Friday, March 31, 2017
In the early morning hours of March 26, 2017, a shootout occurred at the Cameo nightclub in southeastern Cincinnati, Ohio. One person was killed and 17 others were injured. No arrests were made in the aftermath of the shootout. Events: The shootout occurred around 1:30 a.m. EDT at Cameo nightclub. The club itself is a large single-story structure, located directly to the west of the Cincinnati Municipal Lunken Airport, 7 miles (11 km) from downtown Cincinnati near the southeast corner of the city. It was previously called Club Cameo, and before that, a gay club known as Adonis. Police believe multiple shooters were involved, though this is disputed. Hundreds of people were in the nightclub when the shooting began, with officers describing the crime scene as "chaotic". The club maintains a high security profile, usually posting two off-duty police officers at the front door and two in their parking lot. There is no indication the incident was terrorism related. The perpetrator or perpetrators are currently unknown and believed to be at large. Cincinnati Assistant police chief Paul Neudigate later tweeted that only one gunman was reported. The event was initially believed to be a mass shooting. On March 27, however, Chief Isaac stated that the shooting occurred after several local men who were patrons at the club got into an argument, which later escalated into a shootout between them. Victims: Several of the injured drove themselves to area hospitals, and some had sustained life-threatening injuries, according to police officials. Eight victims were taken to University of Cincinnati Medical Center, one of whom was in critical condition. Of the remaining, three suffered serious injuries, while four were stable. Two additional victims were taken to The Christ Hospital with minor injuries. Others were treated at Bethesda North Hospital, Mercy West Hospital and Anderson Mercy Hospital. Officers at the scene attempted to administer CPR to the individual that died, but were unsuccessful.
The stabbing of Timothy Caughman took place on March 20, 2017 in Manhattan, New York City. Caughman, a retiree, was collecting cans for recycling when James Harris Jackson, a 28-year-old Afghan War veteran, allegedly approached him and stabbed him multiple times. Caughman later died of his injuries. Caughman was African-American, and Jackson is white. The killing was allegedly motivated by white supremacy. Attack: Jackson traveled by bus from his home in Baltimore, Maryland to New York City on March 17 with the intention of killing black men in order to prevent white women from having interracial relationships with them, according to reports. He stayed at the The Hotel Times Square on W. 46th Street. On March 20, Jackson allegedly walked up to Caughman with an 18-inch sword and stabbed him to death in the Hell's Kitchen neighborhood. Jackson turned himself in to police on March 22. According to police, Jackson told them that he planned to attack more black men in Times Square. Victim: Caughman was born in 1950 or 1951 in Jamaica, Queens. His parents were a home health care aide and a pastor. He was raised in the South Jamaica Houses in Queens. He graduated from Brooklyn College with an associate's degree and earned a living as a social service worker. He took up can and bottle recycling to earn money and keep busy. For the last 20 years of his life, he lived on West 36 Street in Manhattan, in a building known as The Barbour Hotel. It is now housing for people transitioning out of homelessness, but Caughman was not homeless. Perpetrator: The attacker, James Harris Jackson, later turned himself in to the police and said he had targeted Caughman for being black. Jackson, a Baltimore, Maryland native, said he took the bus to Manhattan to kill black men, whom he said he had hated for over ten years. Jackson said he picked New York because he wanted to make a statement. He was charged with second-degree murder at a March 23 arraignment, though the prosecutor is reportedly working on upgrading the charge to the first degree, as well as adding a hate crime charge. He did not apply for bail and is being held pending his next court date March 27. Legal proceedings: On March 27, Jackson was charged with one count each of murder in the first and second degrees as an act of terrorism, second-degree murder as a hate crime, and three counts of criminal possession of a weapon in the New York State Supreme Court.
Thursday, March 30, 2017
Wednesday, March 29, 2017
Tuesday, March 28, 2017
Monday, March 27, 2017
Sunday, March 26, 2017
Friday, March 24, 2017
Thursday, March 23, 2017
Wednesday, March 22, 2017
Hermès International S.A., Hermes of Paris, or simply Hermès is a French high fashion luxury goods manufacturer established in 1837, today specializing in leather, lifestyle accessories, home furnishings, perfumery, jewellery, watches and ready-to-wear. Its logo, since the 1950s, is of a Duc carriage with horse. Nadège Vanhee-Cybulski is the creative director. History- Beginnings in the 19th century: Thierry Hermès (1801–1878) was born in Krefeld (Germany) to a French father and a German mother. The family moved to France in 1828. In 1837, Thierry Hermès first established Hermès as a harness workshop in the Grands Boulevards quarter of Paris, dedicated to serving European noblemen. He created high-quality wrought harnesses and bridles for the carriage trade, winning several awards including the first prize in its class in 1855 and again in 1867 at the Expositions Universelles in Paris. Hermès's son, Charles-Émile Hermès, took over management from his father and moved the shop in 1880 to 24 rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré where it remains to this day. With the help of his sons Adolphe and Émile-Maurice, Charles-Émile introduced saddlery and started selling his products retail. The company catered to the élite of Europe, North Africa, Russia, Asia, and the Americas. In 1900, the firm offered the Haut à Courroies bag, specially designed for riders to carry their saddles with them. Hermès Frères era: After Charles-Émile Hermès's retirement, sons Adolphe and Émile-Maurice took leadership and renamed the company Hermès Frères. Shortly after, Émile-Maurice began furnishing the czar of Russia with saddles. By 1914, up to 80 saddle craftsmen were employed. Subsequently, Émile-Maurice was granted the exclusive rights to use the zipper for leather goods and clothing, becoming the first to introduce the device in France. In 1918, Hermès introduced the first leather golf jacket with a zipper, made for Edward, Prince of Wales. Because of its exclusive rights arrangement the zipper became known in France as the fermeture Hermès (Hermès fastener). Throughout the 1920s when he was the sole head of the firm, Émile-Maurice added an accessory collection and a clothing collection. He also groomed his three sons-in-law (Robert Dumas, Jean-René Guerrand and Francis Puech) as business partners. In 1922, the first leather handbags were introduced after Émile-Maurice's wife complained of not being able to find one to her liking. Émile-Maurice created the handbag collection himself. In 1924, Hermès established a presence in the United States and opened two shops in French resorts. In 1929, the first women's couture apparel collection was previewed in Paris. During the 1930s Hermès introduced some of its most recognized original goods such as the leather Sac à dépêches in 1935 (later renamed the "Kelly bag" after Grace Kelly), and the Hermès carrés (scarves) in 1937. The Hermès scarves became integrated into French culture. In 1938, the Chaîne d'ancre bracelet and the riding jacket and outfit joined the classic collection. By this point, the company's designers began to draw inspirations from paintings, books, and objets d'art. The 1930s also witnessed Hermès's entrance into the United States market by offering its products in a Neiman Marcus department store in New York; however, it later withdrew. In 1949, the same year as the launch of the Hermès silk tie, the first perfume, Eau d'Hermès, was produced. Starting in the mid-1930s, Hermès employed Swiss watchmaker Universal Genève as the brand's first and exclusive designer of timepieces, producing a line of men's wrist chronographs (manufactured in 18K gold or stainless steel) and women's art deco cuff watches (in 18K gold, steel or platinum). Both models contained dials signed either as "Hermès" or "Hermès Universal Genève", while the watch movements were signed "Universal Genève S.A.". The Hermès/Universal partnership would last until the 1950s. Émile-Maurice summarized the Hermès philosophy during his leadership as "leather, sport, and a tradition of refined elegance." Post-Émile-Maurice Hermès: Robert Dumas-Hermès (1898–1978), who succeeded Émile-Maurice after his death in 1951, closely collaborated with brother-in-law Jean-René Guerrand. Dumas became the first man not directly descended from Hermès père to lead the company because his connection to the family was only through marriage. Thus, he incorporated the Hermès last name into his own, Dumas-Hermès.The company also acquired its duc-carriage-with-horse logo and signature orange boxes in the early 1950s. Dumas introduced original handbags, jewelry, and accessories and was particularly interested in design possibilities with the silk scarves. Ironically, during the mid-20th century, scarf production diminished. World Tempus, a Web portal dedicated to watchmaking, states: "Brought to life by the magic wand of Annie Beaumel, the windows of the store on Faubourg Saint-Honoré became a theatre of enchantment and established the store as a Parisian meeting-place for international celebrities." In 1956, a photo of Grace Kelly, who had become the new Princess of Monaco, was shown carrying the Sac à dépêches bag in a photography in Life. Purportedly, she held it in front of herself to cover up her pregnancy. Thus, the public began calling it the "Kelly" bag. The name was subsequently adopted by Hermès, and the bag became hugely popular. The perfume business became a subsidiary in 1961, concurrently with the introduction of the Calèche scent, named after a hooded four-wheeled horse carriage, known since the 18th century – the Company's logo since fifties. (In 2004, Jean-Claude Ellena became the in-house perfumer or "nose" and created the successful Hermessence line of fragrances as well as others.) The rise and fall and rise of Hermès: Despite the company's apparent success in the 1970s, exemplified by multiple shops being established worldwide, Hermès began to decline, compared to competitors. Some industry observers have assigned the cause to Hermès's insistence on the exclusive use of natural materials for its products, unlike other companies that were calling on new man-made materials. During a two-week lapse in orders, the Hermès workrooms were silent. The renewed success of Hermes fragrances' endeavors in the marketplace was probably due to the public's increasing paradigm shift of back to things 'natural,' as opposed to artificial, a point that undoubtedly contributed to reestablishing Hermes fragrances as a major player in the fragrances marketplace. Jean-Louis Dumas, the son of Robert Dumas-Hermès, became chairman in 1978 and had the firm concentrate on silk and leather goods and ready-to-wear, adding new product groups to those made with its traditional techniques. Unlike his father, Jean-Louis was related to the Hermès family maternally. Travelling extensively and marrying Rena Greforiadès, he entered the buyer-training program at Bloomingdale's, the New York department store. Having joined the family firm in 1964, he was instrumental in turning around its downhill progression. Dumas brought in designers Eric Bergère and Bernard Sanz to revamp the apparel collection and, in collaboration, added unusual entries. They included the python motorcycle jackets and ostrich-skin jeans, which were dubbed as "a snazzier version of what Hermès has been all along." (Annual sales in 1978, when Jean-Louis became head of the firm, were reported at US$50 million. By 1990, annual sales were reported at US$460 million, mainly due to Dumas's strategy.) In 1979, Jean-Louis launched an advertising campaign featuring a young, denim-clad woman wearing an Hermès scarf. The purpose was to introduce the Hermès brand to a new set of consumers. As one fashion-sector observer noted, "Much of what bears the still-discreet Hermès label changed from the object of an old person's nostalgia to the subject of young peoples' dreams." However, Dumas's change-of-image gesture created outrage both within and outside of the firm. Also in the 1970s, the watch subsidiary, La Montre Hermès, was established in Bienne, Switzerland. Then, throughout the 1980s, Dumas strengthened the company's hold on its suppliers, resulting in Hermès's gaining great stakes in prominent French glassware, silverware acquiring venerable tableware manufacturers such as Puiforcat, St. Louis, and Périgord. Growth: From the 1980s, tableware became a strong segment of the firm. And, overall, the collection of Hermès goods expanded in 1990 to include over 30,000 pieces. New materials used in the collection included porcelain and crystal. Hermès relocated its workshops and design studios to Pantin, just outside Paris. By June 1993 and possibly a grave mistake, Hermès had gone public on the Paris Bourse (stock exchange). At the time, the equity sale generated great excitement. The 425,000 shares floated at FFr 300 (US$55 at the time) were oversubscribed by 34 times. Dumas told Forbes magazine that the equity sale would help lessen family tensions by allowing some members to liquidate their holdings without "squabbling over share valuations among