Sunday, October 30, 2016
Joshua Andrew Koenig, was an American character actor, film director, editor, writer, and human rights activist. Early life: Andrew Koenig was born August 17, 1968, the son of Star Trek actor Walter Koenig and Judy Levitt. Writer Harlan Ellison spoke of the young Koenig — by his given first name of Josh — as being the inspiration for his story Jeffty Is Five. “... I had been awed and delighted by Josh Koenig, and I instantly thought of just such a child who was arrested in time at the age of five. Jeffty, in no small measure, is Josh: the sweetness of Josh, the intelligence of Josh, the questioning nature of Josh.” The story went on to win the 1977 Nebula Award and the 1978 Hugo Award for Best Short Story. Career: From 1985 to 1989, Koenig played a recurring role as Richard "Boner" Stabone, best friend to Kirk Cameron's character Mike Seaver in the first four seasons of the ABC sitcom Growing Pains. During the same period, he guest starred on episodes of the sitcoms My Sister Sam and My Two Dads as well as the drama 21 Jump Street. In the early 1990s he provided a voice for the animated series G.I. Joe as Ambush and Night Creeper Leader, and had a minor role as Tumak in the 1993 Star Trek: Deep Space Nine episode "Sanctuary". Koenig played the role of The Joker in the critically successful 2003 fan film Batman: Dead End. Onstage, he starred as the M.C. in the 2007 interactive theater play The Boomerang Kid and performed with the improv group Charles Whitman Reilly and Friends. Though he continued his performing career in the 2006 independent film The Theory of Everything (2006), Koenig worked increasingly behind the scenes. He wrote, produced and/or directed the shorts Good Boy (2003) and Woman in a Green Dress and Instinct vs. Reason (2004). Most recently he was working as an editor on a number of films and had been a video producer for the podcast Never Not Funny (2006–2010). His final role was in the film DaZe: Vol. Too — NonSeNse, in post-production at the time of his death, with Koenig portraying the role of Vice Chancellor. Personal life: Koenig was a vegan and traveled to Burma in July 2007 and visited Burmese refugee camps in Thailand with his father as part of the U.S. Campaign for Burma. The following January, he protested the Communist Party of China's political and financial support of the military dictatorship in Burma during the 119th Tournament of Roses in Pasadena, California, entering the parade and standing in front of a Chinese float promoting the 2008 Beijing Olympics after a pre-parade human rights march agreed to by parade officials was allegedly stifled by them. Koenig, who carried a sign reading "China: Free Burma" in both English and Chinese, was arrested and briefly held for his act of civil disobedience. Koenig's defense attorney was Bill Paparian, a fellow protester and former mayor of Pasadena. "China sits on the UN Security Council and they have refused to condemn Burma. China purchases gas from Burma and sells them weapons that the military uses on the Burmese people. So they are really quite complicit, and that was the whole point of protesting the China float," Koenig explained. Koenig also noted the Chinese government's implicit support of genocidal forces in Sudan, sweatshops and tainted export products, saying of the float, "China is putting on a good face because of the Olympics, but [it’s time to] send a message to the Chinese government that they have to not just change their face, but change the way they do things.” The Pasadena Weekly quoted Koenig as stating, "Their free speech rights have been totally censored. As a country with a Constitution and a Bill of Rights, we need to continue to support and enforce ours, and use it to recognize the rights of human beings all over the world." Death: In February 2010, Koenig was reported missing by friends and family. He was last seen near a bakery in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada on February 14, and missed a scheduled flight back to the United States on February 16, which was the last day he used his cell phone or conducted any banking. On February 25, 2010, a group of 11 of his friends and family members found his body hanging from a tree in Stanley Park in downtown Vancouver through an act of suicide.
Timothy William "Timmy" Wiltsey was a 5-year-old boy from South Amboy, New Jersey, whose 23-year-old single mother, Michelle Lodzinski, reported him missing from a local carnival on May 25, 1991. The case was televised twice on America's Most Wanted, and Timmy's photograph was circulated on thousands of missing-child flyers and milk cartons. On April 23, 1992, his partial remains were discovered across the Raritan River in the marshlands of Edison, New Jersey, near one of Lodzinski's recent employment locations. She was considered the primary suspect in the crime – but despite two failed polygraph tests, years of publicity, a self-kidnapping hoax and other major inconsistencies in her story, she was not charged with Timmy's death until August 6, 2014, which would have been his 29th birthday. On May 18, 2016, a unanimous jury convicted her of Timmy's murder, after the "cold case" prosecution successfully overcame inadmissible facts and a lack of forensic evidence connecting Lodzinski to the crime. Disappearance: The evening of Saturday, May 25, 1991, during the Memorial Day weekend, Michelle Lodzinski said she and her son visited the South Amboy Elks Club carnival in Sayreville's Kennedy Park. Lodzinski reported that her son went missing when she left him waiting in a carnival ride line as she went to buy a soda. Police officers, firefighters, volunteers, and trained dogs immediately launched an exhaustive search of the carnival grounds and the surrounding area, to no avail. Timmy's father, George Wiltsey, was at home in Iowa, uninvolved in the boy's life, and eliminated as a suspect. Coincidentally, May 25 was National Missing Children's Day, an annual observance inspired by a previous high-profile disappearance. Inconsistencies: Lodzinski reported to investigators that she and her son had spent time at Holmdel Park during the afternoon before driving to the evening carnival. According to park police, the Holmdel lot where she claimed to have parked was closed that day. Despite her claim to have spent more than an hour at the Elks carnival, with Timmy dressed in bright red, the authorities could find no one who had seen her son that night. As one witness testified: "I spoke with her and she did not have a child with her. I was very upset. There was a child missing and there was no child." Ten days later at a police interview in Sayreville, Lodzinski claimed two men with a knife had taken her son and intimidated her into silence. Later that day, she returned to the police station and recanted the story, as the police began to consider her a leading suspect. The following day, she returned and gave a third story that her son had been taken by two men and a woman. She claimed to have known the woman as Ellen, a local go-go dancer and bank customer. No such woman was ever found, despite an exhaustive FBI search. Initial evidence: On October 26, 1991, schoolteacher Dan O'Malley was birdwatching and exploring marshlands in the Raritan Center business park in Edison, New Jersey. He discovered a child's Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles sneaker, which had been highly publicized as the kind Timmy was wearing when he disappeared. O'Malley brought it to the Sayreville Police Department that same day. The sneaker was shown to Lodzinski, who stated it was not her son’s. It was then stored in an evidence area and apparently forgotten. After three weeks with no word from the police, O'Malley reported the sneaker to a local newspaper, The Home News of New Brunswick, resulting in a front-page story and FBI forensic testing. Months later, after the forensic testing had been inconclusive, FBI agent Ron Butkiewicz read the newspaper story, contacted O'Malley, and they toured the location together on April 6, 1992. Upon re-interviewing Lodzinski's friends and family, Butkiewitz learned that she had once worked and taken frequent walks at the Raritan Center complex, within a few blocks of the sneaker's discovery, although Lodzinski herself omitted just this location when investigators had asked for her complete employment history. On April 23–24, 1992, law enforcement teams conducted a full search of the area. They quickly located a matching second sneaker in Timmy's size, and then found the boy's partial skeletal remains in and around a truck tire in Red Root Creek. His identity was confirmed through dental records, and his death was ruled a homicide, although the time, location, and medical cause of death could not be determined due to advanced decomposition. Later developments: On January 21, 1994, Michelle Lodzinski's car was found idling at her New Jersey home. The next day, she turned up in Detroit, Michigan, claiming abduction by FBI agents "to teach her a lesson for talking about Timmy." Two weeks after she returned home, her brother found an FBI business card on her door with the message "It's not over." Agent Butkiewicz resumed his investigation and found a local print shop that had recently printed FBI business cards for Lodzinski. She admitted faking her own kidnapping but refused to discuss her contradictory accounts of Timmy's kidnapping, and was sentenced to house arrest and probation for the FBI hoax. In 1997, pregnant with her second child, Lodzinski pleaded guilty to stealing a computer from a former employer, and was again sentenced to house arrest and probation. In 1998 she moved to Florida, then in 1999 to Minnesota, where she was married in 2001 and started a new family. The marriage did not last long and pregnant with her third child she returned to Florida in 2003, where she bought a small home in Port St. Lucie. As part of a "cold case" review that NJ prosecutors began in 2011, three of Timmy's former babysitters were each able to identify a distinctive blanket that had been discovered near his remains. Investigators realized that the boy would not have been carrying a 10-foot (3 m) blanket through a carnival on the humid 90 °F (32 °C) day when he disappeared, and concluded that the blanket was taken from Lodzinski's South Amboy home, for covering the boy after his death, despite her denial of ever having such a blanket. Arrest and trial: On August 6, 2014, which would have been Timmy's 29th birthday, following a sealed indictment by a grand jury, Lodzinski was arrested in Florida and charged with her son's murder. After reviewing extensive legal arguments from the defense and prosecution, New Jersey Superior Court Judge Dennis Nieves issued a key pretrial ruling that "Lodzinski's active omission and hindrances to the investigation through her statements may reasonably establish circumstantial evidence of her guilt." Her criminal trial began on March 16, 2016, and after testimony from 68 witnesses, the unanimous jury delivered a widely publicized guilty verdict on May 18, a week before the 25th anniversary of Timmy's disappearance. Sentencing was scheduled for August 2016 and then postponed, as Lodzinski's attorney appealed the judge's earlier rulings on juror misconduct and insufficient evidence. On October 25, Nieves denied the request for a new trial.
Karmein Chan was a 13-year-old Australian girl who was abducted from her home at night in the Melbourne suburb of Templestowe on 13 April 1991 and was subsequently murdered. Karmein was at home babysitting her two younger sisters while both her parents worked at their Chinese restaurant in the nearby suburb of Eltham. Karmein and her sisters were confronted by a man in a balaclava with a knife. He forced Karmein's sisters into a wardrobe before fleeing with Karmein. Before leaving, he spray painted "Pay up Asian Drug Dealer, More and More to Come" on a vehicle in their front yard. Police suspect this was a ruse to distract them from the killer's real motive. Karmein's mother made an emotional plea on television for Karmein's return. There had been several abductions of girls in Melbourne prior to the abduction of Karmein by an offender known in the media as Mr. Cruel. Operation Challenge setup to investigate two earlier abductions and a rape was being scaled down the day before Karmein's abduction. Detectives believed that Karmein would be released the same as previous girls abducted. On 6 May 1991, 23 days after Karmein's abduction, Victoria Police formed the Spectrum Taskforce to investigate Karmein's abduction and to continue Operation Challenge investigations. A reward of $100,000 was offered for information on her abduction. On 9 April 1992, Karmein's remains were found nearly a year later in a landfill area at Edgars Creek in the suburb of Thomastown. The skull had three bullet holes in the back of the head. The body had been probably been there for 12 months. On 31 January 1994, the Spectrum Taskforce was disbanded, despite their best efforts the offender was never brought to justice. An inquest was held in 1997 with the Coroner finding that she met her death through foul play but it was not possible to identify the person or people responsible. The case has remained open with cold case detectives regularly reviewing the investigation. On the 25th anniversary of her abduction the reward was increased from $100,000 to $1,000,000.
