Wednesday, September 30, 2015
National Missing and Unidentified Persons System, abbreviated as NamUs, is a clearing house for missing persons and unidentified decedent records in the United States, a part of the Department of Justice. NamUs also provides free DNA testing and other forensic services, such as anthropology and odontology assistance. In 2005, the National Institute of Justice assembled for a national strategy meeting regarding missing persons in the United States; they called the meeting "Identifying the Missing Summit." Forensic scientists, policymakers, victim advocates and law enforcement officials discussed the challenges and strategies for solving missing person cases and identifying unidentified decedent cases. From there the Deputy Attorney General created a task force, The National Missing Persons Task Force, and encouraged the U.S Department of Justice to find prominent tools that will help solve these cases. NamUs was created, subsequently. The NamUs database was created in three phases; in Phase III, released in 2009, the system became fully searchable and open to the public. Through NamUs, users will have access to two databases: Unidentified Persons database and Missing Persons database. In the database users can search by state, date last seen, circumstances, physical/medical characteristics, clothing and accessories, sex, ethnicity, race and more, in order to locate or search for a potential match or personal profile. Each missing person and unidentified person have their own four digit code number. If a potential match is found, users can notify and submit the potential match to case managers, local law enforcement agencies or NamUs regional administrators. If a potential match has been ruled out it will appear on the unidentified person's profile, under the section "exclusions." The issue of unidentified remains in the United States has been coined "the Nation's Silent Mass Disaster." There are approximately 40,000 unidentified human remains that have been buried or cremated before being identified. Furthering the problem of identification, in 2004, less than half of the nation's medical examiner's offices had policies for retaining DNA, x-rays, or fingerprints of unidentified persons. Another issue that has left remains unidentified has been the reporting of missing persons. Those who go missing over the 18 are not required to be reported - reporting them is voluntary. Consequently, there has been a low rate of reported adult cases through NCIC (the National Crime Information Center). Ultimately NamUs is working together with the public and national level databases to incorporate the records of missing persons and meet the challenges of non-reporting. Currently, there have been 16,080 missing person cases on file through NamUs. As of 23 February 2014, 60.46%, or 9,723 of them remain open and unsolved. Of the closed cases, 665, or 10.46%, have been closed through the aid of the NamUs database. Furthermore, there have been 10,714 unidentified persons cases on filed through NamUs. As of 23 February 2014, 88.66%, or 9,500, remain open and unidentified. Of the closed cases, 285, or 23.495, have been closed through the aid of the NamUs database.
A missing person is a person who has disappeared and whose status as alive or dead cannot be confirmed as his or her location and fate are not known. Laws related to missing persons are often complex since, in many jurisdictions, relatives and third parties may not deal with a person's assets until their death is considered proven by law and a formal death certificate issued. The situation, uncertainties, and lack of closure or a funeral resulting when a person goes missing may be extremely painful with long-lasting effects on family and friends. A person may go missing due to accident, crime, death in a location where they cannot be found (such as at sea), or many other reasons, including voluntary disappearance. In some countries, missing persons' photographs are posted on bulletin boards, milk cartons, postcards, and websites, to publicize their description. A child may go missing for several different reasons. When trying to understand how to find and protect missing children, it is important to analyse the causes and effects of a child's disappearance. While criminal abductions are often the most commonly publicised cases of missing children, it only represents between 2–5% of missing children in Europe. Many categories of missing children end up in the hands of traffickers forced into sexual or commercial exploitation and abuse. A number of organizations seek to connect, share best practices, and disseminate information and images of missing children to improve the effectiveness of missing children investigations, including the International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children (ICMEC), as well as national centers, including the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children in the US, Child Focus in Belgium, and The Smile of the Child in Greece.
Paula Jean Welden (born 1928, missing since December 1, 1946) was an American college student who disappeared while walking on Vermont's Long Trail hiking route, the scene of several other unexplained disappearances around this time. The local sheriffs were criticised for their poor investigation, and this led to the creation of the Vermont State Police. Background: Paula Welden was the eldest of four daughters of the well-known industrial engineer, architect and designer William Archibald Welden (1900–1970) and his wife Jean Douglas (b at Mount Kisco, New York, 1901–d. at Venice, Florida, 1976), née Wilson, of Brookdale Road, Stamford, Connecticut. Employed by the Revere Copper and Brass Company, W. Archibald Welden was the designer of many familiar household utensils, as well as stylish cocktail shakers and other objects. Paula was a 1945 graduate of Stamford High School. Bennington College: In 1946, Welden was a sophomore at Bennington College in North Bennington, Vermont. Her college dormitory was Dewey House, one of the older dormitories on the college grounds, and which remains to this day. She was an art major but, dissatisfied with the faculty and her progress, was contemplating changing her major; she had discovered a newfound love of botany. Welden was a typical student who was sorting out her own interests from those of her parents and was trying to expand her circle of friends. She and her roommate were quite close and both realized how dependent they were on one another for a social life. Paula started to befriend other students and became involved in square dancing and hiking with groups of friends from Bennington College and Williams College in Williamstown, Massachusetts. Welden worked part-time at the dining hall in The Commons on campus and worked the lunch shift on Sunday December 1. She decided to find and walk a portion of the Long Trail, a few miles from the campus. Paula knew of the famous trail but hadn't yet had an opportunity to hike it. She tried to get some other students to join her that day, but they were busy. Paula went by herself. The Long Trail: After finishing her shift in the dining hall, Welden returned to her room and changed into walking clothes. Her clothing was adequate for the weather that afternoon but not for the anticipated drop in temperature that night. She packed no bag, took no extra clothing, and did not take any extra money. From all appearances, she did not expect to be gone more than a few hours. Welden walked down the campus driveway and hitched a ride from State Route 67A near the college entrance in North Bennington to a point on State Route 9 near the Furnace Bridge between downtown Bennington and Woodford Hollow. Local contractor Louis Knapp picked her up and drove her as far as his house on Route 9, about 2.5 miles (4.0 km) from the Long Trail. From this point, Welden either hitchhiked or walked the rest of the way to the start of the Long Trail in Woodford Hollow. A group of hikers were walking down the trail as Welden was walking up. She approached them and asked them a few questions about the Long Trail. She continued walking in a northerly direction on the road portion of the trail now known as Harbour Road. Welden was on the Long Trail late in the afternoon and darkness was falling as she approached the end of Harbour Road. She may have continued into quickly darkening woods and it was presumed that she must have continued her Long Trail walk along the Bolles Brook valley, although there are no known confirmed sightings of her past the Fay Fuller Camp. The search: Welden didn't return to campus. Her roommate thought she must have gone to the library to study for exams, but the next morning, Welden still hadn't returned. Once the college administrators were notified, they immediately