. Her body was found on July 19 in a wooded area in rural Ontario, positively identified in a news conference held on July 21. Her disappearance and the subsequent investigation and search were the subject of massive media coverage across Canada. The police response to the situation as it developed and their failure to announce an Amber Alert has been criticized by the public, and has recently been the focus of a review of the Amber Alert system in Canada. The circumstances of her death were unknown to the public until a publication ban was lifted in December 2010. Abduction, murder and investigation: At around 3:30 pm on Wednesday, April 8, 2009, Stafford left Oliver Stephens Public School to go home, and was captured on security camera at 3:32 pm being led down Fyfe Avenue, Woodstock, by a woman. When she failed to return home, she was reported missing by her grandmother, Linda Winters, at 6:04 pm. The case was featured in the April 25, 2009 episode of America's Most Wanted. The initial investigation was led by Oxford Community Police Service, but then turned into a joint operation with the Ontario Provincial Police. On Tuesday, July 21, 2009 at 9:00 am, police confirmed that remains found near Mount Forest two days earlier were those of Stafford. Stafford's body was naked from the waist down, wearing only a Hannah Montana T-shirt and a pair of butterfly earrings that she had borrowed from her mother. Her lower half was significantly decomposed. During an autopsy, it was determined that she had suffered a beating which caused lacerations to her liver and broken ribs and her eventual death was the result of repeated blows to the head with a claw hammer. Trial: On May 20, 2009, police charged Michael Thomas Rafferty, 28, with first-degree murder and Terri-Lynne McClintic, 18, with being an accessory to murder (in addition to lesser charges) in the abduction and suspected murder of Stafford. Ontario Provincial Police indicated that Stafford's mother, Tara McDonald, was familiar with McClintic. McClintic assisted the police search for the remains of Stafford after her arrest, and her lawyer stated that her client "wants Tori's family to know she is trying hard to find her body". On May 28, 2009, McClintic's charges were altered to a first-degree murder charge and an unlawful confinement charge, and it was announced that the accused would be tried separately. McClintic was scheduled to make an appearance in court on April 30, 2010, but a publication ban was imposed by the judge on the events of the day. The publication ban was lifted on December 9, 2010, revealing that McClintic had pleaded guilty to first-degree murder. She was sentenced to life in prison. On March 5, 2012, Rafferty's trial for the kidnapping, sexual assault, and first-degree murder of Stafford commenced. On May 11, 2012, at 9:18 pm ET, the jury found Rafferty guilty on all charges. Four days later, he was sentenced to life in prison with no chance of parole for 25 years. Claiming that the "judge's instructions to the jury were flawed," Rafferty appealed his conviction to the Court of Appeal for Ontario on July 26, 2012. The 30-day deadline to appeal had passed by the time the papers were received, but this was attributed to his "inability to use the telephone to contact legal counsel," and an extension was requested. Rafferty’s appeal papers appear to have been filed from Kingston Penitentiary. An extension to his appeal was granted. On June 10, 2013, Rafferty appeared by video in a bid for his appeal. He was turned down for Legal Aid for his appeal process. On August 12, Rafferty had his court date postponed until September 10, 2013. The appeal was set in motion in December 2013, but as of January 20, 2016, no materials had been filed. On October 24, 2016, Rafferty appeared at his appeal hearing at Osgoode Hall in Toronto. The appeal was quickly dismissed the same day.

Steven F. Gaughan

Steven Francis Gaughan was an American policeman from Prince George's County, Maryland, assigned to the Beltsville District, Special Assignment Team of the Prince George's County Police Department. In June 2005, he was shot and killed by Robert M. Billett following a traffic stop in Laurel, Maryland. Death: On Tuesday, June 21, 2005, Gaughan and his partner pulled over a suspicious vehicle near the intersection of Maryland Route 197 and South Laurel Drive in Laurel, Maryland. The three men in the car fled when the car was stopped. While chasing one of the men, Robert M. Billett, shots were exchanged, and during this exchange both Billett and Gaughan were hit. Gaughan took a fatal hit and died at Prince George's Hospital Center several hours later. Billett was convicted of first degree murder and sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole. Legacy: Street corner dedication: On July 14, 2007, the City of Boston dedicated the street corner where Gaughan grew up to his memory by renaming it Steven F. Gaughan Corner. A portion of the street on which he was killed was also renamed Steven F. Gaughan Drive. Gaughan's name is also engraved on the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial in Washington, D.C.