The practices of Jehovah's Witnesses are based on the biblical interpretations of Charles Taze Russell, founder of the Bible Student movement, and successive presidents of the Watch Tower Society, Joseph Franklin Rutherford and Nathan Homer Knorr. Since 1976 they have also been based on decisions made at closed meetings of the religion's Governing Body. Instructions regarding activities and acceptable behavior are disseminated through The Watchtower magazine and other official publications, and at conventions and congregation meetings. Jehovah's Witnesses endeavor to remain "separate from the world", which is regarded as a place of moral contamination and under the control of Satan, refusing any political and military activity and limiting social contact with non-Witnesses. Members practice a strict moral code, which forbids premarital and homosexual sex, adultery, smoking, drunkenness and drug abuse, and blood transfusions. Discipline within congregations is maintained by a system of judicial committees, which have the power to expel members who breach organizational rules and demand their shunning by other Witnesses. The threat of shunning also serves to deter other members from dissident behavior. Members are expected to participate regularly in evangelizing work and attend all congregation meetings, as well as regular large-scale conventions, which are highly structured and based on material from Watch Tower Society publications. Worship: Meetings for worship and study are held at Kingdom Halls, and are open to the public. Witnesses are assigned to a congregation in which "territory" they reside and are expected to attend weekly meetings as scheduled by the Watch Tower Society and congregation elders. The meetings are largely devoted to study of the Bible and Witness doctrines. During meetings and in other formal circumstances, Witnesses refer to one another as "Brother" and "Sister". Sociologist Andrew Holden claims meetings create an atmosphere of uniformity for Witnesses, intensify their sense of belonging to a religious community, and reinforce the plausibility of the organization's belief system. He says they are also important in helping new converts adopt a different way of life. According to The Watchtower, one role of the frequency and length of meetings is to protect Witnesses from becoming "involved in the affairs of the world." The form and content of the meetings is established by the religion's Brooklyn headquarters, generally involving a consideration of the same subject matter worldwide each week. Two meetings each week are divided into five distinct sections, lasting a total of about four hours. Meetings are opened and closed with hymns and brief prayers delivered from the platform. Witnesses are urged to prepare for all meetings by studying Watch Tower literature from which the content is drawn and looking up the scriptures cited in the articles. Kingdom Halls are typically functional in character, and contain no religious symbols. Each year, Witnesses from several congregations, which form a "circuit", gather for two one-day assemblies; several circuits meet once a year for a three-day "regional convention", and every few years the Governing Body of Jehovah's Witnesses hold "international conventions" in selected cities around the world. These larger gatherings are usually held at rented stadiums or auditoriums. Their most important and solemn event is the celebration of the "Lord's Evening Meal", or "Memorial of Christ's Death". Weekend meeting: The weekend meeting, usually held on Sunday, comprises a 30-minute public talk by a congregation elder or ministerial servant and a one-hour question-and-answer study of a Bible-based article from The Watchtower magazine, with questions prepared by the Watch Tower Society and the answers provided in the magazine. Members may use their own words to express the ideas in the printed material, though personal ideas derived from independent study are discouraged. Midweek meeting: The midweek meeting, typically held in the evening, includes various question-and-answer sessions based on Watch Tower Society publications, Bible reading, and sample presentations of how to use Watch Tower Society literature for Bible studies and public preaching. Memorial of Christ's death: Jehovah's Witnesses commemorate Christ's death as a ransom or "propitiatory sacrifice" by observing the Lord's Evening Meal, or Memorial. They celebrate it once per year, noting that it was instituted on the Passover, an annual festival. They observe it on Nisan 14 according to the ancient Jewish luni-solar calendar. Jehovah's Witnesses are taught that this is the only celebration the Bible commands Christians to observe. Of those who attend the Memorial, a small minority worldwide partake of the unleavened bread and wine. This is because Jehovah's Witnesses believe that the majority of the faithful have an earthly hope. Only those who believe they have a heavenly hope, the "remnant" (those still living) of the 144,000 "anointed", partake of the bread and wine. In 2015, the number of persons who partook worldwide was 15,177, whereas the number who attended was 19,862,783. The Memorial, held after sunset, includes a talk on the meaning of the celebration and the circulation among the audience of unadulterated red wine and unleavened bread. Jehovah's Witnesses believe the bread symbolizes Jesus Christ's body which he gave on behalf of mankind, and that the wine symbolizes his blood which redeems from sin. They do not believe in transubstantiation or consubstantiation. Because many congregations have no members who claim to be anointed, it is common for no one to partake of the bread and wine. Assemblies and conventions: Each year, Jehovah's Witnesses hold two one day "Circuit Assemblies", held in each circuit worldwide. Each circuit comprises several congregations in a geographical area. These are held either in Assembly Halls owned by Jehovah's Witnesses, or in rented facilities, such as public auditoriums. Once a year, Jehovah's Witnesses gather at larger assemblies called "Regional Conventions" which are usually three days long (Friday to Sunday). These conventions consist primarily of Bible-based sermons, including demonstrations and experiences of their preaching work. They also often feature video presentations and live, full-costume dramatic plays re-enacting biblical accounts—such as Moses and the Plagues of Egypt, and Lot in Sodom and Gomorrah—or contemporary settings based on biblical principles. Every few years, "International Conventions" are held in selected cities, with visiting delegates from other countries. Attendance at some of these international conventions has exceeded one hundred thousand; the 1958 international convention in New York at Yankee Stadium and the Polo Grounds had a peak attendance exceeding 253,000. Evangelism: Jehovah's Witnesses believe they are under obligation to God to "give witness" by participating in organized and spontaneous evangelizing and proselytizing work. Prospective members are told they have a moral obligation to serve as "publishers" by "regular and zealous" participation in the Witnesses' organised preaching work, disseminating Watch Tower doctrines as evangelists of "the Truth". Qualifying as an "unbaptized publisher" is a requirement for baptism, and baptism is regarded as an automatic ordination as a minister. Watch Tower publications describe house-to-house visitations as the primary work of Jehovah's Witnesses in obedience to a "divine command" to preach "the Kingdom good news in all the earth and (make) disciples of people of all the nations". Children usually accompany their parents and participate in the public ministry. In addition to taking part in organized door-to-door preaching, Witnesses are taught that they should seek opportunities to "witness informally" by starting conversations with people they meet during routine activities such as shopping or on public transport, and directing the conversation towards their beliefs. Witnesses are told that they should put the interests of God's Kingdom first in their lives and that other secular and recreational pursuits should remain secondary to spiritual matters. Witnesses are frequently instructed through Watch Tower Society publications, and at meetings and conventions, to increase the quality and quantity of their preaching efforts. Watch Tower Society publications suggest that endurance in public preaching is a requirement for Witnesses to attain salvation, and that evangelizing frees them from blood-guilt regarding individuals who might die at Armageddon without having heard about God's kingdom. Members who commit themselves to evangelize for 840 hours per year (an average of 70 hours per month) are called regular pioneers. Those who commit themselves to evangelize for 50 hours for one month are called auxiliary pioneers, which they may do for consecutive months. Some Witnesses volunteer for missionary service, and may be invited to receive specialized training at the Watchtower Bible School of Gilead. These individuals dedicate, on average, more than 120 hours per month to their work. Members who are not able to 'pioneer' are told they may maintain the "pioneer spirit", by spending as much time as they can in preaching and by supporting the efforts of pioneers. Specialized "territory" maps of residential and commercial areas are prepared within the boundaries of each congregation's territory and distributed to publishers who are responsible for preaching within that area. Witnesses are instructed to fill out monthly report slips on their preaching activity, listing the hours spent, publications placed with householders, and the number of "return visits" made to households where interest had been shown formerly. The reports are used to help measure the "spirituality" of individuals and to establish the eligibility of men as congregation elders and ministerial servants. A Witness who fails to report for a month is termed an "irregular publisher"; one who has not turned in a field service report for six months consecutively is termed an "inactive publisher". Witnesses have, in the past, used a wide variety of methods to spread their faith, including information marches, where members wore sandwich boards and handed out leaflets, to sound cars (car-mounted phonographs), and syndicated newspaper columns and radio segments devoted to sermons. Between 1924 and 1957, the organization operated a radio station, WBBR, from New York. Since 2011, the Witnesses have engaged in "public witnessing" in metropolitan districts and fairs using tables, carts, and literature displays. The Watch Tower Society operates a website, JW.org, which provides access to Watch Tower Society literature and video streaming. Watch Tower Society literature: Jehovah's Witnesses make extensive use of Watch Tower Society literature, including books, magazines, booklets and handbills, to spread their beliefs and to use as textbooks at their religious meetings. The publications are produced in many languages, with a small selection available in 500 languages. Their primary journal, The Watchtower is published simultaneously in nearly two hundred languages and, along with Awake!, available in audio and electronic formats. Issues of both publications are compiled annually into bound volumes, and are added yearly to the Watchtower Library CD-ROM, which contains many Witness publications from 1950 onward, and is officially available to baptized members only. New books, brochures, and other items are released at their annual conventions. Additionally, a number of audio cassettes, videocassettes, and DVDs have been produced explaining the group's beliefs, practices, organization and history. Some of these also provide dramas based on biblical accounts. Since 1942 all Watch Tower literature has been published anonymously. Publications were sold to the public until the early 1990s, from which time they were offered free of charge, with a request for donations. The change in policy was first announced in the United States in February 1990, following the loss of a case before the US Supreme Court by Jimmy Swaggart Ministries on the issue of sales tax exemption for religious groups. The Watch Tower Society had joined the case as an Amicus curiae, or "friend of the court". The court ruling would have resulted in the Watch Tower Society having to pay millions of dollars in sales tax if sales of their literature had continued. Witnesses are urged to prepare for congregation meetings by studying the assigned Watch Tower literature, and are expected to read all magazines and books published by the Society. One analysis noted that each year Witnesses are expected to read more than 3,000 pages of the Society's publications, according to its suggested program for personal study. Much of the literature is illustrated extensively, with sociologist Andrew Holden observing utopian, post-Armageddon images of happy Witnesses in bright sunshine and pristine environments, often playing with formerly wild animals such as lions and tigers, in contrast to dark-colored images of unfavorable activities such as murders, burglaries and promiscuity that highlight the moral dangers outside the organization. Conversion: Individuals seeking to be baptised as Jehovah's Witnesses are required to follow a systematic, catechistical Bible study course, usually in their home, for several months. They will be expected to attend meetings at the Kingdom Hall and must also demonstrate a willingness to carry out the doorstep ministry. Before baptism they will be questioned by elders to determine that they understand and accept the beliefs of the Witnesses, and also that they accept Jesus' ransom sacrifice and repent of sins and have made a personal dedication to God. Baptisms are normally performed in pools at assemblies and conventions. At these baptisms, candidates make "public declaration" of their prior dedication to God. The speaker asks the candidates the following two questions. - “On the basis of the sacrifice of Jesus Christ, have you repented of your sins and dedicated yourself to Jehovah to do his will?” - “Do you understand that your dedication and baptism identify you as one of Jehovah’s Witnesses in association with God’s spirit-directed organization?” After candidates agree to both questions, they line up to undergo water immersion, usually in quick succession, often with hundreds baptised at large conventions. Sociologist James Beckford reported two significant distinguishing features of the conversion process when related by Jehovah's Witnesses. He said they typically spoke of their conversion experience as a steady progression of mental states in which Witnesses "'work for' their conversion by a methodical confrontation with intellectual obstacles and by a deliberate programme of self-reform. Conversion is not represented as something which happened to them; it is framed as something that they achieved." Beckford noted that those he interviewed regarded sudden, emotional upheavals in religious consciousness as suspect: "Experiences which smack of sudden or idiosyncratic illumination/revelation cannot be reconcilable with either the tenor of God's historical practice or the nature of his special covenant with the Watchtower Society." He also found a striking contrast with other religions in the common attribution of responsibility for conversion to "a spiritual guide ... the person who acted as the intermediary with the Watchtower movement and who supervised the initial process of learning and reforming". Beckford cited an interview "representative of many" in which a convert recalled initially resisting the Watch Tower Society's teachings until he was "talked into making a serious study of the scriptures ... I had plenty of objections and was sure the Witnesses were wrong, but (the Witness leading the personal Bible study sessions) showed me how the facts of the Bible could not be faulted". Ministers and ordination: Jehovah's Witnesses consider as "ministers" all adherents