themselves." To this point in time, the Hermès family was still retaining a strong hold of about 80% in stocks, placing Jean-Louis Dumas and the entire family on the Forbes list of billionaires. Mimi Tompkins of U.S. News & World Report called the company "one of Paris' best guarded jewels." In the years to follow, Dumas began to decrease Hermès franchises from 250 to 200 and increased company-owned stores from 60 to 100 to better control sales of its products. The plan was to cost about FFr 200 million in the short term but was to increase profits in the long term. Having around FFr 500 million to invest, Hermès pressed ahead, targeting China for company-operated boutiques, finally opening a store in Beijing in 1996. In 1997, Jean-Louis hired Belgian modernist designer Martin Margiela to supervise women's ready-to-wear. By the late 1990s, Hermès continued extensively to diminish the number of franchised stores, buying them up and opening more company-operated boutiques. The fashion industry was caught off guard in September 1999, when Jean-Louis decided to pay FFr 150 million for a 35% stake in the Jean-Paul Gaultier fashion house. In the latter part of the 1900s, the company encouraged its clientele to faites nous rêver (make us dream), producing throughout the period artistically atypical orders. The 2000s to today: In 2000, the first John Lobb footwear store was opened in. In 2003, iconoclastic Margiela left Hermès, and the highly controversial Jean-Paul Gaultier, as the head designer, debuted his first ready-to-wear collection for fall/winter 2004–05. After 28 years as head of the firm, Jean-Louis Robert Guillame Frédéric Dumas-Hermès retired from the firm in January 2006. Known for his charm and one of Europe's greatest experts on luxury, he died in 2010 after a long illness. Patrick Thomas, who had joined the company in 1989 and who had worked with Jean-as the co-CEO from 2005, replaced him that month. Thomas became the first non-Hermès to head the company. Jean-Louis's son Pierre-Alexis Dumas is the artistic director. Designers: The designers throughout the company's history have included Lola Prusac, Jacques Delahaye, Catherine de Karolyi, Monsieur Levaillant, Nicole de Vesian, Eric Bergère, Claude Brouet, Tan Giudicelli, Marc Audibet, Mariot Chane, Martin Margiela, Jean Paul Gaultier, Christophe Lemaire, Véronique Nichanian (current menswear designer), Nadège Vanhee-Cybulski. Goods and products: Known for luxury goods, As of 2008, Hermès has 14 product divisions encompassing leather, scarves, ties, men's wear, women's fashion, perfume, watches, stationery, footwear, gloves, enamel, decorative arts, tableware, and jewellery. Hermès sales are composed of about 30% leather goods, 15% clothes, 12% scarves, and 43% other wares. The company licenses no products and keeps tight control over the design and manufacture of its vast inventory. The family company is very attached to its old-fashioned business model and rejects mass production, assembly lines, and mechanization. Hermès goods are almost entirely made in France by hand in middle-sized workshops ("Ateliers Hermès") with an emphasis on quality manufacturing. Indeed, Hermès claims most items are fabricated from beginning to end by one person only, which is supposed to be a guarantee of the quality and uniqueness of Hermès products. In 2012, Hermès retail outlets changed its policy regarding returns and exchanges of products. Consumers may only exchange items within ten days of purchase, and only for another color variant of the original purchase. No other post-purchase exchanges are permitted and refunds are never offered, regardless of the consumer having a receipt. The Hermès Foundation: The Hermès Foundation was launched in 2008. It is chaired by Pierre-Alexis Dumas, artistic director of Hermes, and directed by Catherine Tsekenis. The Foundation embodies the will of the group to gather sponsorship activities by engaging in supporting creation and craftsmanship. In 2010, It launched the Emile Hermès Prize which rewards every two years an innovative project in the field of design. In 2014, three winners shared the first prize chaired by Italian architect Michele De Lucchi: Johan Brunel and Samuel Misslen for their ‘’Ventilated Capsule’’ ; Antoine Lesur and Marc Venot for ‘’Hut’’ and finally Paul Tubiana for ‘’Leon’’. In 2012, the Foundation participated in the ‘’New Settings’’ show for the promotion of the arts. In 2013, the Foundation supported the exhibition of works by young artists shown at the Palace of Tokyo. In January 2014, the Hermès Foundation has pledged support, for a period of three years, to the Cité internationale of Aubusson tapestry. Shareholder structure: At 31 December 2010, the Hermès family collectively owned a 62.79% stake in Hermès International S.A. through a number of individual and company holdings; the stake entitled the family to 73.96% of voting rights in the company. The luxury goods conglomerate LVMH held 20.21% of shares (amassed in the latter half of 2010) and 13.08% of votes at the same date, with 0.39% of shares held as treasury stock and the remaining 16.61% free float. Speculation that LVMH will launch a takeover bid for Hermès has been repeatedly denied by its chairman Bernard Arnault. Some industry insiders are in doubt, such as René Weber, an analyst at Zürich's Bank Vontobel, who has claimed: "Arnault is not afraid of a fight and a lot of his battles have been successful for him and his shareholders. Whether he can eventually succeed with a takeover of Hermès is still an open question." Bertrand Puech, who chairs the main Hermès family holding company, has criticised LVMH's acquisition of Hermès shares and called on the company to reduce its stake by half.
Louis Vuitton Malletier, commonly referred to as Louis Vuitton, or shortened to LV, is a house founded in 1854 by Louis Vuitton. The label's LV monogram appears on most of its products, ranging from luxury trunks and leather goods to ready-to-wear, shoes, watches, jewelry, accessories, sunglasses and books. Louis Vuitton is one of the world's leading international fashion houses; it sells its products through standalone boutiques, lease departments in high-end department stores, and through the e-commerce section of its website. For six consecutive years, Louis Vuitton was named the world's most valuable luxury brand. Its 2012 valuation was US$25.9 billion. The 2013 valuation of the brand was US$28.4 billion with revenue of US$9.4 billion. The company operates in 50 countries with more than 460 stores worldwide. History- Founding to World War II: The Louis Vuitton label was founded by Vuitton in 1854 on Rue Neuve des Capucines in Paris, France. Louis Vuitton had observed that the HJ Cave Osilite trunk could be easily stacked and in 1858, Vuitton introduced his flat-bottom trunks with trianon canvas, making them lightweight and airtight. Before the introduction of Vuitton's trunks, rounded-top trunks were used, generally to promote water run off, and thus could not be stacked. It was Vuitton's gray Trianon canvas flat trunk that allowed the ability to stack with ease for voyages. Many other luggagemakers imitated LV's style and design. The company participated in the 1867 Universal Exhibition in Paris. To protect against the duplication of his look, Vuitton changed the Trianon design to a beige and brown stripes design in 1876. By 1885, the company opened its first store in London on Oxford Street. Soon there after, due to the continuing imitation of his look, in 1888, Vuitton created the Damier Canvas pattern, which bore a logo that reads "marque L. Vuitton déposée", which translates into "L. Vuitton registered trademark". In 1892, Lewis Vuitton died, and the company's management passed to his son. After the death of his father, Georges Vuitton began a campaign to build the company into a worldwide corporation, exhibiting the company's products at the Chicago World's Fair in 1893. In 1896, the company launched the signature Monogram Canvas and made the worldwide patents on it. Its graphic symbols, including quatrefoils and flowers (as well as the LV monogram), were based on the trend of using Japanese Mon designs in the late Victorian era. The patents later proved to be successful in stopping counterfeiting. In this same year, Georges traveled to the United States, where he toured cities such as New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago, selling Vuitton products. In 1901, the Louis Vuitton Company introduced the Steamer Bag, a smaller piece of luggage designed to be kept inside Vuitton luggage trunks. By 1913, the Louis Vuitton Building opened on the Champs-Elysees. It was the largest travel-goods store in the world at the time. Stores also opened in New York, Bombay, Washington, London, Alexandria, and Buenos Aires as World War I began. Afterwards, in 1930, the Keepall bag was introduced. During 1932, LV introduced the Noé bag. This bag was originally made for champagne vintners to transport bottles. Soon thereafter, the Louis Vuitton Speedy bag was introduced (both are still manufactured today). In 1936 Georges Vuitton died, and his son, Gaston-Louis Vuitton, assumed control of the company. Collaboration: During World War II, Louis Vuitton collaborated with the Nazis during the German occupation of France. The French book Louis Vuitton, A French Saga, authored by French journalist Stephanie Bonvicini and published by Paris-based Editions Fayard tells how members of the Vuitton family actively aided the puppet government led by Marshal Philippe Pétain and increased their wealth from their business affairs with the Germans. The family set up a factory dedicated to producing artifacts glorifying Pétain, including more than 2,500 busts. Caroline Babulle, a spokeswoman for the publisher, Fayard, said: "They have not contested anything in the book, but they are trying to bury it by pretending it doesn't exist." Responding to the book's release in 2004, a spokesman for LVMH said: "This is ancient history. The book covers a period when it was family-run and long before it became part of LVMH. We are diverse, tolerant and all the things a modern company should be." An LVMH spokesman told the satirical magazine Le Canard Enchainé: "We don't deny the facts, but regrettably the author has exaggerated the Vichy episode. We haven't put any pressure on anyone. If the journalists want to censor themselves, then that suits us fine." That publication was the only French periodical to mention the book, LVMH is the country's biggest advertiser in the press. 1945 through 2000: During this period, Louis Vuitton began to incorporate leather into most of its products, which ranged from small purses and wallets to larger pieces of luggage. In order to broaden its line, the company revamped its signature Monogram Canvas in 1959 to make it more supple, allowing it to be used for purses, bags, and wallets. It is believed that in the 1920s, counterfeiting returned as a greater issue to continue on into the 21st century. In 1966, the Papillon was launched (a cylindrical bag that is still popular today). By 1977 with annual revenue up to 70 million Francs ($14.27 million US$). A year later, the label opened its first stores in Japan: in Tokyo and Osaka. In 1983, the company joined with America's Cup to form the Louis Vuitton Cup, a preliminary competition (known as an eliminatory regatta) for the yacht race. Louis Vuitton later expanded its presence in Asia with the opening of a store in Taipei, Taiwan in 1983 and Seoul, South Korea in 1984. In the following year, 1985, the Epi leather line was introduced. 1987 saw the creation of LVMH. Moët et Chandon and Hennessy, leading manufacturers of champagne and cognac, merged respectively with Louis Vuitton to form the luxury goods conglomerate. Profits for 1988 were reported to have been up by 49% more than in 1987. By 1989, Louis Vuitton came to operate 130 stores worldwide. Entering the 1990s, Yves Carcelle was named president of LV, and in 1992, his brand opened its first Chinese location at the Palace Hotel in Beijing. Further products became introduced such as the Taiga leather line in 1993, and the literature collection of Voyager Avec... in 1994. In 1996, the celebration of the Centennial of the Monogram Canvas was held in seven cities worldwide. In 1997, Louis Vuitton made Marc Jacobs its Artistic Director. In March of the following year, he designed and introduced the company's first "prêt-à-porter" line of clothing for men and women. Also in this year products introduced included the Monogram Vernis line, the LV scrapbooks, and the Louis Vuitton City Guide. The last events in the 20th century were the release of the mini monogram line in 1999, the opening of the first store in Africa in Marrakech, Morocco in 2000, and finally the auction at the International Film Festival in Venice, Italy, where the vanity case "amfAR" designed by Sharon Stone was sold with the proceeds going to The Foundation for AIDS Research (also in 2000). 