Saturday, September 23, 2017

2010 Duke University faux sex thesis controversy

The 2010 Duke University faux sex thesis controversy arose from a private 42 page Powerpoint document written by a Duke University senior, Karen Owen, in the format of a thesis about her sexual experiences during her time attending the university. The controversy: Shortly before graduating from Duke University in May 2010, Karen Owen wrote a thesis styled document about her sexual experiences during her time attending the university. She privately distributed the document to three friends. In mid-September 2010, during Homecoming weekend, one of these friends decided to forward it onward, and the document went viral. In the faux thesis, titled "An education beyond the classroom: excelling in the realm of horizontal academics", Owen ranked her partners based on her criteria for performance. The bulk of the controversy surrounded whether she invaded her partners' rights to privacy, and whether the subjects of Owen's faux thesis have a right to sue, as was done in the case of Jessica Cutler when Cutler published details of her sex life on a blog. It also raised questions as to whether double standards exist if the reaction would have been the same had the faux thesis been written by a male. The faux dissertation attracted additional attention because some of the men whom Owen ranked were from the lacrosse team, and there was an unrelated sex controversy surrounding the team a few years prior. Reaction: About a month after the faux thesis made headlines, the Duke University History Department held a forum about the long term implications of the faux thesis. A few months after that, The Atlantic published an article discussing this incident in the context of Duke's culture as well as binge drinking by women. The author- Background: Karen Owen, the author of the faux thesis, grew up in Branford, Connecticut and graduated from Branford High School in 2006. She won a scholarship to attend Duke and was a very avid sports fan during her time there. Following the controversy: After her faux dissertation went viral, Owen deleted, closed down, or blocked access to her social networking sites. She stated "that fraternities 'make lists like this all the time'". She also expressed deep regret over the incident, saying that she would have "never intentionally hurt the people that were mentioned in the faux thesis." In popular culture: -On December 1, 2010, Law & Order: Special Victims Unit aired an episode called "Rescue", based on the story of Karen Owen's faux sex thesis. -The feature film The Escort features a prostitute with a similar back story, making it impossible for her to get a real job.