who have been approved to engage in formal evangelizing. Witnesses consider their baptisms to be ordinations; unbaptized publishers are considered "regular ministers" whereas baptized publishers are considered "ordained ministers". Witnesses recognize that many government and administrative precedents for ministers are not intended to include all active adherents. For example, only elders assert ecclesiastical privilege and confessional privilege. Only males may be appointed as elders and ministerial servants (their term for deacons), and only baptized males may officiate at weddings, funerals, and baptisms. A female Witness minister may only lead congregational prayer and teaching in unusual circumstances, and must wear a head covering while doing so. Outside the congregation, a female minister also wears a head covering when she leads spiritual teaching in the presence of her husband, according to the Christian complementarian view. Female headcovering is not required for other forms of teaching, or when participating in congregation meetings being led by another. Some courts and government agencies have recognized that full-time Jehovah's Witnesses appointees, such as "pioneers" and those in the faith's religious order, qualify for ministerial exemptions regardless of gender. Discipline: Formal discipline is administered by congregation elders. In the event that an accusation of serious sin is made concerning a baptized member, if there is sufficient evidence, a tribunal or judicial committee is formed to determine guilt, administer help and possibly apply sanctions. Disfellowshipping is the most severe form of discipline administered. Before taking this step, the judicial committee must determine that the individual has committed a "serious sin" and that there is no evidence of true repentance. To judge that repentance is genuine, members of the judicial committee ask questions and review the actions of the accused member. Baptized members who spread teachings contrary to the doctrines of Jehovah's Witnesses can be disfellowshipped for apostasy, and a 1981 letter to overseers—reproduced in a book by former Governing Body member Raymond Franz—directed that a member who "persists in believing other doctrine", even without promoting such beliefs, may also be subject to disfellowshipping. Once the decision to disfellowship has been made, a person has seven days to appeal, after which, if the person has not appealed, the disfellowshipping will be announced to the congregation; disfellowshipping does not take effect until the announcement is made to the congregation. After a person is disfellowshipped, the person is shunned by all baptized members. Exceptions to this would include cases where a member was forced to have commercial dealings with a member who is disfellowshipped, or if the disfellowshipped member is living with family members who are baptized. In these cases, the Witness are not permitted to speak about matters pertaining to the religion, except in the case of parents conducting a Bible study with a disfellowshipped minor. The extent to which disfellowshipped or disassociated relatives living in the same household are included in family life is left to the discretion of the family. Family members living outside the home who are disfellowshipped have minimal contact. Reproof involves sins that could lead to disfellowshipping. Ones considered "truly repentant" are reproved rather than disfellowshipped. Reproof is given "before all onlookers", based on their interpretation of 1 Timothy 5:20. If the sin is private in nature, the reproof would involve just the individual(s) involved. If the sin is known generally by the entire congregation or the community, an announcement is made informing the congregation that the person has been reproved. Later, without disclosing names or private details, one of the elders gives a separate talk ensuring that the congregation understands the sin, its dangers, and how to avoid it. Reproved individuals have some congregation privileges restricted, until the elders decide that the member has regained "spiritual strength." Restrictions may include not sharing in meeting parts, not commenting at meeting parts, and not praying for a group. The duration of restrictions depends on the elders. One cannot "pioneer" or "auxiliary pioneer" for at least one year after reproof is given. Marking is practiced if a person's course of action is regarded as a violation of Bible principles, reflecting badly on the congregation, but is not a disfellowshipping offense. The person is strongly counseled. If, after repeated counsel sessions, the person still pursues the disturbing course, he might be 'marked', which involves an announcement stating that the actions in question are wrong, without naming the individual involved. Congregation members limit social contact with that person. The purpose of this is to shame the person into correcting their actions. "Marked" individuals are not shunned completely, but social contact is minimized. Family life: The family structure is patriarchal. The husband is considered the final authority of family decisions, as the head of his family. Marriages must be monogamous. Wives should be submissive to their husbands and husbands are to have deep respect and love for their wives. Husbands are instructed to treat their wives as Jesus treated his followers. He should not hurt or mistreat his family in any way. The father should be hard-working in providing necessities to his family. He must also provide for them in a spiritual capacity. This includes religious instruction for the family, and taking the lead in preaching activities. Parental discipline for children should not be in a harsh, cruel way. Children are instructed to obey their parents. Married couples are encouraged to speak with local elders if they are having problems. Married couples can separate in the case of physical abuse and neglect, or if one partner attempts to hinder the other from being a Jehovah's Witness. Remarriage after divorce is permissible only on the grounds of adultery, based on their understanding of Jesus' words at Matthew 5:32 and Matthew 19:9. Morality: Jehovah's Witnesses demand high standards of morality within their ranks. Their view of sexual behavior reflects conservative Christian views. Abortion is considered murder. Homosexuality, premarital sex, and extramarital sex are considered “serious sins”. Smoking (including electronic cigarettes), abuse of drugs, and drunkenness are prohibited, though alcohol is permitted in moderation. Modesty in dress and grooming is frequently stressed. Entertainment promoting immoral, "demonic", or violent themes is considered inappropriate. Members are warned that personal grooming such as beards, long hair or earrings for men, or other styles of dress or grooming might "stumble" the consciences of others. Gambling by making money through the losses of others is viewed as a "form of greed", and is prohibited. The trading of stocks, shares and bonds is viewed as acceptable. Blood: Jehovah's Witnesses are taught that the Bible prohibits the consumption, storage and transfusion of blood, based on their understanding of scriptures such as Leviticus 17:10, 11: "I will even set my face against that soul that eateth blood," and Acts 15:29: "abstain from ... blood." This standpoint is applied even in emergencies. The Watchtower introduced this view in 1945, and it has developed since then. Accordingly, the organization has established Hospital Information Services (HIS), which provides education and facilitation of bloodless surgery. This service also maintains Hospital Liaison Committees, which support adherents facing surgery and provide information to the medical community on bloodless surgery techniques and alternatives to blood. Though accepted by most members, some within the Jehovah's Witness community do not endorse the doctrine. Dutch anthropologist Richard Singelenberg has suggested the Watch Tower Society's prohibition on blood transfusions—as well as its edict against fellowship with outsiders—are rooted in the religious desire to maintain a communal state of purity worthy of divine favor. He noted: "Rules of pollution and purity are instrumental in creating structural boundaries around group members. And the more distinctive when formulated into divine precepts, the clearer the dividing lines between the faithful and those excluded." Spiritual warfare: Watch Tower Society publications teach that Witnesses are engaged in a "spiritual, theocratic warfare" against false teachings and wicked spirit forces they say try to impede them in their preaching work. Based on their interpretation of Ephesians 6:10-20, they believe their "spiritual war" is fought with truth, righteousness, the "good news of peace", faith, the hope of salvation, God's word and prayer. They have advocated the use of "theocratic war strategy" to protect the interests of God's cause, which would include hiding the truth from God's "enemies" by being evasive or withholding truthful or incriminating information from those not entitled by law to know. The Watchtower told Witnesses: "It is proper to cover over our arrangements for the work that God commands us to do. If the wolfish foes draw wrong conclusions from our maneuvers to outwit them, no harm has been done to them by the harmless sheep, innocent in their motives as doves." Separateness: Jehovah's Witnesses are told they should remain "separate from the world" in harmony with Jesus' description of his followers at John 17:14-16. Watch Tower publications define the "world" as "the mass of mankind apart from Jehovah’s approved servants" and teach that it is ruled by Satan and a place of danger and moral contamination. Witnesses manifest their world-renouncing beliefs in many ways. They avoid involvement in social controversies, remain politically neutral, and do not seek public office. The Watch Tower Society has stated that voting in political elections is a personal conscience decision, though a Witness who takes any action considered to be a "violation of Christian neutrality" may face religious sanctions. They refuse participation in ecumenical and interfaith activities, abstain from celebrating religious holidays, and reject many customs they claim have pagan origins. They do not work in industries associated with the military, nor serve in the armed services, and refuse national military service, which in some countries may result in their arrest and imprisonment. They do not salute or pledge allegiance to national flags or sing national anthems or other patriotic songs. Witnesses are urged to minimize their social contact with non-members, even if they possess "decent qualities", because of perceived dangers of worldly association. Sociologist Andrew Holden indicated they are highly selective in choosing with whom they spend leisure time, generally choosing the company of other Witnesses. Many Witnesses interviewed by Holden reported tensions and ostracism at work because of their religious beliefs. He reported that many converts to the religion required some social adjustment as they gradually reduced contact with non-Witness friends. Association with those outside the organization, commonly termed by Witnesses as "worldly" and "not in the Truth", is acceptable only when it is viewed as an opportunity to preach and Witnesses are under considerable pressure from the Society to show outsiders they are people of high moral fiber. Holden claims that as a result, Witnesses working with "worldly" colleagues tend to closely adhere to Watch Tower teachings. Sociologist Ronald Lawson has suggested that it is the religion's intellectual and organizational isolation—coupled with the intense indoctrination of adherents, rigid internal discipline and considerable persecution—that has contributed to the consistency of its sense of urgency in its apocalyptic message. Celebrations: Weddings, anniversaries, and funerals are observed, though they avoid incorporating certain traditions they see to have pagan origins. The Watchtower has stated that the use of wedding rings by Witnesses is acceptable, even though wedding rings may have first been used by pagans, based on its conclusion that there is no definite evidence wedding rings were used "as part of false religious practices" (emphasis from original). Witnesses typically observe wedding anniversaries, with the Watch Tower Society noting that wedding anniversaries apparently do not stem from pagan origins. Other common celebrations and religious or national holidays such as birthdays, Halloween, Easter and Christmas are not celebrated because they believe that these continue to involve "false religious beliefs or activities." Watch Tower Society publications rule out the celebration of Mother's Day because of a claimed link with pagan gods and concerns that giving "special honor and worship" to mothers is a form of "creature worship" that could turn people away from God. The Society also directs Witnesses to shun May Day, New Year's Day and Valentine's Day celebrations because of their pagan origins. Their opposition to birthdays is said to be based on how the Bible presents them. Watch Tower Society publications note that the only birthday celebrations explicitly mentioned in the Bible are those of an unnamed Pharaoh and Herod Antipas, and that both were associated with executions, and neither celebrant was a servant of God. Though some religions interpret Job 1:4 to indicate birthday feasts of Job's sons, Jehovah's Witnesses interpret them as a circuit of feasts from one house to the next. The Bible does not show Jesus or his apostles celebrating birthdays and The Watchtower claims the absence of any record of the date of the birth of Jesus or his apostles indicates that "God does not want us to celebrate any of these birthdays". Construction: International and regional building teams frequently undertake constructions of Kingdom Halls over the course of one or two weekends, termed "quick-builds". Larger construction projects, including building regional Assembly Halls and Bethel offices, factories, residences, warehouses, and farm facilities, are also performed almost entirely by volunteer members. Humanitarian efforts: Jehovah's Witnesses provide relief assistance in disaster-stricken areas for their members and others in the vicinity. Medicine and clothing were provided to both Hutu and Tutsi Witnesses during the 1994 Rwandan Genocide. Following Hurricane Katrina, they helped rebuild houses of Witnesses and others. The Governing Body of Jehovah’s Witnesses uses "Regional Building Committees" to oversee relief efforts worldwide. Funding of activities: Jehovah's Witnesses fund their activities, such as publishing, constructing and operating facilities, evangelism, and disaster relief via donations. There is no tithing or collection, but on exceptional occasions, members are reminded to donate to the organization; Witnesses typically provide an opportunity for members of the public to make donations as they encounter them in their preaching work. Donation boxes labeled for several purposes are located in Kingdom Halls and other meeting facilities. Generally there are contribution boxes for local operating expenses, a Kingdom Hall fund for helping Witnesses around the world to build Kingdom Halls, and a general fund for the "Worldwide Work", which includes the printing of literature, organization of conventions, supporting missionaries and disaster relief, and other operating expenses of the organization. The accounts (including donations) and the financial operation of the local congregation are reviewed monthly and posted on a congregation notice board. Donations are also accepted via mail, and the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society can be named as a beneficiary to an estate, and also accepts donations in the form of life insurance policies, pension plans, bank accounts, certificates of deposit, retirement accounts, stocks and bonds, real estate, annuities and trusts.