2001 to 2011: By 2001, Stephen Sprouse, in collaboration with Marc Jacobs, designed a limited-edition line of Vuitton bags that featured graffiti written over the monogram pattern. The graffiti read Louis Vuitton and, on certain bags, the name of the bag (such as Keepall and Speedy). Certain pieces, which featured the graffiti without the Monogram Canvas background, were only available on Louis Vuitton's V.I.P. customer list. Jacobs also created the charm bracelet, the first ever piece of jewelry from LV, within the same year. In 2002, the Tambour watch collection was introduced. During this year, the LV building in Tokyo's Ginza district was opened, and the brand collaborated with Bob Wilson for its Christmas windows sceneography. In 2003, Takashi Murakami, in collaboration with Marc Jacobs, masterminded the new Monogram Multicolore canvas range of handbags and accessories. This range included the monograms of the standard Monogram Canvas, but in 33 different colors on either a white or black background. (The classic canvas features gold monograms on a brown background.) Murakami also created the Cherry Blossom pattern, in which smiling cartoon faces in the middle of pink and yellow flowers were sporadically placed atop the Monogram Canvas. This pattern appeared on a limited number of pieces. The production of this limited-edition run was discontinued in June 2003. Within 2003, the stores in Moscow, Russia and in New Delhi, India were opened, the Utah and Suhali leather lines were released, and the 20th anniversary of the LV Cup was held. In 2004, Louis Vuitton celebrated its 150th anniversary. The brand also inaugurated stores in New York City (on Fifth Avenue), São Paulo, Mexico City, Cancun and Johannesburg. It also opened its first global store in Shanghai. By 2005, Louis Vuitton reopened its Champs-Élysées store in Paris designed by the American Architect Eric Carlson, and released the Speedy watch collection. In 2006, LV held the inauguration of the Espace Louis Vuitton on its 7th floor. In 2008, Louis Vuitton released the Damier Graphite canvas. The canvas features the classic Damier pattern but in black and grey, giving it a masculine look and urban feel. Also in 2008, Pharrell Williams co-designed a series of jewelry ("Blason") and glasses for Louis Vuitton. In 2010, Louis Vuitton opened what it described as their most luxurious store in London. In early 2011, Louis Vuitton hired Kim Jones as its "Men Ready-to-Wear Studio and Style Director". He became the lead designer of menswear while working under the company-wide artistic directorship of Marc Jacobs. On 17 September 2011, Louis Vuitton opened its first Island Maison (island mansion) in Singapore, the first 'maison' to be opened in South-east Asia. 2012 to present: As of September 2013, the company hired Darren Spaziani to lead its accessory collection. On 4 November 2013, the company confirmed that Nicolas Ghesquière had been hired to replace Marc Jacobs as artistic director of women's collections. Ghesquière's first line for the company was shown in Paris in March 2014. On 7 April 2014, Edouard Schneider became the head of press and public relations at Louis Vuitton under Frédéric Winckler, who is Vuitton's communications and events director. Brand: The Louis Vuitton brand and the LV monogram are among the world's most valuable brands. According to a Millward Brown 2010 study, Louis Vuitton is the world's 19th most valuable brand, right after Gillette and before Wells Fargo. The brand itself is estimated to be worth over US$19 billion. For six consecutive years, Louis Vuitton was number one of the ten most powerful brands list published by the Millward Brown Optimor's 2011 BrandZ study with value of $24.3 billion. It was more than double the value of the second ranking brand. Louis Vuitton is one of the most counterfeited brands in the fashion world due to its image as a status symbol. Ironically, the signature Monogram Canvas was created to prevent counterfeiting. In 2004, Louis Vuitton fakes accounted for 18% of counterfeit accessories seized in the European Union. The company actively seeks to tackle counterfeiting, and employs a team of lawyers and special investigation agencies to pursue offenders through the courts worldwide. The company allocates approximately half of its communications budget to counteract counterfeiting of its goods. LVMH (Vuitton's parent company) further confirmed this by stating: "Some 60 people at various levels of responsibility working full-time on anti-counterfeiting in collaboration with a wide network of outside investigators and a team of lawyers." The company closely controls the distribution of its products. Until the 1980s, Vuitton products were widely sold in department stores (e.g., Neiman Marcus and Saks Fifth Avenue). Today, Vuitton products are primarily available at authentic Louis Vuitton boutiques, with a small number of exceptions. These boutiques are commonly found in upscale shopping districts or inside luxury department stores. The boutiques within department stores operate independently from the department and have their own LV managers and employees. LV has an online store, through its main website, as an authorized channel to market its products. In 2006, the company attempted to have the LV.com domain name compulsorily transferred to it from its American proprietor; the action failed and the domain was subsequently acquired by LV=, an English friendly society/insurance company. Products: Since the 19th century, Louis Vuitton trunks have been made by hand. Contemporary Fashion gives a preview of the creation of the LV trunks: "The craftsmen line up the leather and canvas, tapping in the tiny nails one by one and securing the five-letter solid pick-proof brass locks with an individual handmade key, designed to allow the traveler to have only one key for all of his or her luggage. The wooden frames of each trunk are made of 30-year-old poplar that has been allowed to dry for at least four years. Each trunk has a serial number and can take up to 60 hours to make, and a suitcase as many as 15 hours." Iconic bags of Louis Vuitton include the Speedy bag and Neverfull bags. Each season Louis Vuitton produces rare, limited edition bags that are generally only available by reservation through larger Louis Vuitton stores. Many of the company's products utilize the brown Damier and Monogram Canvas materials, both of which were first used in the late 19th century. All of the company's products exhibit the eponymous LV initials. The company markets its product through its own stores located throughout the world, which allows it to control product quality and pricing. It also allows LV to prevent counterfeit products entering its distribution channels. In addition, the company distributes its products through the company's own website, LouisVuitton.com. Advertising campaigns: The Louis Vuitton company seeks to cultivate a celebrity following and has used famous models, musicians, and actors such as Keith Richards, Madonna, Sean Connery, Michelle Williams, Matthias Schoenaerts, Jennifer Connelly, Hayden Christensen, Angelina Jolie, Gisele Bündchen and most recently David Bowie in its marketing campaigns. On 2 August 2007, the company announced that the former USSR leader Mikhail Gorbachev would appear in an ad campaign along with Steffi Graf and Catherine Deneuve. Many rappers, most notably Kanye West, Juicy J and Wiz Khalifa have mentioned the company in certain songs. The company commonly uses print ads in magazines and billboards in cosmopolitan cities. Louis Vuitton Posters by Razzia were popular in the 1980s. It previously relied on selected press for its advertising campaigns (frequently involving prestigious stars like Steffi Graf, Andre Agassi and Catherine Deneuve) shot by Annie Leibovitz. However, Antoine Arnault, director of the communication department, has recently decided to enter the world of television and cinema: The commercial (90 seconds) is exploring the theme "Where will life take you?" and is translated into 13 different languages. This is the first Vuitton commercial ad ever and was directed by renowned French ad director Bruno Aveillan. Special collaborations: Louis Vuitton has had many collaborations with prominent artists and designers. Takashi Murakami created special edition collections, such as the Monogramouflage Collection, which debuted in 2008, and a previous collection, released in 2002, which featured some of his artwork. The creations were "painted" over the traditional monogram canvas, which brought a radical new twist to the timeless design. Marc Jacobs also commemorated a previous collaboration, designed by Stephen Sprouse. This collection, originally released in 2001, featured bold print that looked like graffiti, over the traditional canvas. The recreation of the collab used the same idea, but gave it a new twist using bold colors, like hot pink, neon green, and orange, that also glow in the dark. This recreated version of the graffiti collection was finally released in 2009 to much fanfare. Louis Vuitton also collaborated with Kanye West in 2009, designing his own limited run of shoes. Most recently, Jacobs teamed up with Yayoi Kusama to create the "Infitinetly Kusama" Collection, which features bold colors of dots over the vernis leather or the monogram canvas. These pieces come in black with white dots, red with white dots, and yellow with black dots. It was released in July 2012. Controversy and disputes- Britney Spears video: On 19 November 2007 Louis Vuitton, in further efforts to prevent counterfeiting, successfully sued Britney Spears for violating counterfeiting laws. A part of the music video for the song "Do Somethin'" shows fingers tapping on the dashboard of a hot pink Hummer with what looks like Louis Vuitton's "Cherry Blossom" design bearing the LV logo. Britney Spears herself was not found liable, but a civil court in Paris ordered Sony BMG and MTV Online to stop showing the video. They were also fined €80,000 to each group. An anonymous spokesperson for LVMH stated that the video constituted an "attack" on Louis Vuitton's brands and its luxury image. Simple Living: On 13 February 2007, Louis Vuitton sent a Cease and desist order to Danish art student Nadia Plesner for using an image of a bag that allegedly infringed Louis Vuitton's intellectual property rights. Plesner had created a satirical illustration, "Simple Living", depicting a malnourished child holding a designer dog and a designer bag, and used it on T-shirts and posters to raise funds for the charity "Divest for Darfur". On 25 March, the court ruled in favour of LV that the image was a clear infringement of copyright. Despite the ruling, Plesner continued to use the image, arguing artistic freedom, and posted copies of the Cease and desist order on her website. On 15 April 2008, Louis Vuitton notified Plesner of the lawsuit being brought against her. Louis Vuitton demanded $7,500 (5,000 Euro) for each day Plesner continues to sell the "Simple Living" products, $7,500 for each day the original Cease and desist letter is published on her website and $7,500 a day for using the name "Louis Vuitton" on her website, plus legal and enforcement costs. An LVMH spokeswoman interviewed by New York Magazine said that Louis Vuitton were forced to take legal action when Plesner did not respond to their original request to remove the contested image, nor to the subsequent Cease and desist order. In October 2008, Louis Vuitton declared that the company had dropped its lawsuit but have since reopened it along with a new €205,000 claim due to a painting by the same artist. In May 2011, the court in The Hague found in favour of Plesner's right to freedom of expression. Craftsmen advertisements: In May 2010, the British Advertising Standards Authority banned two of the company's advertising spots, depicting craftsmen at work on its products, for being in breach of its 'Truthfulness clause'. The ASA said that the evidence supplied by Louis Vuitton fell short of what was needed to prove the products were made by hand. The ASA said that the two adverts would lead consumers to interpret that Louis Vuitton bags and wallets were almost entirely hand-crafted, when they were predominantly created by machine. The ASA stated: 'We noted that we had not seen documentation that detailed the entire production process for Louis Vuitton products or that showed the proportion of their manufacture that was carried out by hand or by machine. Vuitton denied that their production was automated, arguing that over 100 stages were involved in the making of each bag; they however admitted that sewing machines had been used in production process.' Checker pattern chair in Hong Kong Barber shop: In February 2013, Louis Vuitton issued a complaint against the owner of a barber shop in Hong Kong for allegedly violating its intellectual property rights in relation to a stool using fabric coating that is similar to the checker pattern in Louis Vuitton's handbags. According to the Hong Kong-based Apple Daily newspaper, the company was seeking a compensation of HK$25,000 (around US$3,200) and the publication of an apology in the form of newspaper advertisement. The owner had sourced basic furniture and equipment from the PRC for starting his shop. Facing this accusation, the barber shop owner said he had no means to tackle Louis Vuitton and may have to close down his shop which has been operating for 1 year in a remote local district on Hong Kong Island. The controversy had caused tremendous concern on Hong Kong news forums and viral protest on Facebook pages. S-Lock copyright in Hong Kong: In another legal warning dated back to Sep 2012, Louis Vuitton had filed complaints against two small retail shops in Hong Kong for allegedly violating its intellectual property rights in relation to the "S-Lock" design for Louis Vuitton's handbags. According to the Hong Kong-based Apple Daily newspaper, the company was seeking a compensation of HK$40,000 (around $US 5,000) and a public apology in the newspaper. The shopkeeper refused to pay, and Louis Vuitton demanded further damages up to HK$150,000 in February 2013. The shop claimed to have sourced 2 such handbags from Japan at around HK$120, which it retailed at HK$220. In the case of the other small-shop selling 2 handbags, they argued with Louis Vuitton that the designs were different, and got LV's demand reduced to HK$5,000 (around US$640). The owner refused to pay and said they were ready to face LV in court.