started a search of the campus itself. The Bennington County State's Attorney was notified, and the county sheriff was brought in to help with the search. Over the next couple of days, her visit to the Long Trail was discovered when one of the hikers she had approached identified her from the photo in the Bennington Banner newspaper, where he worked. Weeks of searching ensued. The college closed for several days, and the students and faculty participated in organized searches. Hundreds of volunteers, family members, National Guard troops, students, and firefighters searched for her to no avail. Ground and air searches concentrated on the Long Trail up as far as Glastenbury Mountain (ten miles to the north), the trail's various branches, and along Vermont Route 9 from Bennington to Brattleboro. Most of those searching assumed Paula had gotten lost in the woods. When no clues were found as to her whereabouts, other theories started to be considered. Connecticut State Police investigation: Alternative theories speculated that she had been in unusually high spirits and had decided to run away to start a new life, was going to meet a secret lover and went off with him, or had become injured and suffered from amnesia. Darker theories speculated that Paula was depressed and may have committed suicide, she might have been kidnapped or murdered. At the time of Paula's disappearance, there was no state police organization in Vermont, and the state's attorney, county sheriff and state investigator Almo Franzoni were responsible for the investigation. Paula's father pressed the investigators and the governor to bring in additional professional law enforcement help. Vermont's governor asked Connecticut's governor to lend assistance. Connecticut State Police detective Robert Rundle and state policewoman Dorothy Scoville were assigned to the case. They interviewed every person who saw, or thought they saw Paula, who lived along the route she took, or who were simply in the vicinity of the Long Trail on that December afternoon. Investigators discovered that one of the last people to see Paula alive was a man who lived along Harbour Road. He was in the midst of an argument with his girlfriend when she walked by. The man stormed off in a jealous rage shortly thereafter and depending on different statements he made, he went to his shack and spent the evening by himself, or he drove his truck up the travel portion of the trail (where Paula was heading). He lied to police on several occasions and was a person of interest in 1946 and again in 1952 when the case was revisited. Reportedly, he told at least two people that he knew within a hundred feet where Paula was buried but later claimed it was just idle talk. When no evidence was found that a crime had actually been committed, no body was ever discovered, and no forensic clues were identified, this avenue of the investigation ended. Aftermath: The manner in which Paula's disappearance was handled was sharply criticized by Paula's father and many others. He pointed out that the lack of a statewide law enforcement organization and the lack of training of local sheriffs contributed to a poorly run investigation. Within seven months of Paula's disappearance, the Vermont legislature created the Vermont State Police. Other cases: In the same general area where Welden disappeared, at least four other unexplained vanishings were reported to have taken place between 1945 and 1950. Due to the strangeness of these events, Vermont broadcaster and author Joseph A. Citro dubbed the wilderness area northeast of Bennington "the Bennington Triangle" – a reference to unexplained disappearances in the Bermuda Triangle. In literature: Author Shirley Jackson (1916–1965) was inspired by Welden's vanishing when she wrote her novel Hangsaman (1951), as indicated by Jackson's papers in the Library of Congress. At the time of Welden's disappearance in 1946, Shirley Jackson was living in North Bennington, Vermont, where her husband was employed at Bennington College. Jackson's short story, "The Missing Girl", included in Just An Ordinary Day (the 1996 collection of her previously unpublished/uncollected short stories), also references the Welden case. Hillary Waugh's 1952 novel Last Seen Wearing... was based on Walden's disappearance. This was mentioned in the January 26, 2014, Dick Tracy "Crimestoppers Textbook".
Kelsey Ann Smith (May 3, 1989 – June 2, 2007) was an Overland Park, Kansas teenager who disappeared on June 2, 2007 and was murdered that evening. The story was featured in the international media, including on America's Most Wanted, before her body was found near a lake in Missouri on June 6, 2007. Overview: Smith was last seen at 7:17 p.m. CST on June 2, 2007 in the parking lot at a Target store at 97th and Quivira, behind the Oak Park Mall in Overland Park, Kansas. Police, other authorities and the national media launched an extensive publicity campaign and search for Smith. Abduction and investigation: Surveillance video from Target showed Smith purchasing a present for her boyfriend to celebrate six months together. Her last call had been to her mother from the store. She then left the store before she disappeared. Approximately four hours later, her car, a 1990 era Ford Crown Victoria, was found abandoned outside of Macy's in Oak Park Mall's parking lot across the street. Her purse, wallet, and the items she had bought were left in the car. Target stores use a large number of video cameras, and these can often be enhanced internally through their Target Forensic Services division. The surveillance footage showed her parking her car and entering the store. It even showed where she was when she called her mother. She picked out the items that were later found in the car. She did not seem to talk to anyone there except the cashier. According to the cashier, she did not see or notice anything unusual in the store and not in Kelsey's behavior. There was however strong evidence that Smith had been abducted; surveillance video from Target appeared to show someone forcing Smith into her car. The video at first did not show anything unusual but a careful look once slowed down showed a flash in that screen in the direction of Kelsey and her car. The flash was consistent with someone running when the camera is placed at a distance. According to the program See No Evil, the Macy's surveillance video showed the car had been left about two hours after her car left the Target lot. The time stamp read 9:17pm. A figure in white shirt and dark pants was seen leaving the vehicle and running toward the street. However it was too dark at that time to tell if the figure was male or female. Target video of the parking lot about that time showed a suspicious 1970s-era Chevrolet truck leaving at about that time. The detectives reasoned that if she were deliberately singled out for abduction, then her stalker must have been in the store watching her. Going back to the security cameras they noticed that a male figure, who was white and in his early twenties, seemed to be in every aisle and in almost every part of the footage showing Kelsey — but at a discreet distance. Investigators also noticed he was wearing a white shirt and dark shorts. When they looked at the video of her entering they saw him coming in about a thirty seconds later. He made no effort to talk to her or approach her in the store but left just as she went to the cashier. The surveillance showed a good picture of him leaving the store. While no crime was committed at that point -- after all he could claim he was just browsing -- the fact that he was in almost every aisle she was in and seem to be looking at her, or at least in her direction, was too much of a coincidence for the police to ignore. Moreover, the man was wearing similar clothing as the figure seen in the Macy's video. When the video still of the man was released to the media, it generated hundreds of tips but they were too general to be useful. Furthermore, when the car was checked for forensic evidence fingerprint experts isolated all those who had legitimate reasons to be in the car such as Kelsey's family, friends, and boyfriend. As a result, they found unidentified prints on the seat belt. Finally the investigator looked at the surveillance and expanded it. When they saw the Chevy pickup leaving they looked at the earlier footage to see it arriving just before Kelsey drove in. The camera from the front of the store showed the driver clearly. They reasoned it was the subject and released that footage. Search: Police detectives reportedly found the body because of a cell phone ping that originated from the area on June 2, and a number of search areas were identified. Despite efforts by local law enforcement and eventually the FBI, it took Verizon Wireless four days to