Mormon cosmology is the description of the history, evolution, and destiny of the physical and metaphysical universe according to Mormonism, which includes the doctrines taught by leaders and theologians of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), Mormon fundamentalism, the Restoration Church of Jesus Christ, and other Brighamite denominations within the Latter Day Saint movement. Mormon cosmology draws from Biblical cosmology, but has many unique elements provided by movement founder Joseph Smith. These views are not generally shared by adherents of other Latter Day Saint movement denominations who do not self-identify as "Mormons", such as the Community of Christ. According to Mormon cosmology, there was a pre-existence, or a pre-mortal life, in which human spirits were literal children of heavenly parents. Although their spirits were created, the essential "intelligence" of these spirits is considered eternal, and without beginning. During this pre-mortal life, two plans were said to have been presented, one championed by God the Father, and another presented by Lucifer (Satan) that would have involved loss of moral agency. When Lucifer's plan was not accepted, he is said to have rebelled against God and been cast out of heaven, taking "the third part" of the hosts of heaven with him to the earth, thus becoming the tempters. According to the plan of salvation as described by God the Father, Jehovah (the premortal Jesus) created the earth, under the direction of God the Father, as a place where humanity would be tested. After the resurrection, all men and women—except the spirits that followed Lucifer and the sons of perdition—would be assigned one of three degrees of glory. Within the highest degree, the celestial kingdom, there are three further divisions, and those in the highest of these celestial divisions would become gods and goddesses through a process called "exaltation" or "eternal progression". The doctrine of eternal progression was succinctly summarized by LDS Church leader Lorenzo Snow: "As man now is, God once was: As God now is, man may be." According to Smith's King Follett discourse, God the Father himself once passed through mortality as Jesus did, but how, when, or where that took place is unclear. The prevailing view among Mormons is that God once lived on a planet with his own higher god. According to Mormon scripture, the Earth's creation was not ex nihilo, but organized from existing matter. The Earth is just one of many inhabited worlds, and there are many governing heavenly bodies, including the planet or star Kolob, which is said to be nearest the throne of God. Divinity: In Mormonism, the concept of divinity centers around an idea of "exaltation" and "eternal progression": mortals themselves may become gods and goddesses in the afterlife, be rulers of their own heavenly kingdoms, have spirit children, and increase in power and glory forever. Mormons understand that there are many gods and goddesses in the cosmos, including a Heavenly Mother. However, the three persons of Godhead (God the Father, Jesus, and the Holy Ghost) are to be the only objects of worship. Exaltation and eternal progression: In Mormonism, the goal of each adherent is to achieve "exaltation" via the atonement of Jesus. If a person achieves exaltation, they inherit all the attributes of God the Father, including godhood. Mormons believe that these people will become gods and goddesses in the afterlife, and will have "all power, glory, dominion, and knowledge". Mormons teach that exalted people will live with their earthly families and will also "have spirit children": their posterity will grow forever. According to the belief, exaltation is available only to those who have earned the highest "degree" of the celestial kingdom. As prerequisites for this "greatest gift of God", adherents believe that either in this life or the afterlife, they must become "perfect" and they must participate in all the required ordinances. Though not necessary, their exaltation can be "sealed upon them" by the Holy Ghost via the Second Anointing ordinance. One of the key qualifications for exaltation is being united in a celestial marriage to an opposite-sex partner via the ordinance of sealing, either in person or by proxy after they have died. In the 19th century, some leaders of the LDS Church taught that participation in plural marriage was also a requirement of exaltation. The LDS Church abandoned the practice beginning in 1890 and now teaches that only a single celestial marriage is required for exaltation. Origin of Elohim (God the Father): According to Mormon theology, God the Father is a physical being of "flesh and bones." Mormons identify him as the biblical god Elohim. Latter-day Saint leaders have also taught that God the Father was once a mortal man who has completed the process of becoming an exalted being. According to Joseph Smith, God "once was a man like one of us and … once dwelled on an earth the same as Jesus Christ himself did in the flesh and like us." Origin of Jehovah (Jesus): According to Mormon belief, Jesus is identified as the god Jehovah, the YHWH of the Old Testament. Jehovah received a body when he was born to the Virgin Mary and was named Jesus. Jesus was the Son of God—the father of his physical body was God the Father. Because Jesus was the Son of God, he had power to overcome physical death. Because he lived a perfect and sinless life, Jesus could offer himself as an "infinite and eternal" sacrifice that would be required to pay for the sins of all of the other children of God. Adam/Michael, under the Adam–God doctrine: According to Brigham Young, Adam was a god identified as the biblical archangel Michael prior to his placement in the Garden of Eden. The pre-existent godhood of Adam/Michael is now repudiated by the LDS Church, but it is accepted by some adherents of Mormon fundamentalism. According to this interpretation of Young's teachings, Michael was a god who had received his exaltation. He took Eve, one of his wives, to the Garden, where they became mortal by eating the fruit in the garden. Although the LDS Church has repudiated the Adam–God doctrine, the denomination's endowment ceremony portrays this Adam/Michael as a participant with Jehovah in the creation of the earth, under the direction of Elohim. Heavenly Mother and the Holy Ghost: The official doctrine of the LDS Church includes the existence of "heavenly parents", which is generally understood to refer to the goddess Heavenly Mother, who exists alongside God the Father and is his wife. God the Father, Jesus Christ, and the Holy Ghost are recognized as the three constituent entities of the Godhead. The Holy Ghost has a spirit body, in contrast with the Heavenly Father and Jesus Christ, who have physical celestial bodies. Other worlds and extraterrestrial life: Mormon cosmology teaches that the Earth is not unique, but that it is one of many inhabited planets, each planet created for the purpose of bringing about the "immortality and eternal life" (i.e., the exaltation) of humanity. These worlds were, according to doctrine, created by Jehovah, the pre-mortal Jesus. Because Mormonism holds that Jesus created the universe, yet his father, God the Father, once dwelt upon an earth as a mortal, it may be interpreted that Mormonism teaches the existence of a multiverse, and it is not clear if the other inhabited worlds mentioned in Mormon scripture and teachings refers to planets within this universe or not. Mormon leaders and theologians have taught that these inhabitants are similar or identical to humans, and that they too are subject to the atonement of Jesus. The earth that God the Father dwelt on as a mortal was not, however, created by Jehovah or subject to his atonement, but existed previously. The doctrine of other worlds is found in Mormon scripture, in the endowment ceremony, and in the teachings of Joseph Smith. In addition, many LDS Church leaders and theologians have elaborated on these principles through exegesis or speculation, and many of these ideas are widely accepted among Mormons. Official sources: According to a revelation dictated by Joseph Smith, Jesus is the creator of many worlds, so "that by him, and through him, and of him, the worlds are and were created, and the inhabitants thereof are begotten sons and daughters unto God." Smith's translation of the Bible also refers to "many worlds", and states that the vision Moses had on Sinai was limited to "only account of this earth, and the inhabitants thereof, but there are many worlds that have passed away by the word of my power, and there are many that now stand." Another part of Smith's translation portrays the biblical character Enoch as stating that if there were "millions of earths like this earth, it would not be a beginning to the number of God's creations; and his curtains are stretched out still." Finally, the portion of the LDS Church's endowment ceremony depicting the creation of the world refers repeatedly to "worlds heretofore created". In the portrayal of the Garden of Eden story during the endowment, after Lucifer has tempted Eve to eat of the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge, God the Father asks Lucifer what he is doing, and Lucifer replies "that which has been done on other worlds". Noncanonical statements by church leaders- Alleged statements of early church leaders: Some individual Latter-day Saints have espoused opinions that demonstrate their personal beliefs on the subject of other life in the universe. According to Latter-day Saint Oliver B. Huntington, Joseph Smith made a statement that there was life on the Moon; Huntington also reported that he was promised in a patriarchal blessing given to him by Joseph Smith, Sr. that he would preach the gospel to inhabitants of the Moon. LDS researchers John A. Tvedtnes and Van Hale have expressed doubt about the reliability of Huntington's two claims. Regarding the first claim, it is likely that Huntington was repeating a description provided by another Latter-day Saint, Philo Dibble. (Huntington was a child at the time Smith lived and was not a close contemporary of Smith at any time during his life.) It is unclear what Dibble's source for the statement is, because Dibble did not indicate whether the recollection was his own or something he had heard from another person. The alleged teaching was first recorded by Huntington in a journal entry after he heard it from Dibble approximately forty years after Smith's death. Regarding Huntington's second claim, the official LDS Church's record of the blessing indicates that it was given to Huntington by his father, William Huntington, and not by Joseph Smith, Sr. The extract from the blessing suggests a more plausible rationale, in that the events could occur at some time in the future or after mortality. Hence: "thou shalt have power with God even to translate thyself to Heaven, & preach to the inhabitants of the moon or planets, if it shall be expedient". There are no contemporary reports, records, or any other written support of Smith's alleged views or statements on extraterrestrials, nor are there any reports of statements other than the one claimed by Huntington, which is unverified and therefore possibly unreliable. It has also been pointed out by Tvedtnes and James B. Allen that, unlike many of Smith's statements, there is no indication that Smith claimed that any such alleged opinions on extraterrestrials was revealed to him by God nor that Smith was allegedly speaking under any prophetic authority. In a statement given on July 24, 1870, LDS Church president Brigham Young discussed the possibility that the Sun and the Moon were inhabited. However, Young stated that this was his own personal belief and thoughts. In response to a claim of his being ignorant on the matter, Young admitted his ignorance and stated, "Are