Cédrika Provencher was a Canadian girl from Trois-Rivières, Quebec, Canada, who disappeared aged 9 on 31 July 2007. Her disappearance resulted in the biggest police search in Quebec's history. She was officially declared merely "missing" by Sûreté du Québec on 31 July 2007, but Quebec media believed that she was kidnapped. Despite the offer of a reward, her whereabouts remained unknown for more than eight years. On December 12, 2015, Quebec police announced that her remains had been found in Mauricie, Quebec. Disappearance and search: Cédrika was asked by a man to help search for a lost dog, and agreed to help. She cycled around the area, knocking on doors and asking residents if they had seen the dog. She was seen emerging from a wooded area with a friend, closely followed by a man. She was then seen on her bike in a local park and on various nearby streets. At 8:30 pm, her bicycle was found leaning against a fire hydrant on the corner of rues Chabanel and Chapais. On 3 August 2007, it was suggested that she had been abducted. On 8 August, the Sûreté du Québec issued a wanted notice for Cédrika, suggesting that she had voluntarily run away rather than being abducted, despite this the media continued to affirm that she had indeed been abducted. Many people assisted in the search for Cédrika, with no significant results. Between August 2007 and July 2008, various newspapers published information on various aspects of the search, but no concrete information surfaced to be able to find Cédrika or even to establish whether she was still alive. Discovery of remains: On December 11, 2015, three hunters stumbled upon a set of human remains in the woods in Saint-Maurice, a suburb of Trois-Rivières close to Highway 40, about 15 km from the last place Cédrika had been seen. On December 12, it was confirmed that the remains were Cédrika's although police had no further information at the time and said they would need to carry out further investigations. On December 16, Radio-Canada revealed that investigators were still looking for a person of interest who had been seen around the area where Cédrika disappeared. Arrest of Jonathan Bettez: On 29 August 2016, Jonathan Bettez was arrested and charged with six counts of possessing and distributing child pornography depicting children aged between 8 and 12 years of age. The police consider him the prime suspect in Cédrika's abduction and murder, and several investigators working on Cédrika's case are involved in questioning Bettez. In 2007, Bettez owned a red Acura car with silver door handles, which matches the description of a suspicious car seen at the time of the abduction. He has always refused to take a polygraph test or to cooperate in any way with the police. According to crime journalist Claude Poirier, Bettez was planning to flee to Switzerland, which has no extradition treaty with Canada.
Tuesday, March 21, 2017
Monday, March 20, 2017
The disappearance of Aisling Celine Symes, a two-year-old girl of Irish and New Zealand descent, occurred on 5 October 2009 in Auckland, New Zealand. It was initially thought the girl had been abducted, but on 12 October 2009 it was confirmed that a body had been located in a storm water drain on a property adjoining the one from where she went missing. The body was confirmed to be Aisling's. Aisling's parents are Angela and Allan Symes. Allan Symes is originally from Stradbally, County Waterford in Ireland. He had lived in New Zealand for 18 years at the time of Aisling's disappearance. The last known person to see Aisling was her five-year-old sister Caitlin. A description issued of an Asian woman believed to have been in the vicinity prompted a number of incidents where Asian mothers were targeted by curious members of the public. The disappearance attracted headlines in New Zealand and Ireland, particularly as child abduction is an unusual occurrence in New Zealand. One New Zealand police inspector claimed on Morning Ireland that only five children had disappeared in his country in the previous fifty years. The New Zealand Herald said nine children had disappeared without trace in the country in sixty years, at least two cases of which involved more than one child at a time. Forty members of the New Zealand police were quickly put on the case. This had risen to sixty by the end of the first week and was set to rise again before her body was located. Sophie Tedmanson of The Times and Paul Chapman of The Daily Telegraph compared Aisling's case to that of the disappearance of Madeleine McCann. Madeleine's parents, who had lived in New Zealand for a time prior to their marriage, said their "thoughts and prayers" were with the Symes family. The grandfather of Amber-Lee Cruickshank, a two-year-old child who disappeared in late 1992, also sent his regards, saying "It's not very nice, I tell you". Background: Aisling Symes was playing in the garden of her mother's childhood home on Longburn Road, Henderson, Auckland, with her five-year-old sister Caitlin at the time of her disappearance at approximately 17:00 local time on 5 October 2009. Aisling was playing with her newly purchased toy, a Pooh Bear. Angela Symes was cleaning the house and planning to sell it. She kept her daughters within sight and their dog was also nearby. Aisling and Caitlin joined their mother occasionally as she cleaned, even helping when she fixed a faulty washing machine. While working on the machine, Angela noticed Aisling had suddenly disappeared and commenced fifteen minutes of searching before calling in the police. There were initial fears that she had drowned in a creek that ran behind the property. At least one hundred people from across the city commenced a search which had ended by 9 October when Aisling was not found. Many brought their young children along to assist, overcome with fears that their own children could be at risk. Police also distributed leaflets containing photographs of Aisling. By 7 October, police expressed a fear that Aisling had been abducted. Police commenced door-to-door searches. Bilingual speakers of Asian languages assisted by knocking on doors and requests for assistance were transmitted on Asian radio stations. On 8 October, Angela Symes issued a plea for the safe return of her daughter, saying "Just as long as they are looking after her". Aithne Potts, an aunt of Aisling's, reiterated that plea: "As long as she's safe and well we don't give a damn". A television press conference was held at which Allan Symes said: "These recent days have proven to be the most harrowing of our lives. We’ve had no sleep and we feel like we’re barely existing, just surviving every moment, not knowing where Aisling is". His wife was far too upset to speak, reportedly breaking down into tears in a neighbouring room afterwards. Angela Symes appeared on New Zealand television the following day, holding Aisling's Pooh Bear. On 9 October, Aisling's abductor was told to deliver her to a hospital urgently. On 10 October, Allan Symes appeared on The Marian Finucane Show on RTÉ Radio 1 to request the safe return of his daughter. A 10-second video of a dancing Aisling was also released by police. The footage was transmitted on New Zealand's national television. At 9:30 p.m. on 12 October, the police reported that they had found a body in a drain near the Symes house. At around 9:40 a.m. on 13 October, police confirmed that the body they found was that of Aisling Symes. Suspects and cases of mistaken identity: A number of suspects and several cases of mistaken identity resulted from the case. A woman in her thirties of Asian appearance with a dog of black and grey colours on a lead was seen near Aisling prior to her disappearance. She was of a height of 165 centimetres. Her origin was unclear and police said she was thought to be from India, Korea, Thailand, Vietnam or other Asian ethnicities. Vets were instructed to watch out for such a woman. A woman described as fitting this description was targeted by a group of people and suffered trauma as a result. Another Asian woman whose child appeared European was questioned by police and was found to be so similar to Aisling that a photograph had to be held closely to confirm the difference. A middle-aged Asian couple were also quizzed over the origin of a European toddler whom it turned out they were babysitting. Police urged people not to approach any similar women and not to unnecessarily harass "Asian women walking down the road". Police identified the woman after Aisling's body was found. It was revealed that she was from the Philippines, had a history of mental illness, and had previously tried to lure children into her car with lollies. Despite this she was unable to assist police with the Symes case. A man was also seen playing with a broken umbrella. Detective Inspector Graham Bell, presenter of the television series Police Ten 7, suggested Aisling may have been taken by "a nutty woman". He thought it odd that the Asian woman wore sandals and socks "which in our society is regarded as a little bit eccentric". President of the United States National Center for Missing and Exploited Children Ernie Allen said most child abductors in his country were women and that she would have to construct a story for the sudden appearance of a child. Another case of mistaken identity occurred when a woman murdered her husband and when police commenced door-to-door enquiries they found that homeowners had not heard shots being fired and assumed that police had come to ask about the Aisling Symes case. Reward: A businessman offered a $3,000 reward but police refused it, ruling out the need for any such money. He had claimed his staff had been "emotionally affected" by the case so he decided to assist. Lord Ashcroft offered a $50,000 reward for information leading to the safe return of the child. Finding the body: On Monday the 12th just before 8:00 pm, police activity increased as they closed in on a house in West Auckland. Police confirmed in a press conference on the morning of 13 October that the body found the previous evening in a drainpipe in Henderson was that of two-year-old missing toddler Aisling Symes. Police inspector Gary Davey, head of the Aisling inquiry, says the body was removed from the scene at 1am on 13 October. He said the body of Aisling probably lay in the drain within metres of scores of police and searchers for days after she disappeared. The drain, which was a short distance from the house she disappeared from on Monday last week and was two metres below the ground, had been thoroughly searched by officers with special search techniques. Mr Davey says cameras were used to reach 9–10 metres into the drain, but the search proved fruitless. A decision was then made to dig up part of the drain, a digger was called in and it took five hours until Aisling's body was found inside. When police were first called to the Longburn Rd house on Monday last week a police officer searched the pipe three times, Mr Davey said. The manhole cover was ajar about 10 cm and the first police officer looked down the pipe and there was no sign of a body. "He called out and did not hear anything other than running water," Mr Davey said. The officer then searched towards the stream and 15 minutes later returned to the manhole, climbed about two metres down the larger access pipe after moving the manhole cover back. He shone his torch down the smaller 375mm drain at the bottom and could see nothing. He also called her name but there was no response. "He believed he could see five metres up into the drain and five metres down the drain." The drain was searched for a third time later in the night by search and rescue searchers, Mr Davey said. During the search Aisling's father Alan Symes also climbed down the pipe and looked for his daughter, said Mr Davey. Mr Davey says it is too early to tell how Aisling got into the drain, but police believe no foul play was involved. "I believe it is more likely or not that she was there from the start and I believe it is misadventure," he says. Waitakere Police later said the results of a post mortem on Aisling Symes were consistent with drowning. Inspector Gary Davey, Waitakere Area Police Commander, said he was unable to comment on the specific details of the autopsy but there was no evidence of injury. Aisling's body was later released to her family. Reaction: The Internet, according to Tim Hume of The Sunday Star-Times, "went nuts" when news of Aisling's body emerged. #Aisling, a trending topic on Twitter, was popular and 25,000 Facebookers swapped messages on the matter. Controversies- Allegations of police racism: The family of Srikanth Rayadurgam, a 23-year-old Indian student reported missing on 1 October 2009, criticised police in Auckland for leaving them to their own devices in the search for their loved one. A police diving team which had arrived from Wellington was instead sent on to Henderson to assist in the Symes case. Rayadurgam's family argue that police concentrated all their resources on the Symes case, suggesting that skin colour had made the difference and asking why they could not be treated equally. Police had not been quick to react when called upon to assist in the search and when they arrived they soon allegedly departed the scene to search for Aisling. 