hand over the cell phone records to investigators. There is much controversy on why it took Verizon so long to cooperate with law enforcement. A Verizon technician pinpointed a cell phone tower and told investigators to search 1.1 miles north of the tower. Within 45 minutes, on June 6, 2007, at 1:30 p.m. local time, searchers discovered Smith's body in a wooded area near Longview Lake in southern Jackson County, Grandview, Missouri, 18 to 20 miles from where she had been abducted. Upon report of her death, www.findkelsey.com went offline, and was quickly remade into a dedication site. Through subsequent investigation, the cause of death was determined to be strangulation. She had been choked with her own belt. The autopsy also showed she was sexually assaulted. Perpetrator: A man who had seen the footage of the subject remarked it looked like a neighbor of his. He joked about it to the neighbor. The next day when he saw the information on the truck he stopped laughing and called in the tip. On the evening of June 6, 2007, police arrested 26-year-old Edwin Roy "Jack" Hall of Olathe, Kansas. Hall was in the process of leaving town with his wife and son, supposedly on vacation when the police arrived. Hall was charged on June 7, 2007 with premeditated first-degree murder and aggravated kidnapping. Hall had no adult criminal record, but had a juvenile record of assault. Hall, who had been adopted at age seven, had been returned to state custody at age 15 after threatening the family's daughter with a knife. Hall also assaulted another boy by striking him in the head with a baseball bat, which may account for the juvenile record of assault. Police do not believe Hall knew Smith. At the time of his arrest, Hall was married and the father of a four-year-old son. Hall admitted to being there but claimed he never approached her but soon was caught in a lie when his fingerprints matched the ones on the seat belt. Hall was arraigned via video hookup on June 7, and bond was set at US$5 million. On Wednesday, August 1, Hall was indicted by a Johnson County, Kansas, grand jury for murder, rape, and aggravated sodomy. The charges made Hall eligible for the death penalty, which Johnson County District Attorney Phill Kline decided to seek. Because the body had been found in a different state (Missouri), some argued for federal jurisdiction, but because Hall was arrested and in custody in Johnson County, that jurisdiction had the legal authority to pursue the case. On July 23, 2008, as part of a plea agreement, Hall pleaded guilty to all four charges brought against him. Hall's plea came during what was supposed to be a change-of-venue hearing. The courtroom was jammed with Smith's parents and other family members, friends and reporters. The hearing was carried live on all four of Kansas City's network affiliates. It is believed Hall spotted her driving in after he arrived. He noticed she was alone and thus began following her in store to assure himself she was not meeting anyone. When he saw her about to leave he went to his truck and got his gun. He waited until she most vulnerable, when she was getting ready to leave before he struck. He took her 20 miles away to the Missouri woods where he sexually assaulted and strangled her. The hearing came a day after a judge ruled that prosecutors could still seek the death penalty for Hall after a judge denied a defense motion seeking dismissal of the case on a technicality. On September 16, 2008, Johnson County District Judge Peter V. Ruddick sentenced Hall to life in prison without parole for the kidnapping, rape, and murder. In court, Hall apologized to Smith's family for his actions. Hall is incarcerated in the Hutchinson, Kansas, Correctional Facility. Kelsey's Law: It is believed Verizon Wireless was reluctant to locate or "ping" the cell phone because of the privacy laws governing such actions. Cell phone service providers would generally do this upon the request of the subscriber but not if anyone else did so, including law enforcement authorities -- unless a court order is issued -- which took time. This led to the passing of the law mentioned in the title. Cell phone companies can ping the cell phone if the authorities determine the subscriber is in danger. Most US states have passed the law and there is a debate in the United States Congress to federalize the law. In at least one instance in February 2015 in Lenexa, not far from where Kelsey Smith grew up, the law was acted upon when a thief stole a car while the parents were just outside. He ran down a pedestrian in a hit-and-run but did not know there was a 5-month-old baby in the back seat. The police found the car a half hour later at a convenience store after having pinged the mother's cell phone which was still in the purse on the front seat. The driver escaped and as of 2015 is still at large. It is believed that once he realized there was a baby he decided to ditch the car since in addition to car theft and hit-and-run he would face kidnapping charges. National media attention: Beyond local Kansas City news affiliate coverage, the case received prominent national media attention, including coverage by national news services Fox News Channel, CNN, MSNBC, Nancy Grace, Today Show, The Mind of a Murderer, and on an episode of the television show See No Evil, which aired in Canada on Slice, and in the United States on Investigation Discovery.
Christopher Michael Barrios, Jr. (2 January 2001 – 8 March 2007) was a 6-year-old boy who was raped and murdered in Brunswick, Georgia, on March 8, 2007. His body was discovered on March 15, 2007, just a few miles from where he disappeared. Arrest: George Edenfield, David Edenfield and Peggy Edenfield were all accused of Christopher's abduction and murder. A fourth person, Donald Dale, who originally was charged with tampering with evidence and concealing a body, has since pleaded guilty to a lesser charge of lying to police. Superior Court Judge Stephen Scarlett accepted the plea and transferred Dale to a mental health facility and banished him from Glynn County. Peggy Edenfield testified in the case against her husband David and has also agreed to testify against her son George during his trial. In exchange for her testimony, Peggy would not face the death penalty. David Edenfield murder trial: David Edenfield's trial began on September 29, 2009 and ended on October 5, 2009. The prosecution relied heavily on Edenfield's videotaped confession and his wife's testimony. Dr. Jamie Downs, the medical examiner who performed Christopher's autopsy, also testified to the extent of trauma found on the body and also the manner of death, which Edenfield's taped confession corroborated. Closing arguments began on the fifth day and the jury was sent to deliberate that afternoon. On October 5, with only two hours of deliberation, the jury came back with a verdict of "guilty on all counts". On October 6 David Edenfield was sentenced to death. George Edenfield's competency: On August 3, 2010, George Edenfield was ruled mentally incompetent to stand trial and was committed to a state mental hospital for evaluation. It will be the determination of psychologists and other mental health experts whether or not Edenfield will have a strong likelihood of becoming competent. Prior assaults: David Edenfield was charged in 1994 for committing incest with his daughter and pleaded guilty. He was sentenced to 10 years probation. George Edenfield was convicted of two counts of child molestation and given probation in May 1997. In September 2006, he was indicted for violating his probation by living less than 1,000 feet (300 m) from a park in downtown Brunswick, and was ordered to move. On March 5, 2007, days before Christopher was abducted, Edenfield was sentenced to 10 years probation. A state law banning convicted sex offenders from living within a thousand feet of parks, playgrounds, child-care facilities, schools, churches, swimming pools and school bus stops, was passed in 2006. However, the school bus stop provision was blocked by a federal judge pending his decision in a suit claiming this provision to be unconstitutional. George Edenfield and his family lived within just a few feet of a school bus stop that Christopher regularly used to go to school. Soap opera photo: In October 2008, Christopher's photo showed up on an episode of General Hospital: Night Shift. In the episode, actor Billy Dee Williams receives a letter and photo from a son he abandoned. The producers of the show have stated that they are unsure how they got the photo and offered an apology. In addition, they promised to air a series of public service announcements in Christopher's honor. The attorney for the family has filed a civil suit against the SOAPnet channel, which airs the soap opera, claiming invasion of privacy.