not we all ignorant pertaining to these matters?" Various publications regarding the subject of Young's statement acknowledge that these were personal beliefs held by Young and such beliefs were common in the nineteenth century and were even considered to be "scientific fact" by many at the time. For example, William Herschel, the discoverer of the planet Uranus, argued "who can say that it is not extremely probable, nay beyond doubt, that there must be inhabitants on the Moon of some kind or another?" Regarding Herschel, historians have claimed that "he thought it possible that there was a region below the Sun's fiery surface where men might live, and he regarded the existence of life on the Moon as 'an absolute certainty.'" In any event, the personal beliefs of Young on the subject of "inhabited worlds" is not considered doctrine of the LDS Church. Modern leaders: Some modern LDS Church leaders have taught that there are people living on other earths. For instance, apostle Joseph Fielding Smith (1876–1972) wrote: We are not the only people that the Lord has created. We have brothers and sisters on other earths. They look like us because they, too, are the children of God and were created in his image, for they are also his offspring. and the great universe of stars has multiplied beyond the comprehension of men. Evidently each of these great systems is governed by divine law; with divine presiding Gods, for it would be unreasonable to assume that each was not so governed. Apostle Neal A. Maxwell (1926–2004) wrote, "we do not know how many inhabited worlds there are, or where they are. But certainly we are not alone." Mormon metaphysics: Mormon scripture and the teachings of Joseph Smith include a number of details concerning the nature of light, elements, matter, "spirit matter", and intelligence. According to Mormon scripture, "the elements are eternal". This means, according to Smith, that the elements are co-existent with God, and "they may be organized and reorganized, but not destroyed. They had not beginning, and can have no end." This principle was elaborated on by Brigham Young, who said, "God never made something out of nothing; it is not in the economy or law of which the worlds were, are, or will exist." Thus, Mormons deny ex nihilo creation and instead believe that God created or "organized" the universe out of pre-existing elements. Along with physical matter, Mormons believe that spirit "intelligences" have existed co-eternally with God. Mormons believe in a universe and a God governed by physical law, in which all miracles, including acts of God, have a natural explanation, though science does not yet have the tools or means necessary to explain them. Pre-mortality- Spirit intelligences and God's spirit children: It is believed there were pre-existing "spirit intelligences" that existed before the God the Father and Heavenly Mother created spiritual bodies for them: "self-existing intelligences were organized into individual spirit beings" by the Heavenly Parents and they became the "begotten sons and daughters of God". The procreative process whereby the intelligences became spirits has not been explained. While spirit bodies are composed of matter, they are described as being "more fine or pure" than regular matter. The first-born spirit child of God the Father was Jehovah, whom Latter-day Saints identify as the premortal Jesus. Jehovah was a God and was like God the Father in attributes, but he did not have an immortal physical body like God the Father until his resurrection. Council in Heaven: God the Father's plan for all his children was to provide a way for them to become more like him. Although they were happy living in heaven with God the Father, God's spirit children could not experience the "fulness of joy" enjoyed by him unless their spirit bodies were joined with a physical body. God the Father convened a "Grand Council" of all his children to propose a plan of progression, known to Latter-day Saints as the plan of salvation. According to the proposed plan, God would provide an earth where spirit children could receive a physical body. One of the purposes of this earthly existence is for each of God's children to demonstrate through free will the desire to choose righteousness rather than evil. To facilitate free will decision-making, God would cause each spirit child to have no memory of their pre-earth life. All would be given trials and would fall short of perfection, but a savior would be provided, the acceptance of whom would lead ultimately to redemption and a return to live with God the Father forever. Jehovah volunteered to be the savior and said, "Father, thy will be done, and the glory be thine forever." Jehovah was "the only person who could be the Savior". War in Heaven: Lucifer, another of the spirit sons of God the Father, also sought to be the chosen savior; however, he proposed that the free will of humankind be abrogated so that "all mankind" would be redeemed through compelled obedience. Additionally, Lucifer proposed that all glory and honor (and consequently power) be transferred from God the Father to himself. Lucifer's plan was rejected by God the Father, which caused Lucifer to be enraged and to attempt to overthrow God. The War in Heaven ensued whereby Lucifer and his followers fought against Jehovah and his followers. One-third of the spirit children of God chose to follow Lucifer. Lucifer and his followers were cast out of heaven by God the Father. Because of their rebellion, Lucifer and the spirits who followed him would not receive a physical body as specified in the plan of salvation. Lucifer is also known as Satan or the Devil. Satan and his spirit followers tempt people to make evil choices. Temporal creation and fall: Following the War in Heaven, Jesus created the earth under the direction of God the Father. Since all matter is co-eternal with God, creation of the earth was not performed ex nihilo. Rather, God performed creation by organizing pre-existing matter. The earth and everything on it were created spiritually by God before they were created physically. Jehovah used the priesthood to create the physical earth and everything in it as well as the Sun, Moon, stars, and planets. Jehovah had assistance from other children of God, including the archangel Michael. God the Father and Jehovah together created the physical bodies of Adam and Eve, which were patterned after the physical body possessed by God. Michael's spirit was placed in the male body, and a spirit daughter of God was placed in the female body. Adam and Eve were placed in the Garden of Eden. Although they had physical bodies, they were not yet mortal. God the Father commanded them to have children. He also told them that they could eat of any tree in the garden except for the tree of knowledge of good and evil, and that they would "surely die" if they ate of that tree. Satan tempted Adam and Eve to partake of the forbidden fruit. Eve yielded to temptation and ate the fruit; when she told Adam that she had eaten the fruit, Adam chose to eat also. As a result of their decision to eat the forbidden fruit, Adam and Eve underwent the "fall". As God had promised, the bodies of Adam and Eve became mortal and they became subject to physical death, as well as sickness and pain. They also underwent "spiritual death": they were cast out of the Garden of Eden and separated from the presence of God. Due to the fall, Adam and Eve also came to know the difference between good and evil and became capable of having children, as God had originally commanded. As a direct result of the fall of Adam and Eve, all children of God who would be born into the world suffer physical death and spiritual death. While physical death is the separation of the spirit from the body, spiritual death is the separation of a person from God. Spiritual death results from making sinful decisions between good and evil. Were it not for the atonement of Jesus Christ, physical death and spiritual death would both prevent God's children from returning to him with a physical body. Unlike some Christians, Latter-day Saints generally do not see the fall as a serious sin or as an overwhelmingly negative event. Rather, the fall is viewed as "a necessary step in the plan of life and a great blessing to all of us. Because of the Fall, we are blessed with physical bodies, the right to choose between good and evil, and the opportunity to gain eternal life. None of these privileges would have been ours had Adam and Eve remained in the garden." Latter-day scripture reports that Adam and Eve later rejoiced that they had chosen to partake of the fruit, and the Book of Mormon teaches that the fall was necessary for humankind to exist and for them to experience joy, which is the ultimate purpose of existence. The afterlife Spirit world: If a person physically dies without being given the chance to accept the atonement of Jesus Christ on the earth, he or she will be given that chance as a spirit after death. Necessary ordinances, such as baptism, can be vicariously performed on behalf of the person in LDS Church temples. Resurrection: Mormons believe that Jesus guaranteed the physical resurrection of all humanity. They teach that when Jesus physically died on the cross, Jesus' suffering ended and his spirit left his physical body. On the third day after his death, Jesus' spirit returned to his physical body and he became the first child of God to be resurrected with a perfect and immortal physical body of flesh and bone. Because Jesus was resurrected, all children of God who ever lived on the earth will one day be resurrected. Thus, the spirit children of God will all receive immortal physical bodies of flesh and bone, and their spirits and their bodies will never again be separated. Final Judgment and the degrees of glory: After an individual is resurrected, he or she will be judged by Jesus as part of the Final Judgment. There are three degrees or kingdoms of glory which are the ultimate, eternal dwelling places for nearly all who lived on earth; a degree of glory is assigned to the person at the Final Judgment. Joseph Smith provided a description of the afterlife based primarily upon an 1832 vision he reportedly received with Sidney Rigdon and recorded as Doctrine and Covenants section 76. According to this section of the vision, there are three degrees of glory, called the celestial kingdom, the terrestrial kingdom, and the telestial kingdom. The few who do not inherit any degree of glory—though they will be resurrected—reside in a state called outer darkness, which, though not a degree of glory, is often discussed in this context. The ones who will go there are known as "sons of perdition"; sons of perdition are to dwell with Satan and his spirit followers. Exaltation: In consequence of the atonement of Jesus Christ, a son or daughter of God the Father may overcome physical and spiritual death and return to live with God forever. Those individuals who receive this—which is described as the "greatest gift of God"—are said to enter into a state of "exaltation" after they are resurrected. Exaltation is also called "salvation" or "eternal life". Exaltation consists of "the kind of life God lives". In other words, exalted beings will live in great glory, be perfect, and possess all knowledge and wisdom. Exalted beings will live forever with God the Father and Jesus Christ, will become gods and goddesses, will live with their righteous earthly family members, and will receive the fulness of joy enjoyed by God and Christ. One of the key qualifications for exaltation is being united in a celestial marriage to an opposite-sex partner. Such a union can be created during mortality, or it can be created after death by proxy marriages performed in temples. Those who are exalted are said to inhabit the "highest degree" of the celestial kingdom.