Friday, September 22, 2017

Orangeburg massacre

The Orangeburg massacre refers to the shooting of protesters by South Carolina Highway Patrol officers in Orangeburg, South Carolina, on the South Carolina State University campus on the evening of February 8, 1968. The approximately 200 protesters had previously demonstrated against racial segregation at a local bowling alley. Three of the protestors, African American males, were killed and twenty-seven other protesters were injured. The event pre-dated the 1970 Kent State shootings and Jackson State killings, in which the National Guard at Kent State, and police and state highway patrol at Jackson State, killed student protesters demonstrating against the United States invasion of Cambodia during the Vietnam War. Background: There were several incidents centering on the segregation of the local bowling alley, All Star Bowling Lane, that led up to the Orangeburg Massacre on February 8, 1968. In the fall of 1967, some of the black leaders within the community tried to convince Harry K. Floyd, the owner of the bowling alley, to allow African Americans. Floyd was unwilling to desegregate; as a result protests began in early February 1968. On February 5, 1968, a group of around forty students from South Carolina State University entered the bowling alley and left peacefully after they were asked to leave by Floyd. The next night more students led by John Stroman returned and entered the bowling alley. This time there were police waiting for them and several students were arrested, including Stroman. After the arrests, more students began showing up, angry that protesters were being arrested. Next the crowd broke a window of the bowling alley and chaos ensued. Police began beating student protesters (both men and women) with billy clubs. That night, eight students were sent to the hospital. Over the next couple of days the tension in Orangeburg escalated. Student protesters submitted a list of demands that consisted of integration and the elimination of discrimination within the community. The Governor of South Carolina at the time, Robert E. McNair, responded by calling in the National Guard after commenting that black power advocates were running amok in the community. Over the next two days, about 200 mostly student protesters gathered on the campus of South Carolina State University, a historically black college in Orangeburg, to demonstrate against the continued segregation at the bowling alley. Conflict: On the night of February 8, 1968, students started a bonfire on the front of SC State's campus. As police and firefighters attempted to put out the fire, officer David Shealy was injured by a thrown object. Shortly thereafter (around 10:30 p.m.) South Carolina Highway Patrol Officers began firing into the crowd of around 200 protesters. Eight Patrol Officers fired carbines, shotguns, and revolvers at the protesters, which lasted around 10 to 15 seconds. Twenty-seven people were injured in the shooting; most of whom were shot in the back as they were running away, and three African American men were killed. The three men killed were Samuel Hammond, Henry Smith (both SCSU students), and Delano Middleton, a student at the local Wilkinson High School. Middleton was shot while simply sitting on the steps of the freshman dormitory awaiting the end of his mother's work shift. The police later said that they believed they were under attack by small arms fire. A newspaper reported, "About 200 Negros gathered and began sniping with what sounded like 'at least one automatic, a shotgun and other small caliber weapons' and throwing bricks and bottles at the patrolmen." Similarly, a North Carolina newspaper reported that week that students threw firebombs at buildings and that the sound of apparent sniper fire was heard. Protesters insisted that they did not fire at police officers, but threw objects and insulted the men. Evidence that police were being fired upon at the time of the incident was inconclusive, and no evidence was presented in court, as a result of investigations, that protesters were armed or had fired on officers. Aftermath: At a press conference the following day, Governor Robert E. McNair said the event was " of the saddest days in the history of South Carolina". McNair blamed the deaths on outside Black Power agitators and said the incident took place off campus, contrary to the evidence. The federal government brought charges against the state patrolmen in the first federal trial of police officers for using excessive force at a campus protest. The state patrol officers' defense was that they felt they were in danger and protesters had shot at the officers first. All nine defendants were acquitted although thirty-six witnesses stated that they did not hear gunfire coming from the protesters on the campus before the shooting and no students were found to be carrying guns. In a state trial in 1970, the activist Cleveland Sellers was convicted of a charge of riot related to the events on February 6 at the bowling alley. He served seven months in state prison, getting time off for good behavior. He was the national program director of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). In 1973 he wrote The River of No Return: The Autobiography of a Black Militant and the Life and Death of SNCC. Twenty-five years later, Sellers was officially pardoned by the governor of South Carolina. List of those involved- Deaths: -Samuel Ephesians Hammond Jr., 