Tuesday, September 29, 2015
John Wayne Gacy, Jr., also known as the Killer Clown, was an American serial killer and rapist who sexually assaulted and murdered at least 33 teenage boys and young men between 1972 and 1978 in Chicago, Illinois. All of Gacy's known murders were committed inside his Norwood Park Township home. His victims would typically be lured to this address by force or deception, and all but one victim were murdered by either asphyxiation or strangulation with a tourniquet (his first victim was stabbed to death). Gacy buried 26 of his victims in the crawl space of his home. Three further victims were buried elsewhere on his property, while the bodies of his last four known victims were discarded in the Des Plaines River. Convicted of 33 murders, Gacy was sentenced to death for 12 of these killings on March 13, 1980. He spent 14 years on death row before he was executed by lethal injection at Stateville Correctional Center on May 10, 1994. Gacy became known as the "Killer Clown" due to his charitable services at fundraising events, parades and children's parties where he would dress as "Pogo the Clown", a character he devised himself. Early life: John Wayne Gacy, Jr. was born in Chicago, Illinois on March 17, 1942, the only son and the second of three children born to Marion Elaine Robinson (May 4, 1908 – December 14, 1989), a homemaker, and John Stanley Gacy (June 20, 1900 – December 25, 1969), an auto repair machinist and World War I veteran. Gacy was of Polish and Danish heritage. His paternal grandparents (who spelled the family name as "Gatza" or "Gaca") had immigrated to the United States from Poland. As a child, Gacy was overweight and unathletic. He was close to his two sisters and mother, but endured a difficult relationship with his father, an alcoholic who was physically abusive to his wife and children. Throughout his childhood, Gacy strived to make his stern father proud of him, but seldom received his approval. One of Gacy's earliest childhood memories was of being beaten with a leather belt by his father at the age of four for accidentally disarranging car engine components his father had assembled. On another occasion, his father struck him across the head with a broomstick, rendering him unconscious. He was regularly belittled by his father and often compared unfavorably with his sisters, enduring disdainful accusations of being "dumb and stupid". The friction between father and son was constant throughout his childhood and adolescence. Although Gacy regularly commented that he was "never good enough" in his father's eyes, in interviews after his arrest, he always vehemently denied he ever hated his father. When he was six years old, Gacy stole a toy truck from a neighborhood store. His mother made him walk back to the store, return the toy and apologize to the owners. His mother told his father, who beat Gacy with a belt as punishment. After this incident, Gacy's mother attempted to shield her son from his father's verbal and physical abuse, yet this only succeeded in Gacy earning accusations from his father that he was a "sissy" and a "Mama's boy" who would "probably grow up queer." In 1949, Gacy's father was informed that his son and another boy had been caught sexually fondling a young girl. As a punishment, Gacy was whipped by his father with a razor strop. The same year, Gacy was himself molested by a family friend, a contractor who would take Gacy for rides in his truck, then fondle him. Gacy never told his father about these incidents as he was afraid his father would blame him. At school, where he was ordered to avoid all sports due to a heart condition, Gacy was an average student with few friends who was an occasional target for mockery and bullying by neighborhood children and classmates. He was known to assist the school truant officer and volunteer to run errands for teachers and neighbors. During the fourth grade, Gacy began to suffer blackouts. He was occasionally hospitalized due to these seizures, and also in 1957 for a burst appendix. Gacy later estimated that he spent almost a year in the hospital for these episodes between the ages of 14 and 18, and attributed the decline in his grades to his time out of school. His father suspected the episodes were an effort to gain sympathy and attention; on one occasion, he accused his son of faking even as the boy lay in a hospital bed. Gacy's medical condition was never conclusively diagnosed, although his mother, sisters and few close friends themselves never doubted his illness. A school friend of Gacy's, named Richard Dalke, recalled several instances in which Gacy Sr. ridiculed or beat his son without provocation. On one occasion in 1957, Dalke witnessed an incident in which Gacy's father began shouting at his son for no reason, then began hitting him. Gacy's mother attempted to intervene between her son and her husband. Dalke recalled Gacy simply "put up his hands to defend himself", adding that he never struck his father back during these altercations. At the age of 18, Gacy became involved in politics, working as an assistant precinct captain for a Democratic Party candidate in his neighborhood. This decision earned more criticism from his father, who accused his son of being a "patsy". Gacy himself later speculated the decision may have been an attempt to seek the acceptance from others that he never received from his father. The same year Gacy became a Democratic Party candidate, his father bought him a car, with the title of the vehicle being in his father's name until Gacy had completed the monthly repayments to his father. These repayments took several years to complete, and his father would confiscate the keys to the vehicle if Gacy would not do as his father said. On one occasion in 1962, Gacy bought an extra set of keys after his father confiscated the original set of keys from him and used the extra set of keys to drive the vehicle. In response, his father removed the distributor cap from the vehicle, withholding the component for three days. Gacy recalled that as a result of this incident, he felt "totally sick; drained". When his father replaced the distributor cap, Gacy left the family home and drove to Las Vegas, Nevada, where he found work within the ambulance service before he was transferred to work as a mortuary attendant. He worked in this role for three months before returning to Chicago. In his role as a mortuary attendant, Gacy slept in a cot behind the embalming room. In this role, he observed morticians embalming dead bodies and later confessed to the fact that on one evening while alone, he had clambered into the coffin of a deceased teenage male, embracing and caressing the body before experiencing a sense of shock. The sense of shock prompted Gacy to call his mother the next day and ask whether his father would allow him to return home. His father agreed and the same day, Gacy drove back to live with his family in Chicago. Upon his return, despite the fact he had failed to graduate from high school, Gacy successfully enrolled in the Northwestern Business College from which he graduated in 1963. Gacy