The Case of: JonBenét Ramsey is a 2016 documentary miniseries about the murder of JonBenét Ramsey in Boulder, Colorado on December 26, 1996. The miniseries aired on CBS on September 18, and 19, 2016. Investigative team: The investigative team reviewed the case, including the 911 call, ransom note, and other aspects of the case in re-created rooms of the Ramsey house. The documentary included past investigative footage with that of this investigative team, which included former FBI agent Jim Clemente, Dr. Henry Lee, former chief investigator for the Boulder District Attorney James Kolar, forensic patholigist Dr. Werner Spitz, James Fitzgerald, former Scotland Yard criminal behavior analyst Laura Richards, and Stan Burke. DNA evidence: The team examined the theory about an outsider depositing DNA on JonBenet's panties and concluded that it trace evidence could have been transferred when the panties were made and packaged. The 911 call: The team used modern equipment and an interview with the 911 dispatcher, Kimberly Archuleta, to examine the 911 call and claimed that there were three voices on the tape: Patsy, John and Burke. They believed one of the three voices was a boy. At the end of the call, the 911 dispatcher heard Patsy say "OK, we've called the police, now what?" By slowing down the last six second of the recording of the call, they heard three people talking. Patsy was deemed to have said "What did you do?" and "Help me, Jesus." John saying "We're not speaking to you." A child, likely Burke, saying "What did you find?" The Ramsey's had claimed that Burke was asleep during the time that the 911 call was made. The wording used during the call was concerning to the team: During the call Patsy did not mention the name of her daughter. Also, she said "I'm the mother" and "we have a kidnapping". Ransom note: According to E! News, "One of the strangest parts of the Ramsey case has always been the ransom note, which made no sense given the fact that JonBenét's body was found in the house a few hours later". Forensic linguist James Fitzgerald commented on the three-page and 385-word ransom note and concluded, according to Daily Mail, that it was "clearly staged and had deliberate spelling mistakes." Misspellings and other mistakes were made to cover the fact that the writer was in fact a native speaker of the English language. The note demanded $118,000, the rounded amount of John Ramsey's bonus that year. Fitzgerald said that the note was not written by a kidnapper or a "real criminal", but someone who had written the note on a pad of paper used by Patsy Ramsey in their home. The note was unusually long, most ransom notes are 50 to 60 words. It took the experts 21 minutes or more to copy the ransom note and it noted that it would take more time to think about what to write. The pen and paper were not left out, but returned to their rightful place by the note's author. Many lines from the letter were taken from Speed, Dirty Harry and other films. Fitzgerald said that the note appeared to be written by a "maternal" person. Previous handwriting analysis had concluded that the handwriting was similar to that of Patsy Ramsey, but it was not conclusively Patsy who wrote the note. Text of the ransom note- Mr. Ramsey, Listen carefully! We are a group of individuals that represent a small foreign faction. We do respect your bussiness but not the country that it serves. At this time we have your daughter in our posession. She is safe and unharmed and if you want her to see 1997, you must follow our instructions to the letter. You will withdraw $118,000.00 from your account. $100,000 will be in $100 bills and the remaining $18,000 in $20 bills. Make sure that you bring an adequate size attache to the bank. When you get home you will put the money in a brown paper bag. I will call you between 8 and 10 am tomorrow to instruct you on delivery. The delivery will be exhausting so I advise you to be rested. If we monitor you getting the money early, we might call you early to arrange an earlier delivery of the money and hence a earlier delivery pick-up of your daughter. Any deviation of my instructions will result in the immediate execution of your daughter. You will also be denied her remains for proper burial. The two gentlemen watching over your daughter do not particularly like you so I advise you not to provoke them. Speaking to anyone about your situation, such as Police, F.B.I., etc., will result in your daughter being beheaded. If we catch you talking to a stray dog, she dies. If you alert bank authorities, she dies. If the money is in any way marked or tampered with, she dies. You will be scanned for electronic devices and if any are found, she dies. You can try to deceive us but be warned that we are familiar with law enforcement countermeasures and tactics. You stand a 99% chance of killing your daughter if you try to out smart us. Follow our instructions and you stand a 100% chance of getting her back. You and your family are under constant scrutiny as well as the authorities. Don't try to grow a brain John. You are not the only fat cat around so don't think that killing will be difficult. Don't underestimate us John. Use that good southern common sense of yours. It is up to you now John! Victory! S.B.T.C Cause of death theory: According to Fox News, JonBenét was determined by police to have "suffered a blow to the head and had also been strangled with a garrote." The investigators concluded that JonBenet could have been killed, perhaps accidentally, by a blow from a flashlight by a 10-year-old boy, based upon experiments performed using a child, fake skulls with wigs and skulls. They were also able to recreate the injury that JonBenét sustained to her head, like that of the flashlight found in the kitchen of the Ramsey's home. The Daily Mail Australia reported that, according to Jim Clemente, JonBenét 's nine-year-old brother Burke had a "history of scatological problems". Investigators claimed that Burke had covered his sister's walls and her Christmas present with feces, which was found when her room was sealed off and examined as a crime scene. The team speculate that Burke had become angry when JonBenét took a piece of pineapple, which angered her brother, in the middle of the night. They further contend that their parents, John and Patsy Ramsey, then covered up the reason for the death of their daughter. The Ramseys: John, Patsy and Burke have denied involvement in the death of JonBenét. No charges have been filed in the case, as of September 2016. Several days prior to the airing of this mini-series, Burke Ramsey was interviewed on the Dr. Phil show in a three-episode series about the death of his sister. It was his first public interview. The Ramsey family lawyer, L. Lin Wood, has threatened to sue CBS for libel (defamation) based on its conclusion that JonBenét was killed by Burke. Critical review: The review of the mini-series by Variety questioned the objectivity of the team, particularly in taking "hazy" assertions and declaring them as fact. For example, during the show it is stated that John Ramsey called out that he had found JonBenet before he turned on the light to the dark basement room she had been found, but the source or veracity of the statement was not clear. Rolling Stone magazine found that there were three ways in which the investigation was flawed: 1) "Confirmation bias, selective hearing and the misleading 911 call analysis", 2) "Dismissing the DNA evidence entirely" and 3) "Overselling linguistic forensics and behavioral analysis as conclusive". They found that since the investigation did not unearth any new evidence, the conclusions were not new, subjective, and based upon the initial "flawed" police investigation. E! News, on the other hand, offered three "bombshells" from the series regarding: 1) The 911 call, 2) The Ransom Note, and 3) Cause of Death. Bob Grant, former Adams County District Attorney who was brought in to advise the Boulder District Attorney office on the case, voiced skepticism about any of the 2016 television shows abilities to unearth a new theory or solidify an existing theory in the case. He said, "The case will always be, in my mind, one where there are two likely scenarios. And to prove one, you have to disprove the other." He states that without a viable confession, it is unlikely that there will be resolution in the case.[
Andrew Louis "Lou" Smit was an American police detective in Colorado Springs, Colorado who worked on a number of notable cases before his retirement in 1996, and then was recalled to work on the murder of JonBenét Ramsey. Life and career: Having tried various businesses and failed, Smit prayed for a solution and saw as an answer from God a call he received from a cousin who served on the Colorado Springs Department suggesting that he apply to serve. Smit fell just short of the department's minimum height of five feet and nine inches, but was able to join the force in 1966 after he had his cousin hit him over the skull with a nightstick, allowing him to meet the height minimum when he was remeasured the following day with the bump on his head. Working his way up to the rank of detective, Smit was involved in a number of notable cases including the conviction of spree killer Freddie Glenn for a series of murders, including the 1975 killing of Karen Grammer, younger sister of actor Kelsey Grammer. In 1995, he arrested Robert Charles Browne for the 1991 murder of Heather Dawn Church. Church's father had been one of the original suspects in his daughter's murder, but Browne ultimately confessed to a total of 48 murders and was sentenced to life imprisonment. Smit retired in 1996 from the El Paso County, Colorado Sheriff's department where he had served as captain of detectives. In 1997, three months after the murder of JonBenét Ramsey, Smit was asked by the district attorney's office to come out of retirement to assist with the investigation. While initial suspicions had been that Patsy Ramsey was responsible for the murder and that John Ramsey had been protecting his wife, Smit resigned from the case after 18 months having concluded that the Ramseys were not responsible for the murder and that the Boulder Police Department had been unjustifiably pursuing the Ramseys as suspects despite DNA and other evidence that showed that some other person was responsible for the killing. In his September 1998 resignation letter, Smit stated that "the Ramseys did not do it" and cited "substantial, credible evidence of an intruder and a lack of evidence that the parents are involved". Smit later worked for the Ramseys in helping establish their innocence and was portrayed by Kris Kristofferson in a CBS television miniseries based on the case, Perfect Murder, Perfect Town. See also Death of JonBenét Ramsey theories: After the Ramsey case, Smit continued to work on cold cases. As a detective, Smit boasted that he "never lost a homicide case" in a career in which he worked on more than 200 murder cases in which a suspect had been arrested and tried for their crime. Smit went to a doctor in April 2010 after experiencing abdominal pain. After a CAT scan identified a tumor as the cause of the pain, surgeons discovered that the cancer had spread throughout his body and was untreatable. Smit died at age 75 on August 11, 2010, at the Pikes Peak Hospice in Colorado Springs due to colon cancer. John Ramsey came to pray at his bedside shortly before Smit's death. Smit was survived by three daughters, a son and nine grandchildren.
Michael Tracey is an English born scholar and researcher, with a specialty in public service broadcasting. He acquired notoriety as a result of his tenure as the head of the Broadcasting Research Unit in London, Britain's leading think tank dealing with media issues, and later with his investigative reporting of the murder of JonBenét Ramsey. He is the author of The Decline and Fall of Public Service Broadcasting and The Production of Political Television. He is currently a professor at the University of Colorado at Boulder. JonBenét Ramsey murder: Tracey is the producer of three documentaries about the Death of JonBenét Ramsey. He has been a strong advocate of the innocence of JonBenét's parents and critic of the media frenzy that implicated the parents. On July 9, 2008, twelve years after the murder, DNA revealed that it was not the parents, but an unidentified man responsible. Tracey has a history of identifying false leads in the murder investigation. In his film Who Killed the Pageant Queen?, which aired June 16, 2004 in the United Kingdom, Tracey claimed to have "stunning new evidence" that was leading police to a previously unidentified "prime suspect." According to Tracey, it was the "investigators’ top priority" to find this suspect, but they were stymied because he had gone "underground." All of these claims were proved false: - The "suspect" turned out to be John Steven Gigax. Tom Bennett of the Boulder District Attorney's office has stated more than once that Gigax was never a suspect. - Gigax had not fled from authorities or gone "underground"; he was easily found with an Internet search, because he openly runs a jewelry sales web site. - Gigax's only tie to the Ramsey case is tenuous at best: he was an acquaintance of Michael Helgoth, who was briefly considered a suspect. Gigax is attempting to initiate legal action against Tracey for falsely implicating him in the murder. Tracey identified John Mark Karr to the Boulder authorities as a person who should be investigated in the Ramsey case. Karr's confession to the crime earned widespread attention, but DNA tests later ruled him out as a suspect. Tracey and Karr began corresponding in 2002, approximately two years before the film that implicated Gigax was seen by the public. Radio host Peter Boyles believes that Tracey was "grooming" Karr to be the next suspect. Boulder District Attorney Mary Lacy made the decision to have Karr arrested, and transported from Thailand to Los Angeles to Boulder, spurred by information provided by Tracey. Colorado Governor Bill Owens said Lacy should be "held responsible for the most expensive DNA test in Colorado history," referring to the test that exonerated Karr. Tracey was once a columnist for the Rocky Mountain News (RMN).
The Norfolk headless body case relates to a woman, believed murdered, who died around the first or second week of August 1974. Her decapitated body was found near Swaffham, Norfolk, England, on 27 August 1974. Her head has never been found. The woman has never been identified; however, one theory that police are working on is that she was a prostitute known as "The Duchess" who worked the Great Yarmouth docks under that name and who disappeared in the summer of 1974. Origins: After the woman's remains were exhumed in 2008, samples of her toenails, hair and thigh bone were subjected to DNA and isotopic analysis. A full DNA profile was obtained but there was no match with any database, but the independent isotopic analyses carried out by professor Wolfram Meier-Augenstein and another scientist, which looks at the traces left in the body from the water consumed during a person's lifetime, both indicated that she was probably from the central Europe area including Denmark, Germany, Austria and Northern Italy. Family: From a second post-mortem examination of the woman, Norfolk police learned that her pelvic girdle had widened which happens during pregnancy to allow a woman to give birth, indicating that she probably had at least one child. Death: The badly decomposed body of the woman was found on 27 August 1974 by Andrew Head (19), a tractor driver, who was out walking when he found the body on land belonging to Sir Peter Roberts. Head later recalled: "I lifted one corner of the cover over the body and that was enough – I could see what it was. I went home and phoned the police." The body was near a track leading to Brake Hill Farm, Brandon Road, near Swaffham, Norfolk. Combine harvesters were used to clear fields to allow them to be searched. Police believe the woman died in the first or second week of August 1974. She was estimated to be aged between 23 and 35 and 5ft to 5ft 2in tall. Her hands and legs were bound to her body and she was wearing only a pink 1969 Marks & Spencer nightdress. She had been decapitated. Her head has never been found. Her body was wrapped in a plastic sheet embossed with the words National Cash Registers. A collector in the United States identified the cover as being from a payroll machine and the exact model but the enquiry also established that thousands of the machines would have been made with many exported. With her body was a length of rope that was unusual in being made of four strands, rather than the more usual three or five strands. An expert told police that the composition of the rope "suggests it was made for use with agricultural machinery". Police traced the place of manufacture of the rope to Dundee in Scotland but the firms that made that type of rope have since ceased trading. The first murder enquiry into the death ran from 1974 to 1975 during which time police spoke to 15,000 people and took 700 statements. They completed 6,750 house to house questionnaires. In 2008, Norfolk Police exhumed the woman's body under Operation Monton and took a DNA sample but were unable to identify the woman. They established that she was right-handed, had probably given birth, had consumed water found in Scotland and that fish and crabs formed an important part of her diet. They have issued several appeals for information. In 2008, the case was featured on the BBC's Crimewatch programme. In 2011, police made another appeal and identified 540 missing women as a result of fresh enquiries. In 2016, the case featured on television again and twice in the online version of BBC News. "The Duchess": Following a call from a former police officer, after the case featured on Crimewatch in 2008, Norfolk police are examining a theory that the woman is "The Duchess", a prostitute who lived in Great Yarmouth docks and who disappeared in the summer of 1974 leaving all her possessions behind. "The Duchess" is believed to have arrived in the port town on the Esbjerg Ferry from Denmark. Her clients were lorry drivers who travelled between Esbjerg and Yarmouth using the ferry and she also sometimes accompanied drivers on deliveries in England. She was 23–35 years old and 5 feet 2 inches tall. In 1973–74 she lived for four or five months in the dockers' hut at the Ocean terminal. She also spent time in custody but the records relating to that time have been destroyed and the police do not know the woman's real name, nor can they be sure that the dead woman is indeed "The Duchess".