3 News made efforts to ask police about this but received no response. Missing white woman syndrome was implied. TVNZ psychic disagreement: The family were introduced to Sensing Murder medium Deb Webber by state broadcaster Television New Zealand (TVNZ), a move which was later criticised due to Aisling only having disappeared two days previously. One policeman, asked whether police would make use of comments made by Webber on the television program Breakfast, said, "I'm totally aghast - it seems like a totally commercial play". TVNZ responded with the following statement: "We're not trying to push a psychic message to make money and get ratings". Hundreds of e-mails were sent to the station. New Zealand Skeptics chair Vicki Hyde criticised Webber's prediction saying it "was wrong" stating "TVNZ were guilty of using the situation as a marketing ploy" and adding "It's not sensing murder, it's sensing opportunity, sensing exploitation and there's nothing worse than exploiting parents who are under such strain and stresses." Allan Symes responded on Facebook with the statement: "Please do not suggest psychics, the family are a strong Christian family and will not consider this under any circumstances". "I was walking past the television and Aisling popped up, and I went 'oh, she's in a ditch, hole, in West Auckland. That's what I got, instantly."- Deb Webber to Paul Henry on Breakfast Funeral: Hundreds of people attended Aisling's funeral at the Ranui Baptist Church on 16 October 2009. Screens were installed outside the church and in neighbouring buildings. Aisling's coffin was covered with the flags of New Zealand and Ireland and her Pooh Bear sat on top. A photographic slideshow occurred alongside the hymn "Be Thou My Vision". The funeral ceremony concluded with the release of white doves as Aisling's body was taken from the church. The New Zealand Herald issued an editorial which began, "Throughout the week that little Aisling Symes was missing, the country felt as small as a village". Tim Hume of The Sunday Star-Times called her "the toddler who united a country".
Sunday, March 19, 2017
Saturday, March 18, 2017
Friday, March 17, 2017
Mona Elizabeth Blades was an 18-year-old New Zealand woman who disappeared in 1975 while hitchhiking. Her body and belongings have never been found and no one has been charged in connection with her disappearance and presumed murder. It is one of New Zealand's longest unsolved murder cases. Blades was hitchhiking from Hamilton to Hastings on Saturday May 31, 1975, the first day of the Queen's Birthday long weekend, and was last seen on the road between Napier and Taupo in an orange Datsun 120Y station wagon. A truck driver saw Blades getting into the Datsun and witnesses reported seeing a matching vehicle veering off the highway and stopping on rural Matea Rd. Investigation: There have been about five suspects in the case. Auckland police investigated John Freeman who had rented an orange Datsun the weekend that Blades disappeared. On the day two weeks later that police announced they were searching for an orange Datsun, Freeman shot and wounded a student at St Cuthbert's College in Auckland before killing himself. An elderly New Zealand man and Charlie Hughes, a Hamilton man now living in Australia, have remained "persons of interest" for police. Hughes has gone public in newspapers and on television about his frustrations at being on the suspects list and has denied he had anything to do with the murder. In 2004, there was a glimmer of hope when police came across a shallow grave bearing Blades's name in a Huntly garage. The name had been inscribed on concrete as a joke six years earlier and the former owner of the property apologised to her family. Blades's brother, Tony Blades, told the Daily Post his family had not talked to the media over the past 30 years about their feelings because it was too hard on them, especially their mother, who is now in her 80s. Her father has since died not knowing his daughter's whereabouts. While the case has baffled everyone for three decades, the officers tasked with getting to know the case better are determined to find new leads. The hotline number 0800 MONA BLADES is still running today. The case has never been officially closed. In January 2012 police dug up the concrete laundry floor of a house in Kawerau looking for her body, but found nothing of interest.
it is nice to be wanted or sought after. my last boyfriend was controlling and got jealous whenever i was talking to or about another boy. i understand jealousy but really? my ex didn't want me to talk to boys outside of my family and our circle of friends. last summer a boy went behind my back to get my number and asked me out. i liked it.
Far West, Missouri, was a Latter Day Saint (Mormon) settlement in Caldwell County, Missouri. Today it is a historic site. Foundation and early history: The town was founded by Missouri Mormon leaders, W. W. Phelps and John Whitmer in August 1836 shortly before the county's creation. The town was platted originally as a 1-mile (1.6 km) square area, centered on a public square which was to house a temple. The design of the town resembled Mormon founder and prophet Joseph Smith Jr.'s plan for the City of Zion, which had been planned to be built in the town of Independence, Jackson County, Missouri. As the town of Far West grew, the plat was extended to 4 square miles (10 km2). Early Latter-day Saints began to settle in northwestern Missouri soon after the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints was organized in 1830. According to a revelation given by Joseph Smith Jr., Independence would be the "centerplace" of the City of Zion when Jesus returned. However, disputes between Mormon and Missourian settlers in Independence led to the expulsion of the Mormons from Jackson County in 1833. Most Mormons temporarily settled in Clay County, Missouri. Towards the end of 1836, Caldwell County was created specifically for Mormon settlement to compensate Mormon property losses in Jackson County. Shortly after the creation of Caldwell County, Far West was made the county seat. Far West became the headquarters of the Latter-day Saint movement in early 1838 when Prophet Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon relocated to the town from the previous church headquarters, Kirtland, Ohio. Joseph Smith taught the Latter-day Saints that the Garden of Eden had been in Jackson County and when Adam and Eve were expelled from the Garden, they moved to the area now comprising Caldwell and Daviess Counties, Missouri. While headquartered in Far West, the official name of the church was changed from Church of Jesus Christ to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Mormon–Missourian conflict of 1838: New problems erupted between the Mormons and their neighbors when the Mormons began to settle in the counties surrounding Caldwell, including De Witt in Carroll County and Adam-ondi-Ahman in Daviess County. A series of escalating conflicts followed and the Governor of Missouri eventually called out 2,500 state militiamen to put down what he alleged to be a "Mormon rebellion." Latter Day Saints poured into Far West for protection and found themselves under siege. Joseph Smith Jr., Sidney Rigdon and others surrendered at the end of October, 1838, and were put on trial by the state for treason. The main body of the Mormons were then forced to sign over their property in Far West and Caldwell County to pay for the militia muster and then leave the state. The main body later settled in Nauvoo, Illinois. Aftermath and Far West today: Far West became a ghost town soon after the departure of most of the Mormon population. The county seat was moved to Kingston, Missouri and many of the log houses in Far West were relocated. Former Mormon John Whitmer continued to live in the nearly empty town, where he owned a large farm. Today Far West is a historic site seven miles (11.26 km) south of U.S. Route 36 on Route D. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints maintains a historic site there, including the cornerstones of the planned temple. Some Latter Day Saints expect that a temple will be located on this spot at some time in the future. The Community of Christ, formerly known as the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, has a branch congregation that meets in Far West. In 2004 construction began on a historic village adjacent to the temple site. It is operated by the Far West Historical Society to accommodate and increase tourism. The Country Store has been in operation since 2006. Future plans include overnight housing and conference facilities. The progress of this project indicates a major shift in the growth of the area. On May 2012, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints confirmed that it purchased 6,000 acres of Missouri farmland and three historical sites from the Community of Christ.
Kyron Horman (disappeared June 4, 2010) is an American boy who became, at the age of 7, a missing person when he did not return home from Skyline Elementary School in Portland, Oregon, on June 4, 2010. Local and state police along with the FBI conducted an exhaustive search for the boy and launched a criminal investigation, but have not uncovered any significant information regarding the boy's whereabouts. Early life: Kyron Horman was born on September 9, 2002, in Portland, Oregon. He attended Skyline Elementary School near Forest Park. Disappearance: On June 4, 2010, Kyron was brought to school by his stepmother, Terri Horman (née Moulton), who then stayed with him while he attended a science fair. Terri Horman stated that she left the school at around 8:45 a.m. and remembered seeing Kyron walking down the hall to his first class. However, he was never seen in his first math class; instead, he was marked absent for the day and has not been seen since. Horman's statements to the police indicate that, after leaving the school at 8:45 a.m., she ran errands at a local grocery store until about 10:10 a.m. Between 10:10 a.m. and 11:39 a.m., she states that she drove her daughter around town in an attempt to use the motion of the vehicle to soothe the toddler's earache. Horman went to a local gym at 11:39 a.m., and worked out until about 12:40 p.m. By 1:21 p.m., she had arrived home and posted photos on Facebook of Kyron at the science fair earlier that morning. At 3:30 p.m., Horman, her husband Kaine Horman, and their daughter, Kiara, walked to the school bus stop to meet Kyron. The bus driver informed them that Kyron had not boarded the bus after school. The bus driver was asked to call the school and ask where Kyron was. She was informed by the school secretary that Kyron hadn't been in school since early that day and had been marked absent. She reported to the secretary that she did not have Kyron and, therefore, he was missing. The secretary then called the 911 call center using a private phone number assigned to the Portland Public School district to report that Kyron was missing. The 911 call center then reported this information to the police. Ultimately, there was no indictment of Terri Moulton Horman after the Multnomah County Grand Jury heard the case in 2010. Divorce and restraining order: In late June 2010, in the midst of the investigation into Kyron's disappearance, Kyron's biological father, Kaine Horman, was reportedly told by investigators that his wife, Terri Horman, had offered their landscaper "a lot of money" to kill him. Rodolfo Sanchez, the landscaper, said in a deposition that she approached him to help kill her husband five months before the disappearance of the boy. Investigators convinced the landscaper to confront Horman while wearing a wire, but they were unable to obtain any evidence and, therefore, did not make an arrest. On June 28, Kaine Horman filed for divorce and obtained a restraining order against his wife. The divorce was granted and Terri Horman was eventually granted supervised visitation with her daughter. Lawsuit: On June 1, 2012, Kyron's mother (Desiree Young) filed a lawsuit against Terri Horman claiming that she is "responsible for the disappearance of Kyron." The civil lawsuit would attempt to prove that Horman had kidnapped Kyron. Young was seeking $10,000,000 in damages from Horman. On August 15, 2012, a federal court judge denied the motion by Terri Horman to delay the lawsuit. On July 30, 2013, it was announced that Desiree Young had dropped the lawsuit against Terri Horman: With "great disappointment," the mother of Kyron Horman said Tuesday she is dropping a civil suit against Terri Horman because she doesn't want it to jeopardize the police investigation. "Because my civil case can't go forward without the police criminal investigation file, it's with great disappointment I make this difficult decision," Desiree Young told reporters. Young was tearful as she spoke at the press conference outside the Multnomah County Courthouse in downtown Portland. She said in order for her lawyers to move forward with the suit, they need the police file — which they can't have during an active police investigation."