subsequently undertook a management-trainee position within the Nunn-Bush Shoe Company. In 1964, the Nunn-Bush Shoe Company transferred Gacy to Springfield, Illinois, initially to work as a salesman, although Gacy was subsequently promoted to manager of his department. In March of that year, he became engaged to Marlynn Myers, co-worker within the department he managed. After a nine-month courtship, the couple married in September 1964. Marlynn Myers' father subsequently purchased three Kentucky Fried Chicken restaurants in Waterloo, Iowa, and he and his wife moved to Waterloo in order for him to manage the restaurants, with the understanding that Gacy and his wife would move into Marlynn's parents' home. During his courtship with Marlynn, Gacy joined the Jaycees and became a tireless worker for the organization; being named Key Man for the organization in April 1964. The same year, Gacy had his second homosexual experience. According to Gacy, he acquiesced to this incident after a colleague of his within the Springfield Jaycees plied him with drinks, invited him to spend the evening upon his sofa, then performed oral sex upon him while he was drunk. By 1965, Gacy had risen to the position of vice-president of the Springfield Jaycees. The same year, he was named as the third most outstanding Jaycee within the State of Illinois. Move to Iowa: In 1966, Gacy's father-in-law offered him the opportunity to manage the three Kentucky Fried Chicken restaurants he had purchased in Waterloo. The offer was lucrative: $15,000 per year ($108,000 in 2015 dollars) plus a share of profits. Gacy accepted the offer and, following his obligatory completion of a managerial course, he and his wife relocated to Waterloo later that year. In Waterloo, Gacy joined the local chapter of the Jaycees, regularly offering extensive hours to the organization in addition to the 12- and 14-hour days he worked as a manager of three KFC restaurants. Although considered ambitious and somewhat of a braggart by his colleagues in the Jaycees, he was highly regarded as a tireless worker on several fund-raising projects. In 1967, he was named "outstanding vice-president" of the Waterloo Jaycees. At Jaycee meetings, Gacy would often provide free fried chicken to his colleagues and insisted upon being given the nickname "Colonel." The same year, Gacy served on the Board of Directors for the Waterloo Jaycees. Gacy's wife gave birth to two children during the time the couple lived in Iowa: a son named Michael was born in March 1967, followed by a daughter named Christine in September 1968. Gacy himself later described this period of his life as being "perfect," adding that he finally earned the long-sought approval of his father. On one occasion in July 1967, Gacy's parents visited him and his wife in Iowa during which, in a private talk with his father, Gacy Sr. apologized for the physical and mental abuse he had earlier inflicted upon his son throughout his childhood, before proudly informing him: "Son, I was wrong about you." However, there was a seedier side of Jaycee life in Waterloo, one that involved wife swapping, prostitution, pornography and drugs. Gacy was deeply involved in many of these activities and regularly cheated on his wife. He is also known to have opened a "club" in his basement, where he allowed employees to drink alcohol and play pool. Although he employed teenagers of both sexes at his restaurants, he socialized only with his male employees. Many were given alcohol before Gacy made sexual advances toward them, which he would dismiss as a joke if the teenager rebuffed his advances. First offenses: In August 1967, Gacy committed his first known sexual assault upon a teenage boy. The youth was a 15-year-old named Donald Voorhees, the son of a fellow Jaycee. Gacy lured the youth to his house upon the promise of showing Voorhees pornographic films. Gacy plied Voorhees with alcohol and persuaded the youth to perform oral sex upon him. Several other youths were sexually abused over the following months, including one whom Gacy encouraged to sleep with his wife before blackmailing the youth into performing oral sex upon him. Several teenagers were tricked into believing Gacy was commissioned with carrying out homosexual experiments in the interests of "scientific research," for which the youths were each paid up to $50. In March 1968, Donald Voorhees reported to his father that Gacy had sexually assaulted him. Voorhees Sr. immediately informed the police and Gacy was arrested and subsequently charged with oral sodomy in relation to Voorhees and the attempted assault of a 16-year-old named Edward Lynch. Gacy vehemently denied the charges and demanded to take a polygraph test. This request was granted, although the results indicated Gacy was nervous when he denied any wrongdoing in relation to either Voorhees or Lynch. Gacy publicly denied any wrongdoing and insisted the charges against him were politically motivated (Voorhees Sr. had opposed Gacy's nomination for appointment as president of Iowa Jaycees). Several fellow Jaycees found Gacy's story credible and rallied to his support. However, on May 10, 1968, Gacy was indicted on the sodomy charge. "The most striking aspect of the test results is the patient's total denial of responsibility for everything that has happened to him. He can produce an 'alibi' for everything. He presents himself as a victim of circumstances and blames other people who are out to get him ... the patient attempts to assure a sympathetic response by depicting himself as being at the mercy of a hostile environment." Section of report detailing Gacy's 1968 psychiatric evaluation. On August 30, 1968, Gacy persuaded one of his employees, an 18-year-old named Russell Schroeder, to physically assault Donald Voorhees in an effort to discourage the boy from testifying against him at his upcoming trial. The youth agreed to lure Voorhees to a secluded spot, spray Mace in his face and beat the youth upon the promise that if he did so, he would be paid $300. In early September, Schroeder lured Voorhees to an isolated county park, sprayed the Mace supplied by Gacy into the youth's eyes, then beat him, all the while shouting that the youth was not to testify against Gacy at his upcoming trial. Voorhees immediately reported the assault to the police, identifying Schroeder as his attacker, and the youth was arrested the following day. Despite initially denying any involvement, the youth confessed to having assaulted Voorhees, indicating that he had done so at Gacy's behest. Gacy was arrested and additionally charged in relation to hiring Schroeder to assault and intimidate Voorhees. On September 12, Gacy was ordered to undergo a psychiatric evaluation at the Psychiatric Hospital of the State University of Iowa. Two doctors examined Gacy over a period of 17 days and concluded he had antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), was unlikely to benefit from any medical treatment, and his behavior pattern was likely to bring him into repeated conflict with society. The doctors also concluded he was mentally competent to stand trial.