On 14 January 2015, more than one hundred unidentified dead bodies were found floating in the River Ganges in Unnao district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The dead bodies are believed to be of mostly unmarried girls and children. They were later buried at the riverbank. Incident: The bodies, which were mostly of children and unmarried girls, were first noticed on 14 January 2015 by some villagers at Ganga Ghat Shuklaganj balu ghat in Unnoa district when crows and dogs were feeding on them. The area was cordoned off by officials and 104 dead bodies were retrieved from the river. Samples were taken for forensic DNA profiling, as, according to officials, postmortem was not possible. Without going for cremation the dead bodies were buried at the riverbank. On the same day, six more dead bodies were found floating in the river and retrieved from the neighbouring district of Jhansi. One of the explanations given by the officials was that since the river had changed its course due to the construction of a new barrage, the water level became lower and the bodies surfaced. A magisterial enquiry was ordered by the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh Akhilesh Yadav to uncover the facts of the incident. The chairperson of Bahujan Samaj Party, Mayawati, demanded CBI enquiry into the incident and said that it "has infused fear among people". Azam Khan, a cabinet minister in Uttar Pradesh government, has accused Sakshi Maharaj of being responsible for the incident; I have come to know that Sakshi Maharaj brought a truck loaded with bodies to the spot and unloaded it into the river to defame the state government. Location: The dead bodies were found floating in a canal at Ganga Ghat Shuklaganj balu ghat, which connects to the Ganges and is 60 km southwest from Lucknow, the state capital of Uttar Pradesh and 30 km northeast from Kanpur. River: The Ganges River is regarded as a holy river by Hindus and many crematory ghats are on its banks. Police officials of Unnao have offered an explanation that the bodies were of "people who were dumped in the river or buried on the banks after their families could not afford a proper cremation."
Saturday, October 29, 2016
Artificial hair integrations, more commonly known as hair extensions, add length and/or fullness to human hair. Hair extensions are methods of lengthening one's hair by incorporating additional human or synthetic hair. Natural human hair can be permed, dyed, and flat ironed whereas synthetic hair cannot. The methods include tape in extensions, clip in or clip on extensions, fusion method, weaving method and wigs. Methods for hair extensions- Pinchbraid: Pinchbraid extensions were invented in the 1980s by Minneapolis salon Hair Police. They are individual locks of hair tied in to the native hair with a durable upholstery thread. Tape-in: Tape-in hair extensions last on hair from four to eight weeks and the hair can be gently combed and washed while wearing the extensions. In addition, the extensions need to be treated with specialized shampoos, conditioners and styling products to keep them in top condition. The extensions can be easily taken off by applying glue remover and can be easily installed by using liquid adhesive or glue tape. Clip-in or clip-on hair extensions: This technique is the least permanent and can be very effective without the disadvantages such as traction alopecia associated with glue extensions. The hair weft has small toupée clips sewn onto them. Usually a set of clip-in extensions averages eight strips of human hair in varying widths from two inches to eight inches. Starting at the nape of the neck, the hair is sectioned neatly, then the weft is placed onto this section with the clips open and facing the scalp. Each clip is snapped into place. It can be helpful to lightly backcomb each section for a more secure grip. This is repeated until each clip-in weft is in place. Clip-ins can be worn for an entire day; however, some take off to sleep. Some people wear clip-ins only for special occasions and other functions, while others wear them daily. This shows the versatility of this type of hair extension. Bonding and sealing extensions: Bonding is a method of weaving that lasts for a shorter period of time in comparison to sew-in weaving. It involves the application of hair glue to a section of wefted hair then onto a person's natural hair; special hair adhesives are used in bonding to prevent damage to one's natural hair. This technique is commonly used and does not cause damage to the hair unless taken out without proper directions from a professional. It is advised that weave bonding be installed for up to 3 weeks because the glue begins to loosen up and lessens the attractiveness of the hair. There are 2 types of bonding methods: soft bond and hard bond. Soft bond is flexible and comfortable to wear and is made using latex/acrylic based adhesives. Hard bond is the industry term for bonding treatments whose adhesive contains cyanoacrylate, or super glue. Hard bond adhesives last longer than soft bond adhesives because it is not water based and therefore less susceptible to deterioration. Nonetheless, the hard bond adhesives are not as comfortable as the soft bond adhesive because they are rigid. These bond attachments generally last 4–6 weeks before a maintenance appointment is necessary. Fusion: The fusion method delivers one of the most versatile and most natural-looking weaves on the market. This involves a machine similar to a hot glue gun used to attach human hair extensions to individual strands of one's natural hair of about 1/8 to 1/4 inch squared sections for a truly authentic look. Another option for fusion attachments is using hair which is pre-tipped with a keratin adhesive. A heat clamp is then used to melt the adhesive to attach the extension hair to the natural hair. Fusion weave allows washing hair frequently and the use of regular hair products such as hair gels. Nonetheless this technique is very time consuming because it takes about 3 or more hours. They need re-positioning every 2–3 months as the natural hair grows. Due to various chemicals in the glue, which may cause hair loss and scalp irritation, combined with heat, this method is more damaging to natural hair. Micro Rings (also known as Micro-Bead or Micro Loops): Micro Rings, Micro Loop or Micro-Bead hair extensions use small metal rings or beads (usually aluminium) and can sometimes be lined with silicone to attach the extension hair. They are fixed to small sections of natural hair and tightened using a special tool that clamps the bead around the natural hair. The micro-beads are designed to be small enough so that they are not visible in normal use. They need re-positioning every 2–3 months as the natural hair grows and the micro-beads move away from the scalp. As they do not use heat or adhesives, these hair extensions should cause less damage than some types of extensions, if placed correctly and proper care is taken. Today, there are many sizes available for micro rings/beads from about 1.5mm to 5.5mm. The sizing makes a difference on the weight of the extensions, the feel, and the visibility. Some micro-beads are so tiny, that they mimic a non surgical hair transplant. The stylist installing the extensions should determine what size micro rings/beads are best for the client's hair length and texture, prior to installation on the head. Netting: Netting is a technique which involves braiding natural tresses under a thin, breathable net that serves as a flat surface onto which stylists can weave extensions. This method requires the use of hair net or cap to be placed over the person's hair that has been braided. Netting provides more flexibility than track placement because the stylist is not limited to sewing extensions to a braid. With netting there is the option of sewing the hair wefts onto the net or gluing. This technique is not as time-consuming when compared to the other hair techniques because it takes about 2–4 hours to complete. Lace fronts: The most recent development in weave extensions are lace fronts. Lace fronts are made from a nylon mesh material formed into a cap that is then hand-ventilated by knotting single strands of hair into the tiny openings of the cap, giving the hair a more natural and authentic continuity than typical extensions.It has few variation including straight, wavy and curly Furthermore, the extension units can be woven in or attached to a person's hairline with special adhesives. To ensure a proper fit, head measurements are taken into account with this type of weave. A lace frontal is best placed by a professional since more advanced weaving and hair extensions are used. This method is commonly used by women around the world because it makes it possible to have access to a certain part of their scalp and at the same time giving a natural and attractive look. Tracking: This is one of the most commonly used methods as it is quite fast and lasts considerably longer than the other techniques. However, it does not allow for use of regular hair maintenance. Tracking involves the braiding of a person's natural hair. In order to prevent the hair from being bumpy or uneven, the hair is sewn horizontally or vertically across the head from one side to the other starting from the bottom. The braided hair is then sewn down and the hair weft extensions are sewn onto the braids. A weave can consist of a few tracks, or the whole head can be braided for a full head weave. With a full head weave, the braids are sewn down or covered with a net. Extensions are then sewn to the braids. The number of tracks used depends on the desired look. A hair weave is human or artificial hair utilized for the integration with one's natural hair. Weaves can alter one's appearance for long or short periods of time by adding further hair to one's natural hair or by covering the natural hair all together with human or synthetic hairpieces. Weaving additional human or synthetic pieces can enhance one's hair by giving it volume, length and adding color without the damage of chemicals or adopting a different hair texture than that of their own. However, hair loss can occur either along the front hairline or above the ears due to the wearing of specific hair styles for a prolonged period of time, such as weaves. Such hair loss in known as traction alopecia. The idea of hair weaves and extensions first came about in the early days of Ancient Egypt, where men and women utilized extensions in their hair to portray a more elegant appearance. By the late 17th century, wigs in various shapes and sizes became a latest fashion trend. Hair weaves in particular, did not grow interest until the 1950s; even during that time celebrities had been the only ones using them. When the “long, disco-haired” era evolved there started to become a widespread of hair weave. Since that era, hair weave has only become more popular. Most human hair weaves come from parts of Asia and India.This is because Indian hair is easily blended with hair of women in other countries. Most popular hair wefts: The most popular and commonly available form of hair is known as premium hair. It is sold in most beauty supply stores or online. The roots and tips of hairs are interwoven in premium hair which causes tangling. This is due to the opposing cuticle layers catching onto one another. However; as it is the most inexpensive type of hair, it is a best seller. Premium hair comes in two types: - Regular premium hair: generally the least expensive type of hair. The cuticles are present in different directions and the hair is prone to tangling. - "Tangle-free" premium hair: this is obtained by chemically removing the cuticles using an acid bath. This process reduces the friction among hairs, leaving the remains tangle-free hair. In order to give the appearance of natural healthy hair, a laminate is applied to the hair to give it a shiny and silky look. Synthetic fiber: Synthetic fibers are made of various different synthetic fibers, but actually contain no human hair. Synthetic fibers, just like human hair, come in weave (weft) and single strands (bulk) for braids. They do not last as long as human hair because they can be easily damaged by friction and heat. The quality of fibers varies greatly. Depending on quality, they may never look like human hair, as they can be stiff and move differently from human hair. Synthetic fibers are much less expensive than human hair. Heating appliances such as curling irons, flat irons, and straightening combs generally should never be used on most types of synthetic hair. There are some newer versions of synthetic fibers that are more resistant, human-like fibers that can be heat processed allowing for heat styling. Futura: Futura is a type of synthetic fiber that can withstand heat up to 400 °F, and can actually outlast human hair. It is very similar to human hair given it is tangle-free and has a natural sheen. It can be straightened or curled, however, it takes longer to set; but futura cannot be colored. It is sometimes sold as a human hair blend. Human hair The human hair shaft is made up of dead, hard protein, called keratin, in three layers. The inner layer is called the medulla and may not be present. The next layer is the cortex and the outer layer is the cuticle. The cortex makes up the majority of the hair shaft. The cuticle is formed by tightly packed scales in an overlapping structure similar to roof shingles. Most hair-conditioning products attempt to affect the cuticle. There are pigment cells that are distributed throughout the cortex, giving the hair its characteristic color. The cuticle is a hard shingle-like layer of overlapping cells, some five to twelve deep, formed from dead cells that form scales which give the hair shaft strength and protect the inner structure of the hair. The hair cuticle is the first line of defense against all forms of damage; it acts as a protective barrier for the softer inner