Adrien McNaughton was a five-year-old boy who went missing while on a fishing trip on June 12, 1972. Disappearance: While on a family fishing trip at Holmes Lake near Calabogie, Ontario, Adrien was fishing for about an hour with his father. Adrien became tired and stopped fishing because his line was tangled. He sat down on a nearby rock, then left the lakeshore to play a short distance away. He then wandered away from his father and his three older siblings into a wooded area. The father Murray McNaughton, after noticing that Adrien was missing, sent Adrien’s eldest brother Lee McNaughton to the car to search for him. When Lee didn't find Adrien a search was sent out to find him. Hours later when Adrien was not found, the police were contacted. At the time of his disappearance he was last seen wearing a blue nylon parka jacket, an orange striped shirt, blue jeans, brown shorts, and running shoes. Investigation: A massive search was conducted to find McNaughton as thousands of volunteers led by the armed forces searched the area where Adrien had gone missing. While extensive searching was conducted, no clues to his whereabouts, or anything was found. Aftermath: In 2009 with the use of new digital technology, his parents hoped to find him as an adult. Also in 2009 when Adrien's parents were contacted by the Toronto Sun, his mother declined to be interviewed and referred questions to the police. A CBC original podcast called Someone Knows Something, investigated Adrien McNaughton's disappearance, beginning in 2015. The show is hosted, written and produced by award-winning Canadian filmmaker David Ridgen, and it's first episodes were released in March 2016. On April 23, 2016, as part of the investigation for SKS, five highly trained volunteers conducted a search dive of Holmes Lake, looking for the remains of McNaughton, after four separate cadaver dogs indicated that they were detecting human remains in the area. A tooth-like object and small piece of rubber that may have belonged to a shoe were uncovered under eight feet of water. It is believed that these might be remains of McNaughton.
Dorothy Forstein (born Dorothy Cooper) was a woman who went missing after being last seen on October 18, 1949. Dorothy also went by the name "Dora". Disappearance: On the night of October 18, 1949, Dorothy's husband Jules Forstein left home for the evening. He later called Dorothy and told her that he would not arrive home late. When he returned home he was very surprised to find his two children Edward and Marcy clinging together in a bedroom. They were both crying "Mommy’s gone!" Marcy told her father that she had seen a man carrying her unconscious mother down the stairs over his shoulder. When she had asked him what he was doing, he’d patted her head and told her to "go back to sleep little one, your mom is fine", and he then left and locked the door. According to Marcy, this had happened 15 minutes before her father got home. Jules' oldest daughter Myrna did not witness any of this, since she was away visiting her friends at the time. Jules searched the house and found no trace of Dorothy anywhere, yet her purse and keys were still there, the door was found locked, and there were no signs that anyone had broken in. Oddly, four years before her disappearance, on the night of January 25, 1944, Dorothy had been attacked in her home by an intruder and beaten so badly that people found her at her home bloody, and with her jaw broken. Investigation: A large search was conducted to find Forstein as the police asked for a check of all unidentified women, and requested reports from hospitals (including mental hospitals), hotels, and convalescent homes all across the country. Captain James Kelly of Philadelphia's detective bureau sent out 10,000 notices to police departments and institutions with the description of Forstein. The only explanation that the police seemed to have was the story that Forstein's daughter Marcy had given, and that when the man left the house with Forstein, he had locked the door behind him. Aftermath: Newspapers all over the United States, especially in the state of Pennsylvania where this happened, all carried stories about her disappearance and her possible kidnapping. Yet oddly by the end of October, only one week after being printed in the newspapers, the story had largely died down.
Thursday, March 16, 2017
Paula Jean Welden (disappeared December 1, 1946) was an American college student who disappeared while walking on Vermont's Long Trail hiking route, the scene of several other unexplained disappearances around this time. The local sheriffs were criticised for their poor investigation, and this led to the creation of the Vermont State Police. Background: Paula Welden was the eldest of four daughters of the well-known industrial engineer, architect and designer William Archibald Welden (1900–1970) and his wife Jean Douglas (b at Mount Kisco, New York, 1901–d. at Venice, Florida, 1976), née Wilson, of Brookdale Road, Stamford, Connecticut. Employed by the Revere Copper and Brass Company, W. Archibald Welden was the designer of many familiar household utensils, as well as stylish cocktail shakers and other objects. Paula was a 1945 graduate of Stamford High School. Bennington College: In 1946, Welden was a sophomore at Bennington College in North Bennington, Vermont. Her college dormitory was Dewey House one of the older dormitories on the college grounds, and which remains to this day. She was an art major but, dissatisfied with the faculty and her progress, was contemplating changing her major; she had discovered a newfound love of botany. Welden, a typical student, was sorting out her own interests from those of her parents and was trying to expand her circle of friends. She and her roommate were quite close and both realized how dependent they were on one another for a social life. Paula started to befriend other students and became involved in square dancing and hiking with groups of friends from Bennington College and Williams College in Williamstown, Massachusetts. Welden worked part-time at the dining hall in The Commons on campus. On Sunday, December 1 she worked the lunch shift. She decided to find and walk a portion of the Long Trail, a few miles from the campus. Paula knew of the famous trail but hadn't yet had an opportunity to hike it. She tried to get some other students to join her that day, but they were busy. Paula went by herself. Long Trail: After finishing her shift in the dining hall, Welden returned to her room and changed into walking clothes. Her clothing was adequate for the weather that afternoon but not for the anticipated drop in temperature that night. She packed no bag, took no extra clothing, and did not take any extra money. From all appearances, she did not expect to be gone more than a few hours. Welden walked down the campus driveway and hitched a ride from State Route 67A near the college entrance in North Bennington to a point on State Route 9 near the Furnace Bridge between downtown Bennington and Woodford Hollow. Local contractor Louis Knapp picked her up and drove her as far as his house on Route 9, about 2.5 miles (4.0 km) from the Long Trail. From this point, Welden either hitchhiked or walked the rest of the way to the start of the Long Trail in Woodford Hollow. A group of hikers were walking down the trail as Welden was walking up. She approached them and asked them a few questions about the Long Trail. She continued walking in a northerly direction on the road portion of the trail now known as Harbour Road. Welden was on the Long Trail late in the afternoon and darkness was falling as she approached the end of Harbour Road. She may have continued into quickly darkening woods and it was presumed that she must have continued her Long Trail walk along the Bolles Brook valley, although there are no known confirmed sightings of her past the Fay Fuller Camp. Search: Welden didn't return to campus. Her roommate thought she must have gone to the library to study for exams, but the next morning, Welden still hadn't returned. Once the college administrators were notified, they immediately started a search of the campus itself. The Bennington County State's Attorney was notified, and the county sheriff was brought in to help with the search. Over the next couple of days, her visit to the Long Trail was discovered when one of the hikers she had approached identified her from the photo in the Bennington Banner newspaper, where he worked. Weeks of searching ensued. The college closed for several days, and the students and faculty participated in organized searches. Hundreds of volunteers, family members, National Guard troops, students, and firefighters searched for her to no avail. Ground and air searches concentrated on the Long Trail up as far as Glastenbury Mountain (ten miles to the north), the trail's various branches, and along Vermont Route 9 from Bennington to Brattleboro. Most of those searching assumed Paula had gotten lost in the woods. When no clues were found as to her whereabouts, other theories started to be considered. Connecticut State Police investigation: Alternative theories speculated that she had been in unusually high spirits and had decided to run away to start a new life, was going to meet a secret lover and went off with him, or had become injured and suffered from amnesia. Darker theories speculated that Paula was depressed and may have committed suicide, she might have been kidnapped or murdered. At the time of Paula's disappearance, there was no state police organization in Vermont, and the state's attorney, county sheriff and state investigator Almo Franzoni were responsible for the investigation. Paula's father pressed the investigators and the governor to bring in additional professional law enforcement help. Vermont's governor asked Connecticut's governor to lend assistance. Connecticut State Police detective Robert Rundle and state policewoman Dorothy Scoville were assigned to the case. They interviewed every person who saw, or thought they saw Paula, every person who lived along the route she took or who were simply in the vicinity of the Long Trail on that December afternoon. Investigators discovered that one of the last people to see Paula alive was a man who lived along Harbour Road. He was in the midst of an argument with his girlfriend when she walked by. The man stormed off in a jealous rage shortly thereafter and depending on different statements he made, he went to his shack and spent the evening by himself, or he drove his truck up the travel portion of the trail (where Paula was heading). He lied to police on several occasions and was a person of interest in 1946 and again in 1952 when the case was revisited. Reportedly, he told at least two people that he knew within a hundred feet where Paula was buried but later claimed it was just idle talk. When no evidence was found that a crime had actually been committed, no body was ever discovered, and no forensic clues were identified, this avenue of the investigation ended. Aftermath: The manner in which Paula's disappearance was handled was sharply criticized by Paula's father and many others. He pointed out that the lack of a statewide law enforcement organization and the lack of training of local sheriffs contributed to a poorly run investigation. Within seven months of Paula's disappearance, the Vermont legislature created the Vermont State Police. Other cases: In the same general area where Welden disappeared, at least four other unexplained vanishings were reported to have taken place between 1945 and 1950. Due to the strangeness of these events, Vermont broadcaster and author Joseph A. Citro dubbed the wilderness area northeast of Bennington "the Bennington Triangle" – a reference to unexplained disappearances in the Bermuda Triangle. In literature: Author Shirley Jackson (1916–1965) was inspired by Welden's vanishing when she wrote her novel Hangsaman (1951), as indicated by Jackson's papers in the Library of Congress. At the time of Welden's disappearance in 1946, Shirley Jackson was living in North Bennington, Vermont, where her husband was employed at Bennington College. Jackson's short story, "The Missing Girl", included in Just An Ordinary Day (the 1996 collection of her previously unpublished/uncollected short stories), also references the Welden case. Hillary Waugh's 1952 novel Last Seen Wearing... was based on Walden's disappearance. This was mentioned in the January 26, 2014, Dick Tracy "Crimestoppers Textbook".