18 -Delano Herman Middleton, 17 -Henry Ezekial Smith, 19 Injuries: -Herman Boller Jr., 19 -Johnny Bookhart, 19 -Thompson Braddy, 20 -Bobby K. Burton, 22 -Ernest Raymond Carson, 17 -John Carson -Louise Kelly Cawley, 25 -Robert Lee Davis Jr., 19 -Albert Dawson, 18 -Bobby Eaddy, 17 -John H. Elliot -Herbert Gadson, 19 -Samuel Grant, 19 -Samuel Grate, 19 -Joseph Hampton, 21 -Charles W. Hildebrand, 19 -Nathaniel Jenkins, 21 -Thomas Kennerly, 21 -Joe Lambright, 21 -Emma McCain, 19 -Richard McPherson, 19 -Harvey Lee Miller, 15 -Harold Riley, 20 -Cleveland Sellers, 23 -Patrolman David Shealy -Ernest Shuler, 16 -Jordan Simmons III, 21 -Ronald Smith, 19 -Frankie Thomas, 18 -Robert Watson, 19 -Robert Lee Williams, 19 -Savannah Williams, 19 Highway Patrol personnel: -Patrol Lieutenant Jesse Alfred Spell, 45 -Patrol Lieutenant David E Parker,Sr, 43 -Sgt. Henry Morrell Addy, 37 -Sgt. Sidney C. Taylor, 43 -Corporal Joseph Howard Lanier, 32 -Corporal Norwood F. Bellamy, 50 -Patrolman First Class John William Brown, 31 -Patrolman First Class Colie Merle Metts, 36 -Patrolman Allen Jerome Russell, 24 -Patrolman Edward H. Moore, 30 -Patrolman Robert Sanders, 44 – was not charged in the massacre, but reportedly later made self-incriminating statements about having shot at some of the rioters. Footnotes: -The injuries received by patrolman David Shealy preceded police opening fire on the crowd by five minutes -Cleveland Sellers was later arrested and convicted of starting the riot. He received a full pardon in 1993. -John Carson was beaten by highway patrol after he started questioning their involvement. -Louise Kelly Cawley was pregnant at the time of her being beaten and sprayed with a chemical. One week after the incident, she suffered a miscarriage. =John H. Elliot was later added to the list of those injured. He was shot in the stomach but did not go to the hospital for treatment. Media coverage: This was the first incident of its kind on a United States university campus. The Orangeburg killings received relatively little media coverage. The events predated the 1970 Kent State shootings and Jackson State killings, in which protesters against the Vietnam War were killed by the National Guard, and by the local and state highway patrol, respectively. The perceived overreaction by law enforcement helped galvanize public opinion against the war as well. The historian Jack Bass attributed the discrepancy in media coverage in part due to the Orangeburg incident occurring after large-scale urban riots, which made it seem small by comparison. It may not have been considered as newsworthy, especially since the shootings occurred at night, when media coverage, especially any television news, was less. In addition, the victims at Orangeburg were mostly young black men protesting against local segregation. Linda Meggett Brown wrote that subsequent events in the spring of 1968—the assassinations of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Robert Kennedy, the Democratic presidential candidate, and the Tet Offensive in Vietnam—overshadowed the events at Orangeburg. At Kent State, by contrast, Bass noted that the victims were young white students protesting against the U.S. war in Vietnam, which had become increasingly unpopular and a highly politicized, national issue. They were attacked by members of the National Guard, which the media may have judged was a more inflammatory aspect of the shootings. The black students at Jackson State were also protesting against the war, and the killings there took place shortly after those at Kent State. It appeared that law enforcement and university administrations had no idea about how to handle campus unrest. There was widespread public outrage over the events. Legacy: -South Carolina State University's gymnasium is named in memory of the three men who were killed. A monument was erected on campus in their honor and the site has been marked. All-Star Triangle Bowl became integrated. -On August 9, 2013, a work crew fixed a spelling error on the Orangeburg Massacre Monument. Delano H. Middleton's name was mistakenly listed as Delano B. Middleton. One theory for the incorrect initial is that it was pulled from Middleton's nickname "Bump". The error went unnoticed for over 40 years. -In 2001 Governor Jim Hodges attended the university's annual memorial of the event, the first governor to do so. That same year, on the 33rd anniversary of the killings, an oral history project featured eight survivors telling their stories at a memorial service. It was the first time that survivors had been recognized at the memorial event. Robert Lee Davis told an interviewer, "One thing I can say is that I'm glad you all are letting us do the talking, the ones that were actually involved, instead of outsiders that weren't there, to tell you exactly what happened." -A joint resolution was introduced in the South Carolina state general assembly in 2003, and re-introduced in each of the next three sessions of the legislature, to establish an official investigation of the events of February 8, 1968, and to establish February 8 as a day of remembrance for the students killed and wounded in the protest. However, the legislature never voted on the resolution. -The Orangeburg massacre was the subject of two films released on the 40th anniversary of the massacre, in April 2008: Scarred Justice: The Orangeburg Massacre, 1968 by documentary filmmakers Bestor Cram and Judy Richardson; and Black Magic by Dan Klores.