Bobby Dunbar was an American boy whose disappearance at the age of four and apparent return was widely reported in newspapers across the United States in 1912 and 1913. After an eight-month nationwide search, investigators believed that they had found the child in Mississippi, in the hands of William Cantwell Walters of North Carolina. Dunbar's parents claimed the boy as their missing son. However, both Walters and a woman named Julia Anderson insisted that the boy with him was Anderson's son. The court system eventually sided with the Dunbars and they retained custody of the boy, who proceeded to live out the remainder of his life as Bobby Dunbar. In 2004, DNA profiling established in retrospect that the boy found with Walters and returned to the Dunbars as Bobby had not been a blood relative of the Dunbar family. Disappearance: Bobby Dunbar was the first son born to Lessie and Percy Dunbar of Opelousas, Louisiana. In August 1912, the Dunbars took a fishing trip to nearby Swayze Lake in St. Landry Parish, Louisiana. On August 23, while on that trip, Bobby Dunbar disappeared. After an eight-month search, authorities located William Cantwell Walters, who worked as an itinerant handyman, specializing in the tuning and repair of pianos and organs, and traveling through Mississippi with a boy who appeared to match the description of Bobby Dunbar. Walters claimed that the boy was actually Charles Bruce Anderson, generally referred to as Bruce, the son of a woman who worked for his family. He said that the boy's mother was named Julia Anderson, and that she had willingly granted him custody. Nonetheless, Walters was arrested and authorities sent for the Dunbars to come to Mississippi and attempt to identify the boy. Newspaper accounts differ with regard to the initial reaction between the boy and Lessie Dunbar. While one account indicated that the boy immediately shouted "Mother" upon seeing her and the two then embraced, another said only that the boy cried and quoted Lessie Dunbar as saying she was unsure whether he was her son. Other newspaper accounts quote both the Dunbars as initially stating doubts as to the boy's identity. There were similar contradictions in newspaper accounts of the boy's first sighting of the Dunbars' younger son, Alonzo, with one newspaper claiming that the boy showed no sign of recognizing Alonzo, while another saying the boy recognized him instantly, called him by name and kissed him. The next day, after bathing the boy, Lessie Dunbar said she positively identified his moles and scars and was then certain that he was her son. The boy returned to Opelousas with the Dunbars to a parade and much fanfare celebrating the "homecoming". Shortly thereafter, Julia Anderson of North Carolina arrived to support Walters's contention that the boy was, in fact, her son, Bruce. Anderson was unmarried and worked as a field hand for Walters's family. She said that she had allowed Walters to take her son for what she said was supposed to be a two-day trip to visit one of Walters's relatives and that she had not consented for him to take her son for more than a few days. Accordingto newspaper accounts, Anderson was presented with five different boys who were of the same approximate age as her son, including the boy who had been claimed by the Dunbars. When the boy in question was presented, he gave no indication that he recognized her. She asked whether he was the boy recovered, but was not given an answer and finally declared that she was unsure. Upon seeing the boy again the next day, including undressing him, she indicated a stronger certainty that the boy was indeed her son Bruce. However, word had already spread about her failure to positively identify him on the first try. This, combined with the fact that newspapers questioned her moral character in having had three children (the other two deceased, by that point) out of wedlock, led to Anderson's claims being dismissed. With no money to sustain a long court battle, Anderson returned home to North Carolina. She later returned to Louisiana for Walters's kidnapping trial to attest to his innocence and push for the court to determine that the boy was her son. At the trial, she became acquainted with the residents of the town of Poplarville, Mississippi, many of whom had also come to proclaim Walters's innocence. William Walters and the boy had spent quite a bit of time in Poplarville during their travels and the community there had come to know them well, with a number of them asserting that they had seen Walters with the boy prior to the disappearance of Bobby Dunbar. Despite their testimony, the court reached the determination that the boy was in fact Bobby Dunbar. Walters was convicted of kidnapping, while the boy remained in the custody of the Dunbar family and lived out the remainder of his life as Bobby Dunbar. After the trial: After the trial, the people of Poplarville welcomed Anderson into their fold and she began a new life there, eventually marrying and having seven children. According to her descendants, she became a devout Christian, helped found a church and served as nurse and midwife to the small community. Although her children indicated that her life was a happy one after settling in Poplarville, they said that she nonetheless spoke often of her lost son, Bruce, and that their family always regarded him as having been kidnapped by the Dunbars. In 2008 one of Anderson's sons, Hollis, recounted a story for This American Life that in 1944 Bobby Dunbar/Bruce Anderson visited him at his place of business where they talked. Hollis's sister Jules recounts a similar experience where a man, who she believes was Dunbar, came to the service station where she worked and talked to her for an extended period. The Dunbar family also has a similar story, recounted by Bobby Dunbar's son Gerald. The family was returning home from a trip and passed through Poplarville when Bobby Dunbar said "Those are the people they came to pick me up from." The family then stopped for a short while as Dunbar visited with the Andersons. After Walters had served two years of his prison term for kidnapping, his attorney was successful in appealing the conviction and Walters was granted the right to a new trial. Citing the excessive costs of the first trial, prosecutors in Opelousas declined to try him again and instead released him. After his release from custody, Walters continued to move around often; sources indicate he died sometime in the late 1930s but the exact date and place of death is unknown. The grandchildren of Walters's brother reported that during their childhood, he typically visited their grandfather a few times per year and that when he did, they often spoke of the kidnapping charge, with Walters always maintaining his innocence. The boy raised as Bobby Dunbar married, had four children of his own, and died in 1966. Later investigation: Years after Bobby Dunbar's death, one of his granddaughters, Margaret Dunbar Cutright, began her own investigation of the events, poring through newspaper accounts, interviewing the children of Julia Anderson and examining the notes and evidence presented by Walters's defense attorney for his kidnapping trial and appeal. Although Cutright had initially hoped to prove that her grandfather was a Dunbar, her research ultimately led her to question her conviction in that regard. In 2004, after an Associated Press reporter approached the family about the story, Bob Dunbar, Jr. consented to undergoing DNA tests to resolve the issue. The tests showed that Dunbar, Jr. was not related by blood to his supposed cousin, the son of Alonzo Dunbar, the younger brother of Bobby Dunbar, Sr. Since the DNA testing is conclusive, the fate of the original Bobby Dunbar — lost at Swayze Lake in 1912 — remains unknown. 2008 radio documentary: In March 2008, Public Radio International's This American Life featured The Ghost of Bobby Dunbar, a radio documentary about the investigation of the case by Margaret Dunbar Cutright. She expressed her own opinion that the real Bobby Dunbar most likely fell into Swayze Lake during the fishing trip and was eaten by an alligator. She revealed that the results of her investigation had brought joy to Julia Anderson's family as vindication of her claims, as well as to William Walters's family as an exoneration of the kidnapping accusation against him. However, she said that they had sown division within her own family, as the majority of her grandfather's children and grandchildren considered themselves to be members of the Dunbar family, cherished their existing familial relationships, and were resentful of Cutright, both for having delved into the matter at all, and additionally, for bringing the topic to public attention.