structures, including the medulla and cortex. The cuticle is responsible for much of the mechanical strength of the hair fiber. A healthy cuticle is more than just a protective layer, as the cuticle also controls the water content of the fiber. Much of the shine that makes healthy hair so attractive is due to the cuticle. In the hair industry, the only way to obtain the very best hair (with cuticle intact and facing the same direction) is to use the services of "hair collectors," who cut the hair directly from people's heads, and bundle it as ponytails. This hair is called virgin cuticle hair, or just cuticle hair. *Hair extensions made of true virgin, raw (cuticle hair) has the most durability and ease of use as the integrity of the hair has not been broken or altered by the method of collection. This continues to be positively true if this hair is then simply wefted or sewn on a track. Without any processed chemical or steamed done on the hair. Human hair industry: The selling of human hair for weaves, wigs, and other hair styling products is an industry that generates hundreds of millions of dollars annually and is growing as a large export economy in some Asian regions, such as India, at a rate of 10-30 percent annually. In India, a large portion of the hair is sourced from Hindu temples where hair is donated for religious practices, particularly in honor of the Hindu God Vishnu. This hair is highly sought out for its 'virgin', untreated qualities, as well as its great length. From there the hair is cleaned and the color is removed before being re-dyed for international style tastes. *Virgin hair can be collected outside of the export economy in some Asian regions. Although not as extensively practiced. There are a few US companies selling true virgin hair obtained from within the US from trusted US Salons. The hair is obtained from a customer who has a haircut from a ponytail. If this person had virgin hair-it can be then transformed into an authentic virgin, raw and remy human hair extension. This option is for someone willing to pay more for this Truly premium hair and is interested in wearing true raw, remy and virgin hair obtained in the US. without the involvement of temple practices or possible unknown sources of hair collections. These virgin, raw, remy extensions with the integrity of the hair's shaft intact can be bleached or dyed as well if desired. Color, texture and quality: Color- Artificial hair colors: Manufacturers of artificial hair use a standard scale to classify the hair by color. The lower the number on the package, generally, the darker the color. 1 usually denotes darkest black, and would become ligther with increasing number value, ending at the lightest blonde, then finally white. These colors vary greatly from one manufacturer to another, and certain specialty hair suppliers also create their own signature patterns and colors. Human hair colors: Come in a endless variety from platinum blonde to darkest natural black. True raw blonde human hair is scarce and is highly sought after. Textures of human and artificial hair: Textures of artificial hair vary from very straight to extremely curly, or kinky. The exact names of curl patterns vary by brand, and the possibilities of curl patterns with synthetic hair are endless, but some examples of packaged textures include: - Silky Straight - Straight and smooth, East Asian like hair. - Yaki - Straight, usually mimicking the texture of relaxed Afro-Caribbean hair. - Deep Wave - While generally not a true 'wave', it can be made to look like spiral curls/3a hair. - Loose Deep Wave or Romance Wave - Looser version of the deep wave, softer, more romantic curls. - Kinky Curly (very tightly coiled "s" or "z" shaped curl pattern ) - It is often used to recreate the look of natural Afro-Caribbean hair. - Wet and Wavy, can be packaged as Spanish Wave or Indian Wave - Usually human hair is used, and is either naturally curly or permanently waved to appear so. Characterized as having soft, natural-looking curls that revert to a curly state when wet. Textures of human hair: Textures of human hair vary from very straight to extremely curly, or kinky. and all the naturally occurring textures that are in-between. The exact curl patterns vary by person and so the possibilities of curl patterns with true raw hair are endless. - Coarse or smooth Straight - Straight with or with a wave. - Curly Wave - similar to the look and feel of spiral curls/3a hair. - Deep Wave - Looser version of the deep wave. - Kinky Curly (very tightly coiled "s" or "z" shaped curl pattern ) - It is often used to recreate the look of natural Afro-Caribbean hair. - 'In between textures' that occur naturally in raw,virgin human hair. Hair preparation terminology: - Virgin hair is hair that hasn't been colored or processed in any way and may or may not still be growing from the head. This should include any steam processes. - Raw hair is hair that also has not been colored or processed in any way. This includes steam processes. Some consider this to be less evasive and not actually processed. as the raw or virgin undergoes a multiple day steaming process to create long-lasting curls or wave patterns without the damage of chemicals. This process guarantees consistent curls and waves that has a uniform texture. Premium raw or virgin hair has had absolutely no processes of any sort including steam done on the hair. This is essential as true premium raw/virgin hair has a naturally occurring texture that when matched to the owner of the raw/virgin hair extensions creates a look that is unbeatable in look and feel. - Remy hair is the modern spelling of the word 'remis' which was derived from the French verb 'remettre', meaning 'put back'. Its historical meaning is that all hair (human or animal) in any given bundle has been 'put back' to the original direction it grew in (i.e. there were (but are no longer) any 'upside down' (inverted) hair in any given bundle). All hair has been re-aligned root to point (tip). Over time its spelling along with its meaning has changed. Today's 'remy' meaning is that the hair was never inverted in the first place. Rather, it was cut from the donor and kept in its original grown alignment. However, this 'remy' word bears little relevance as to whether a bundle of hair is remy or not due to the majority of factories selling incorrectly labelled products. The hair gets passed on as remy due to most people, including hair professionals, being unable to detect the difference. It requires the ability to feel the cuticles which is a highly skilled and learned technique. The result is that the word 'remy' has gone wayside and if a bundle of hair is labelled as such, in reality it is likely not remy. The production of remy hair preparation requires excess labor and skill. Furthermore, 'remy' hair produced in factories has all been acid treated to remove a large portion of the cuticles. This minimalists tangling leaving the western hair supplier, and eventual client, thinking that it is 'remy', never learning how to feel the cuticles and misguided in general as to the real meaning of the word. - Single drawn or double drawn hair may be produced from any ponytail or group of ponytails. The single drawn bundles will result in only the shortest hairs being removed from the original ponytail. The amount of shortest hairs removed depends upon the hair preparers (workers) instructions. The equipment used is a hackle and not a drawing board (or drawing mat). The single drawn hair bundle will contain a variety of different hair strand lengths, only the very shortest having been removed. It is commonplace in the hair extension industry to call any hair 'single drawn' regardless of whether it has been drawn at all. The quality of the hair itself is irrelevant to the drawing process. It is generally of a lower price bracket than double-drawn hair due to shorter hair still being contained within. - Double drawn indicates the manual hand process of sorting any given amount of hair into its various lengths and later retying accordingly into new bundles. The equipment used is a pair of drawing boards (or drawing mats). The result being that each new bundle formed contains only the same lengths of hair strands. The term 'double' is used because the process involves drawing (pulling out) the hair from drawing boards (or drawing mats) twice. The hair is drawn first in one direction and then afterwards in the other direction. Double drawn hair will have (nearly) as many hair strands at one end as the other and appear much thicker and not wispy at the end. This process is very laborious, and therefore makes the hair very expensive. There are not many articles available to explain this precise procedure due to industry secrecy. It is commonplace in the hair extension industry to call any hair 'double drawn', even when it isn't. It is likely that hair labeled as 'double drawn' has not been drawn at all. Methods of integration: The misnomer of 'tracks' comes from the common, long-lasting method of integrating wefts, known as the 'track and sew' method. The 'tracks' are usually cornrows, braided in the direction of how the hair will fall. Toward the face or away, with or without a part, the tracks build the foundation of how the end result will look. The wefts are then sewn onto the braids, usually with a specially made, blunt-ended needle. The needle can be curved or straight. There are many different colors of specially-made thread to choose from, depending on what color of hair you will be integrating. Darker hair lends to darker thread. It should also be noted that when the hair is braided at a high level of tension, the client is at risk for traction alopecia. Invisible Hair Weave is a long lasting method of attaching commercial hair to the natural hair. Application generally takes about an hour. It will last about 8 weeks. Wefts may also be bonded directly to the clients hair using special bonding glue. Care must be taken not to bond the wefts directly to the scalp, as it can cause sensitivities in some clients. A patch test is frequently recommended, as per manufacturer's directions. Clip-in wefts, also known as clip-in hair extensions, can be integrated into natural hair to add length and volume. Clip in hair extensions can be purchased for $100 – $1000, depending on desired quality. The clip in hair extensions most commonly come in as a long strand of one contoured piece that can be cut into multiple layers for creating separate layers on a user's head. When the hair is purchased from a beauty supply store, it often comes with clips, which are sewn into the hair. If bought from an online store the clips can be simply sewn on easily buy the purchaser of the extensions or by a stylist. Once the clips are sewn in, it is recommended that the user clip in the hair and visit a stylist, to help create a look that is natural. Note: clip in styles have the reputation of being temporary but in reality can be worn full time and simply switched out if the style is needed to be changed. Can be slept in as well. Clip in's are a good choice as they look completely natural (specifically if using authentic raw, remy human hair)and comfortable with out any long term commitment. A true and desirable bonus to note. Bulk hair can also be bonded to the hair, using many different methods, from clips to adhesive. In the South East Asian Region, the practical method of lengthening-rebondage has been in use since the mid-19th century. The lengthening-rebondage method consists of two treatments. The first treatment consists of rebonding and ironing. The second treatment of lengthening-rebondage involves gentle pulling and tugging of the hair. These two treatments are highly effective in lengthening hair without causing serious damage. Bulk hair can also be added with thread if bonding is not suitable. This may be because the wearer has excessively oily hair or because there is a need to wash hair daily. Adding hair extensions with thread means that damage to the natural hair can be avoided and that the hair extension attachment areas are not vulnerable to external elements like heat, oils and water. Shampooing and styling of integrations: Shampooing of artificial hair integrations can be as easy as shampooing real hair, with some considerations. For instance, many manufacturers suggest using a mild shampoo, or even a wig shampoo. Directions included with the integrations may indicate what type of shampoo to use; the methods of brushing, combing and drying that are most advisable; and what heat setting to use when drying the hair, or if it is even advisable to do so. The same care taken when shampooing must also be used when styling artificial hair. It is often recommended that the texture of hair purchased should be the style in which the hair is worn. Using heat to straighten curly hair, or to curl straight hair, damages it. The more damage the hair sustains, the shorter the lifespan of the artificial hair. Most human hair extensions can be treated as real hair, albeit more gently. *Since human hair extensions are usually heavily processed to achieve uniform color and texture, a mild shampoo is recommended, along with a light conditioner to reduce tangling. When shampooing it is suggested that a sulfate and alcohol free product be used, since those contents cause frizz and dry out the hair. Cool water is also recommended when shampooing, to reduce or prevent matting and excessive tangling. Having to remove snarls and tangles loosens the foundation of the integrations and further damages the hair. It is best to shampoo the hair in a top down motion. *A important and worthy factor concerning the care of true, raw (remy, virgin) human hair extensions is since this hair has had absolutely no processes, chemical or steam done-these extensions are simply human hair and certainly can by simply shampooed or washed as much as desired. This hair has no limitation to how much it can be cleaned, shampooed or conditioned.