Tuesday, March 14, 2017
Melanie Jo Melanson is a missing woman from Woburn, Middelesex County, Massachusetts. She vanished at a party on October 27, 1989; at first, investigators believed she fled to Florida. However, subsequent investigations by both authorities and a private investigator have turned up no leads. Disappearance: Melanson was a freshman in high school, and looking forward to a change of schools. She had run away from home before, because of her parents' constant fighting and substance-abuse issues. At the time of her disappearance, she was living with her grandmother yet maintained contact with her parents. She was asked to attend a party on the evening of October 27, 1989. On the day of her disappearance, Melanson and a friend left school early and decided to go home. That night, she told her grandmother she was going to have a sleepover at a friend's house (the friend was also her next-door neighbor). Melanson used the story to cover her attendance at the party. The party was held in a patch of woods near an industrial park; Melanson was the youngest guest. She went with a group of five male friends. The party did not end until early the next morning; no one who knew Melanson saw or heard her returning from the party. During the afternoon of October 28th, after Melanie's family discovered she'd been at the party, they frantically called almost every attendee they could reach. They learned nothing of Melanson's whereabouts. Finally, they reported her missing. The police determined that she was last seen with two boys she'd known. They gave different stories of what might have happened to her. Police said each boy claimed the other was the last one who had been with Melanson. One of the boys also said he'd seen her at the very head of a trail in the early-morning hours of October 28th. Investigation: The Woburn Police Department originally thought that Melanson had run off to Florida; she'd run away before. They organized a massive search to find the teenager, using everything from cadaver dogs to helicopters. There were massive digs as well. None of the searches were successful, and no clues to Melanson's disappearance were found. There have been no arrests in the case. In August 1992, an anonymous caller suggested police should search a pond near the party site; although police followed up, nothing was found. Aftermath: The Melanson family has been working with a private investigator to find Melanie. In the spring of 2009, authorities announced a renewed push on the case and offered a $5,000 reward for information to solve it. In 2012, a doctor hired in the case has used a new science method called Decomposition Order Analysis (DOA) to help find Melanie. Police now believe Melanson was a victim of foul play, and her remains are somewhere near the place where she disappeared. Her grandmother and parents are now deceased.
Cheryl Grimmer was a 3 year old toddler who went missing on 12 January 1970 from a Wollongong beach, in Illawarra, New South Wales, Australia. She had been in the shower block at the beach when witnesses claim a man took her and ran off. Grimmer's disappearance has been without explanation for over 45 years. Life: The family emigrated from Knowle, a suburb of Bristol, England to Australia in 1969 when Cheryl was two years old and they were living in a hostel near to the beach where she disappeared. The family was mother Carole, 26, dad Vince, 24 and sons Ricki (7), Stephen (5) and Paul (4). Cheryl was the Grimmers' only daughter. Disappearance: On the morning of 12 January 1970, the Grimmer family went to the beach at Fairy Meadow in Illawarra except for Vince Grimmer who was away working as a sapper for the Australian Army. When the weather turned at 1:30 pm, Carole Grimmer decided it was time to go home. The children all went to the shower block together whilst Carole Grimmer packed up their belongings. Ricki went back to Carole Grimmer ten minutes later saying that Cheryl was refusing to come out of the shower block. She followed Ricki back to the shower block moments later only to find that Cheryl had disappeared. There has been no trace of her since. Investigation: Her disappearance sparked a massive manhunt and three days later, police received a note demanding $10,000 and saying that the child was unharmed. The police staged a drop for the money in Bulli, but the kidnapper never showed despite the police earnestly believing the note was credible. The police disguised themselves as council workers for the ransom drop, but they fear this led to the kidnapper being spooked and that the large police operation may have also deterred the kidnapper from coming forward to claim their ransom. The case became famous in Australia and the family relocated back to England for ten years afterwards to escape the notoriety. A local man confessed to killing Cheryl, but police investigations revealed that his confession was false. Police announced in December 2016 that they had a credible lead on a man who was seen carrying a fair headed child at the time of Cheryl's disappearance from the beach. Police said that he was a teenager at the time, so would be in his 60s now and appealed for him to come forward. In May 2011, a coroner ruled that Cheryl had died sometime after going missing due to an undetermined cause, but Carole Grimmer stated that she believed her daughter was still alive. Both Carole and Vince Grimmer have since died without knowing what happened to Cheryl. Despite the coroners ruling, police posted a $100,000 reward for information regarding Cheryl's disappearance. In 2016, a review of the evidence was carried out and all of the evidence and witness statements were computerized for the first time. The review threw up many leads and information that wasn't pursued thoroughly enough in 1970. Wollongong detectives and the Homicide Squad's Unsolved Homicide Team combined efforts into a new task force called 'Strike Force Wessell'. Theories: At the time, witnesses claimed that a man was seen holding Cheryl up to drink from a water fountain and then ran off with her wrapped up in a towel. She was also spotted being driven off in a white car. New South Wales police minister Michael Gallagher said that it is entirely possible that both Cheryl and her kidnapper were dead but that someone may know the truth. He also alluded to the possibility of someone being alive today suspecting that they may be Cheryl. One reason for this is that Cheryl had a medical condition that made her belly button protrude outwards by 10 millimetres (0.39 in) and this would be easily identifiable if that person were alive today or had had surgery to correct this. In 2012 a woman thought that she might be Cheryl. She submitted a DNA swab taken from her inside cheek, but this proved to not be a match for Cheryl Grimmer's DNA.
Monday, March 13, 2017
Sunday, March 12, 2017
I wanna know how people tune others out while being in social situations? I'm a social butterfly and love being in a crowd of people and going to church and being out and about but occasionally I'd like some quiet time while being out and about without people bugging me. I've tried having my earphones being in my ears, rocking out and people obviously know I'm busy but for some dumb reason people don't get it. How can I do that without being a jerk.
Saturday, March 11, 2017
Friday, March 10, 2017
Hair coloring, or hair dyeing, is the practice of changing the hair color. The main reasons for this are cosmetic: to cover gray hair, to change to a color regarded as more fashionable or desirable, to restore the original hair color after it has been discolored by hairdressing processes or sun bleaching. Hair coloring can be done professionally by a hairdresser or independently at home. Today, hair coloring is very popular, with over 75% of American women dyeing their hair. At home coloring in the United States reached $1.9 billion in 2011 and is expected to raise to $2.2 billion by 2016. History: The dyeing of hair is an ancient art that involves treatment of the hair with various chemical compounds. In ancient times, the dyes were obtained from plants. Some of the most well known are henna (Lawsonia inermis), indigo, Cassia obovata, senna, turmeric and amla. Others include katam, black walnut hulls, red ochre and leeks. In the 1661 book Eighteen Books of the Secrets of Art & Nature, various methods of coloring hair black, gold, green, red, yellow, and white are explained. The development of synthetic dyes for hair is traced to the 1860s discovery of the reactivity of para- phenylenediamine (PPD) with air. Eugène Schueller, the founder of L'Oréal, is recognized for creating the first synthetic hair dye in 1907. In 1947 the German cosmetics firm Schwarzkopf launched the first home color product, "Poly Color". Hair dyeing is now a multibillion-dollar industry that involves the use of both plant-derived and synthetic dyes. Application techniques: Off-scalp: Hair color was traditionally applied to the hair as one overall color. The modern trend is to use several colors to produce streaks or gradations, not all work on top of a single base color. These are referred to as: - Highlighting, where sections of hair are treated with lighteners, and they usually create blonde streaks. - Lowlighting, where sections of hair are treated with darker hair color. - There are also newer application techniques such as ombré, in which hair is dark on the crown and bit by bit becomes lighter toward the ends, and splashlights, in which a horizontal band of bleached hair stretches from ear to ear. These are off-the-scalp techniques, and can be applied by the following methods: - Foiling, where pieces of foil or plastic film are used to separate off the hair to be colored; especially when applying more than one color. This keeps the color only on the desired pieces of hair and protects the rest of the hair. - Cap, when a plastic cap is placed tight on the head and strands are pulled through with a hook. This method is not frequently practiced anymore with the exception of short hair highlighting. - Balayage, where hair color is painted directly onto sections of the hair with no foils used to keep the color contained. This method is growing in popularity because of its ability to look more natural and less placed. - Dipping or tip dyeing, similar to balayage in that the color is painted directly on the hair, this focuses on a more solid level of coverage on the ends of the hair. All application techniques can be used with any type of color. For lightening, the hair will sometimes have to be bleached before coloring. On-scalp: Hair coloring can also be applied on the scalp for a more solid level of coverage- - Root Touch-Up, where color is applied only to the most recent section of re-growth. Usually the first inch of hair from the scalp. Generally those getting root touch-ups get this service repeated every 4–6 weeks as the natural color grows in and becomes apparent. People who color their hair to try and cover gray often do these root touch-ups. - All-Over Color, where the individual desires for all of their hair to be a different solid color. - Block Coloring, where the individual wants 100% coverage but desires two or more colors to be placed resulting in dimension and contrast. All application techniques can be used with any type of color. For lightening, the hair will sometimes have to be bleached before coloring. Types: The four most common classifications are permanent, demi-permanent (sometimes called deposit only), semi-permanent, and temporary. Permanent: Permanent hair color generally contains ammonia and must be mixed with a developer or oxidizing agent in order to permanently change hair color. Ammonia, in permanent hair color, is used to open the cuticle layer so that the developer and colorants together penetrate into the cortex. The developer or oxidizing agent, comes in various volumes. The higher the developer volume, the higher the lift will be of a person's natural hair pigment. Someone with dark hair wishing to achieve two or three shades lighter may need a higher developer, whereas someone with lighter hair wishing to achieve darker hair will not need a high developer. Timing may vary with permanent hair coloring but is typically 30 minutes or 45 minutes for those wishing to achieve maximum gray coverage. Demi-permanent: Demi-permanent hair color is hair color that contains an alkaline agent other than ammonia (e.g. ethanolamine, sodium carbonate) and, while always employed with a developer, the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in that developer may be lower than used with a permanent hair color. Since the alkaline agents employed in demi-permanent colors are less effective in removing the natural pigment of hair than ammonia these products provide no lightening of hair's color during dyeing. As the result, they cannot color hair to a lighter shade than it was before dyeing and are less damaging to hair than their permanent counterpart. Demi-permanents are much more effective at covering gray hair than semi-permanents, but less so than permanents. Demi-permanents have several advantages as compared with permanent color. Because there is essentially no lifting (i.e., removal) of natural hair color, the final color is less uniform/homogeneous than a permanent and therefore more natural looking; they are gentler on hair and therefore safer, especially for damaged hair; and they wash out over time (typically 20 to 28 shampoos), so root regrowth is less noticeable and if a change of color is desired, it is easier to achieve. Demi-permanent hair colors are not permanent but the darker shades in particular may persist longer than indicated on the packet. Semi-permanent: Semi-permanent hair coloring involves little or no developer, hydrogen peroxide or ammonia, and is thus less damaging to hair strands. The reduced amount of developer, whether peroxide or ammonia, means that hair previously damaged by applying permanent color or permanent reshaping is less likely to be damaged during the color application process. Semi-permanent hair color uses compounds of low molecular weight than are found in temporary hair color dyes. These dyes penetrate the hair shaft only partially, because of the reduced amount of developer used. For this reason, the color will survive repeated washing, typically 4–5 shampoos or a few weeks, before undergoing significant fading or washing out entirely. Semi-permanents may still contain the suspected carcinogen p-phenylenediamine (PPD) or other related colorants. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reported that in rats and mice chronically exposed to PPD in their diet, the PPT appears to simply depress body weight of the animals, with no other clinical signs of toxicity observed in several studies. The final color of each strand of hair will depend on its original color and porosity. Because hair's color and porosity across the head and along the length of a hair strand, there will be subtle variations in shade across the entire head. This gives a more natural-looking result than the solid, all over color of a permanent color. Because gray or white hairs have a different starting color than other hair, they will not appear as the same shade as the rest of the hair when treated with semi-permanent color. If there are only a few grey/white hairs, the effect will usually be enough for them to blend in, but as the gray spreads, there will come a point where it will not be disguised as well. In this case, the move to permanent color can sometimes be delayed by using the semi-permanent as a base and adding highlights. Semi-permanent color cannot lighten the hair. Temporary color: Temporary hair color is available in various forms including rinses, shampoos, gels, sprays, and foams. Temporary hair color is typically brighter and more vibrant than semi-permanent and permanent hair color. It is most often used to color hair for special occasions such as costume parties and Halloween. The pigments in temporary hair color are high molecular weight and cannot penetrate the cuticle layer. The color particles remain adsorbed (closely adherent) to the surface of the hair shaft and are easily removed with a single shampooing. Temporary hair color can persist on hair that is excessively dry or damaged in a way that allows for migration of the pigment to the interior of the hair shaft. Alternative color: Alternative hair coloring products are designed to create hair colors not typically found in nature. The available colors are diverse, such as the colors green and fuchsia. Permanent alternatives in some colors are available. Some color shades are blacklight-reactive, and thus show up under certain nightclub lighting, for instance. The chemical formulae of alternative color dyes typically contain only tint and have no developer. This means that they will only create the bright color of the packet if they are applied to light blond hair. People with darker hair (medium brown to black) need to use a bleaching kit before tint application. Some people with fair hair may benefit from prior bleaching as well. Gold, yellow and orange undertones in hair that has not been lightened enough can adversely affect results, especially with pinks, blues and greens. Although some alternative colors are semi-permanent, such as blue and purple, it could take several months to fully wash the color from bleached or pre-lightened hair. Maintaining hair color: There are many ways that people can maintain their hair color such as these: - Using color-protecting shampoos and conditioners - Using sulfate-free shampoo - Using purple shampoos and conditioners to maintain or enhance the blond color in their hair - Using leave-in treatments with UV absorbents - Getting deep-conditioning treatments to smooth and add luster - Avoiding chlorine - Using heat protecting products before using styling appliances Natural hair coloring alternatives: There are many natural ways to color the hair instead of having to use color that contains several chemicals especially, some that may cause irritation to the skin. A lot of the natural hair coloring can be simply done at home. Natural hair coloring alternatives can be done by the use of natural herbs such as henna. Different types of herbs can be used to achieve a certain color. Indigo or black walnut powder lead to a black or dark color and chamomile and calendula lead to a darker blond. Teas such as black or hibiscus that are made from black tea leaves and hibiscus flowers are also natural ways to color the hair, henna and derivatives are also used for hair coloring, especially in South East Asia, to achieve a dark Orange-reddish hue. Although many of the natural hair coloring can be done at home, there are products on the market that come as a kit that can be purchased or salons that use natural ingredients in their hair color. Note that even though these are natural ways to color the hair, it is still important to wear gloves because dye is being worked with. Adverse effects: Hair coloring involves the use of chemicals capable of removing, replacing, and/or covering up pigments naturally found inside the hair shaft. Use of these chemicals can result in a range of adverse effects, including temporary skin irritation and allergy, hair breakage, skin discoloration and unexpected hair color results. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), in vitro and in vivo studies (in exposed human populations) have shown that some hair dyes and many chemicals used in the hair dyeing process can be considered mutagenic and carcinogenic. Skin irritation and allergy: In certain individuals, the use of hair coloring can result in allergic reactions and/or skin irritation. Individuals allergic to gluten for example, will need to be cautious when purchasing hair color since certain hair dye includes gluten. Gluten does not need to be ingested for it to cause an allergy. Skin contact with gluten may cause a reaction; therefore, leading to an allergy. Symptoms of these reactions can include redness, sores, itching, burning sensation and discomfort. Symptoms will sometimes not be apparent immediately following the application and processing of the tint, but can also arise after hours or even a day later. To help prevent or limit allergic reactions, the majority of hair color products recommend that the client conduct a patch test before using the product. This involves mixing a small quantity of tint preparation and applying it directly to the skin for a period of 48 hours. If irritation develops, manufacturers recommend that the client not use the product. European dermatologists have, however, strongly advised against such pre-use testing, as it entails additional sensitisation (allergy) risk and the interpretation by lay people may not be sufficiently accurate. Hair breakage: Hair that has been damaged by excessive exposure to chemicals is considered over-processed. This results in dry, rough and fragile hair. In extreme cases, the hair can be so damaged that it breaks off entirely. The main cases of hair breakage are: Lack of moisture and oils, poor diet, stress, over processing or illness. Skin discoloration: Skin and fingernails are made of a similar type of keratinized protein as hair. That means that drips, slips and extra hair tint around the hairline can result in patches of discolored skin. This is more common with darker hair colors and persons with dry absorbent skin. That is why it is recommended that latex or nitrile gloves be worn to protect the hands. This discoloration will disappear as the skin naturally renews itself and the top layer of skin is removed (typically takes a few days or at most a week). Ways of preventing skin discoloration are to wear latex or nitrile gloves to protect the hands and also by applying a thin layer of petroleum jelly or oil-based preparation around the hairline. There are also products that come in wipes or liquid form at beauty supply stores to remove hair dye from skin. Unintended results: Several factors influence the final color of the hair following the coloring process. - For semi-permanent and demi-permanent color, the final color is a blend of the natural color of the hair and the dye color. - Bleached hair will often require pre-pigmentation before a color application. Dyeing bleached hair brown can result in grey or very ashy (grey sheen) hair. - Previously color treated hair can react unpredictably with subsequent color treatments. - Previous use of shampoos which deposit a layer of plastic on the hair can block the action of the dye. - Presence of minerals, salts, chlorine or other contaminants in the water used in the coloring process - Certain prescription drugs can alter hair chemistry - Coloring dark hair to achieve a desirable shade of blond requires bleaching, followed by a secondary color treatment. Bleached hair can still have a yellow or coppery shade. A violet-based color can cancel out yellow tones, and a blue-based shade will cancel out coppery orange. - Porosity of hair can affect the final shade. Porous hair often absorbs more color, which sometimes results darker than expected. Health concerns: - The salt lead acetate (the active ingredient in gradual darkening products such as Grecian formula) is toxic. Lead acetate trihydrate has also been shown to cause reproductive toxicity. - Articles link the development of some forms of cancer (including leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, bladder cancer, blood cancer, and multiple myeloma) with use of hair color. More specifically, prolonged use of permanent dark hair dyes can double a person's risk of getting some types of blood cancer. - In 2004 a known human carcinogen, 4-aminobiphenyl or 4-ABP, was found in some commercial hair dyes. However, evidence is limited and inconsistent for the link between cancer from hair dye. - Phenylenediamine is known to cause health concerns, such as skin irritation. Exposure to phenylenediamine can occur during manufacturing or during the use of hair dyes. According to the Product Safety Summary Sheet by DuPont, Para-Phenyenediamine (PPD) is labeled as toxic and can cause adverse effects on aquatic organisms and could cause long-term effects in aquatic environments. Chemistry of permanent hair coloring: Permanent hair coloring requires three components: (1) 1,4-diaminobenzene (historically) or 2,5-diaminotoluene (currently), (2) a coupling agent, and (3) an oxidant. The process is typically performed under basic conditions. The mechanism of oxidation dyes involves three steps: 1) Oxidation of 1,4-diaminobenzene derivative to the quinone state. 2) Reaction of this diimine with a coupler compound (more detail below). 3) Oxidation of the resulting compound to give the final dye. The preparation (dye precursors) is in the leuco (colorless) form. Oxidizing agents are usually hydrogen peroxide, and the alkaline environment is usually provided by ammonia. The combination of hydrogen peroxide and ammonia causes the natural hair to be lightened, providing a "blank canvas" for the dye. Ammonia opens the hair shaft pores so that the dye can actually diffuse inside the fiber. These dye intermediates and coupler compounds can undergo oxidation and coupling reaction as shown in the scheme below to form high molecular weight products, which are trapped in the hair matrix and cannot be readily removed through washing. Various combinations of primary intermediates and coupler compounds provide a spectrum of shades of hair colors. The primary intermediates are aromatic para compounds, such as 1,4-diaminobenzene or 4-aminophenol. The coupler compounds (couplers) are meta-substituted derivatives of aniline. They come in three major classes based on the color that they produce when they react with the primary intermediate. It was once believed that the dye forms in the above reaction bonds to hair permanently. It was later shown that the main reason that this reaction imparts a permanent color on hair by producing larger dye molecules, which is locked inside the hair. Plant-based dyes: Henna is an orange dye commonly used as a deposit-only hair color whose active component, lawsone, binds to keratin. It is therefore considered semi-permanent to permanent, depending on a person's hair type. Most people will achieve a permanent color from henna, especially after the second dye. With repeated use the orange color builds up into red and then auburn. While "natural" henna is generally a red color, variations exist. These variations usually contain ingredients from other plants and even synthetic dyes. Indigo is natural dye from a plant (Indigofera tinctoria, suffructicosa, or arrecta) that can be added to henna or layered on top of it to create brown to black colors in the hair. Henna is orange, and indigo is blue, so as complementaries on a standard color wheel, the two colors' combined effect is to create brown tones. Like henna, indigo may fade after one application, but it becomes permanent on the hair with repeated use. Using a plant-based color such as henna can cause problems later when trying to do a perm or permanent hair color. Some store-bought henna contains metallic salts which reacts to hydrogen peroxide that is used in hair lightening. This may lead to unpredictable results, such as green or blue tones in the hair. Henna is a healthy way to color hair, as long as no metallic salts are used. Legal restrictions: Hair dyes are cosmetic compounds that make contact with the skin during application. Because of this skin contact, there exists some health risk associated with use of hair dyes. Thus, hair dyes are regulated in the commercial marketplace and, as new toxicity data is generated for some hair dyes and health risks are discovered, some of these hair dyes are being legally restricted from the cosmetic marketplace. The European Union is particularly stringent with regard to health regulations. To ensure that hair dyes contain only safe substances, the European Commission adopted the Directive 2012/21/EU to restrict the use of around 45 chemicals in hair dyes. The directive on dyes is part of a general and comprehensive set of regulations, the EU Cosmetics Directive 76/768/EC.