Anna Christian Waters (September 25, 1967 – disappeared January 16, 1973) was an American child and kidnap victim. She was five when she disappeared from Purisima Canyon, a rural area near Half Moon Bay, California, on January 16, 1973. Her kidnapping was highly covered by the press of that time. However, she has not been found. Background: Anna's parents were married in March 1965. In ca. the summer of 1967, Anna's father, Dr. George Waters, met an older man who called himself "George Brody" and began a relationship with him. Anna was born at University of California Hospital in San Francisco, on September 25, 1967, at 4:44 pm local time. Her parents decided to pronounce her name with a broad A, "as in swan". At home, Anna had two half-brothers, Nonda, 9, and Eddie, 6, born in Athens and Thessaloniki, from the time their mother spent in Greece. In 1968, George Waters left the family home and divorced Benedict in November 1969. In 1971, Benedict met Joseph Ford, who would become active in the search for Anna. She would later marry him. In September 1972, Anna started kindergarten at Hatch School in Half Moon Bay. Her 1972 kindergarten picture would later become the picture on her missing persons poster. In December 1972, Anna was walking with her brothers towards the end of the canyon, when a couple tried to lure Anna into their car. This memory was repressed by Nonda for more than 30 years. It is unknown if the couple had anything to do with Anna's disappearance. Disappearance: On January 16, 1973, Anna returned home from kindergarten by school bus at about 12:20 pm. Earlier that day, some family friends came for a visit. After coming home, Anna put on a pair of jeans, a blue and white striped T-shirt, oversized black rubber boots and a red coat. At about 1:30 pm, Anna went inside and took off the red coat. At approx. 2:00 pm, Benedict heard Anna talking outside, possibly to the family cats. However, between 2:15 and 2:20 pm, Benedict no longer heard Anna making any sounds. The family dog, Saturn, was a puppy and didn't always bark at strangers, so Benedict wasn't alarmed by anything of the sort. At 2:20, Benedict and Ford went outside to search for Anna. At 2:45, after having found nothing, the San Mateo police department was called and the official search began. Theories- Purisima Creek: One original fear was that Anna had simply wandered off and fallen into the nearby Purisima Creek and drowned. It had been raining that day and the creek was in flooding state. Benedict stated that she somehow felt that the Creek was a danger for the family. Divers searched the waters and the area was thoroughly searched for four days. No trace of Anna was found. Family friend Doug French has been active in the search for Anna and he believes that the Purisima Creek had nothing to do with the disappearance. The Half Moon Bay Review published an article on January 25 and called the search for Anna "the greatest search in coastside history". The article also implied that Anna had indeed fallen into the Creek and drowned. George Waters and "George Brody": Both Anna's family and Doug French have felt that Anna's birth father and his friend are strongly involved with Anna's disappearance. "Brody" is described as manipulative over Anna's father, having allegedly caused the divorce between him and Benedict. "Brody" was interested in Anna and believed her to be the reincarnation of a woman he had once lived with. He tried to make Benedict change her daughter's name to "Eifee". The word had no meaning. "Brody" simply wanted to do this so, numerologically, Anna's name would add up to his own name. A young man and an old man were seen in the vicinity the day Anna disappeared. A spokesman from the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children has said that Anna may well still be alive. Officially the case is considered a "probable non-family abduction". "Brody" died of cancer in December 1981 and a short time later Waters, who had signed Brody's death certificate, was also found dead. San Gregorio State Beach remains: On March 26, 2006, at approx. midnight, a passer-by found a part of a child's skull (zygoma, maxilla and teeth) on a stretch of land between San Gregorio State Beach and Pomponio beach. No date was established for the skeletal remains, but the age of the individual was put at 5–7 years. No other part of the skeletal remains were located. After a very long delay, DNA evidence proved that the skeletal remains were not those of Anna, but rather belonged to an unidentified young boy. Waters has since been excluded as the identity of the Doña Ana County Jane Doe, Alleghany County Jane Doe (1985) and the Newport News City Jane Doe.
many people who know me and my best friend Evan are HUGE Jevan (the couple name for me and Evan) shippers. we were friends since freshman year. we were in the same theater class. we clicked. after that many people were into us being together. with the same hair, eye and skin tones we look very similar. we went to prom together senior year. people were excited. they said that they'd be at the place where he and i were gonna be at lunch to see him say yes or no (he said yes as friends).
"Never Have I Ever", also known as "I've Never…" or "Ten Fingers", is a drinking game. Rules: The verbal game is started with the players getting into a circle. Then, the first player says a simple statement starting with "Never have I ever". Anyone who has done what the first player has not must drink. Play then continues around the circle, and the next person makes a statement. An additional rule – uncommon, but beneficial to the game –is that if there is no one taking a drink, then the one who said the particular "I have never…" must take a drink. This rule often forces the players to strategize more and makes for less disposable/pointless suggestions. A further variation holds that whenever only one person is drinking, that person must give a detailed account of why they are drinking. Another variation of this game involves putting up five or ten fingers, putting one down whenever something mentioned has been done. Those who end up putting down all of their fingers must take several successive drinks. Games such as this one "reveal interesting things about the participants and help build friendships", according to one American college student. Players often admit to things that they previously had not. As with Truth or Dare?, the game is often sexual in nature. In some variations, the game may be incorporated into other drinking games, such as Kings. In popular culture: The game has been portrayed in many television shows and films including Lost, The Walking Dead, American Pie, 90210, American Reunion, Beerfest, Being Erica, The Boat That Rocked, Big Brother, Degrassi: The Next Generation, the Ellen DeGeneres Show, ER, Family Guy, Frasier, Game of Thrones, Gossip Girl, Greek, Hell's Kitchen, How I Met Your Mother, The L Word, Lost, Loving Annabelle, The Lying Game, Private Radio, My Mad Fat Diary, One Tree Hill, Outsourced, The Real World: Las Vegas (2011), Skins, Survivor, The Vampire Diaries, Veronica Mars, Awkward, the Bollywood movie, Yeh Jawaani Hai Deewani and in the 2015 horror film Unfriended. This game is also demonstrated in the song "Ten Fingers" by San Francisco hip hop artist and poet, George Watsky. In 2015 Under the Gun Theater, a Chicago based theater company, created an interactive comedy show based on party the game. This was in response to the closing of their show based on Cards Against Humanity.
The body of Mary Jane Barker (February 28, 1953 – March 3, 1957) a 4-year old from Bellmawr, New Jersey, just across the river from Philadelphia, was recovered from the 3' x 5' bedroom closet of a nearby vacant ranch house 2 blocks away from her home. The death was ruled an accident due to starvation and exposure from Barker being unable to escape the closet, but the circumstances of the death have left some suspecting murder or even something paranormal. The dog of another neighborhood girl had also gone missing, bounding out of the closet alive upon the discovery of the body. It was the press surrounding the Barker case which led to the first calls about the Boy in the Box. Early years: Mary Jane Barker was born in Bellmawr, New Jersey on February 28, 1953 to Mr. and Mrs. Frank Barker. She had two older siblings, Carol Ann, 8 years older, and Frank Jr., 6 years older. Disappearance: Barker disappeared along with the black spaniel, four-month old puppy at 10:30 A. M. on February 25, 1957. She was last seen playing in a nearby yard. She was presumed kidnapped, and footprints along a nearby stream bank seemed those of a man, child, and dog. It was called the largest search in South Jersey. Her fourth birthday came and went with no sign of her. Discovery of body: On March 3, 1957 Barker's neighbor, a 6-year old Maria Freitta, the owner of the dog, went with her aunt and uncle, Mr. and Mrs. Pat Vecchia, to the vacant, newly-built ranch house on 433 2nd Ave owned by the Vecchias. When Freitta pushed open the bedroom closet door in the house in a moment of play, her dog bounded and leaped happily into her while Barker was dead in a seated position, the hood of her blue coat partially covering her blonde hair. The house had been searched three times before, "It was so close to the last place she was seen alive that it naturally was examined first of all," said Police Chief Edward Garrity, who felt she had recently been placed in the closet as the puppy had been fed recently and there was no animal waste in the closet and during previous searches nobody heard a dog or looked in the bedroom closet. Although the door was unlocked, a thumb screw inside was said to make it difficult for a child to open. Perhaps she was too frightened to cry out. Autopsy: The autopsy indicated Barker had nothing in her system since some chocolate milk the morning of her disappearance, and had not eaten since she vanished. A cursory examination gave no indication of foul play. It was found she must have lived in the closet for three days. An inspection of the closet showed marks from her attempt to escape. The dog was euthanized in order to examine its stomach contents and establish why the dog outlived Barker and if it had been without food or drink for as long. It was found the dog was with her the whole time.Her death was ruled a case of starvation with exposure as a contributing factor. Due to a hole in the closet, she could not have suffocated. Aftermath: Mayor Cornelius Devennel ordered all closet doors to open easily from both inside and outside. Radio Station WPEN presented Fraietta with a new puppy, an English Setter.
it looks like I'll have to ruin a white dress for a Halloween costume. I'm going to be Carrie and so I'll have to use an old white dress. oh well. i bet it'll look really cool though. although I'll want a white sash that says prom queen that i can dump blood on as well. that will look awesome.
The Atlanta Child Murders, known locally as the "missing and murdered children case", were a series of murders committed in Atlanta, Georgia, United States from the summer of 1979 until the spring of 1981. Over the two-year period, at least 28 African-American children, adolescents and adults were killed. An Atlanta native, Wayne Williams, 23 years old at the time of the last murder, was arrested for and convicted of two of the adult murders. The murders: In the summer of 1979, Edward Hope Smith, also known as "Teddy," and Alfred Evans, also known as "Q," both 14, disappeared four days apart. (Terry Pue, who went missing in early 1981, lived in the same apartment as Edward.) Their bodies were both found on July 28 in a wooded area, Edward with a .22 gunshot to his upper back. They were believed to be the first victims of the "Atlanta Child Killer". The next victim, Milton Harvey, also 14, disappeared on September 4, while going to a bank on an errand for his mother. At the time he was on a yellow 10-speed bike. His body was recovered later. On October 21, 1979, nine-year-old Yusuf Bell went to a store to buy snuff for a neighbor, Eula Birdsong. A witness said she saw Yusuf getting into a blue car before he disappeared. His body was found on November 8, 1979, in the abandoned E.P. Johnson elementary school by a school janitor who was looking for a place to urinate. He was still wearing the brown cut-off shorts he was last seen wearing, though they had a piece of masking tape stuck to them. He had been hit over the head twice and the cause of death was strangulation. Police did not immediately link his disappearance to the previous killings. The next victim, 12-year-old Angel Lenair, was the first female victim. She disappeared March 4, 1980. She had left her house wearing a denim outfit around 4 pm. She was last seen at a friend's house watching Sanford and Son. Angel was found six days later, in a wooded lot possibly 3 blocks away from her apartment. She was found in the clothes she left home in. Someone's white panties were stuffed in her mouth, and an electrical cord bound her hands. The cause of death was strangulation. On March 11, 1980, 11-year-old Jeffrey Mathis disappeared while on an errand for his mother. He was wearing gray jogging pants, brown shoes, and a white and green shirt. Months later a girl said she saw him get into a blue car with a light skinned man and a dark skinned man. The body of Jeffrey Mathis was found in a "briar-covered patch of woodlands." On June 9, 12-year-old Christopher Richardson went missing on his way to a local pool. He was wearing blue shorts, a light blue shirt, and blue tennis shoes. The body of Christopher Richardson was found in a wooded area, clothed in unfamiliar swim trunks. The cause of death was undetermined. On June 22 and June 23, seven-year-old Latonya Wilson and ten-year-old Aaron Wyche went missing. The extended wave of disappearances and murders panicked parents and children in the city, and the government struggled to ensure the safety of children. The murders of two children, Anthony Carter and Earl Terell, occurred in July 1980. Between August and November 1980, five more killings took place. There were no known victims during December. All the victims were African-American children between the ages of seven and fourteen and most were asphyxiated. The murders continued into 1981. The first known victim in the new year was Lubie Geter, who disappeared on January 3. Geter's body was found on February 5. Geter's friend Terry Pue also went missing in January. An anonymous caller told the police where to find Pue's body. In February two murders occurred, believed to be linked to the others. In March, four Atlanta linked murders took place, including that of Eddie Duncan, the first adult victim. In April, Larry Rogers was murdered, as well as adult ex-convict John Porter and Jimmy Ray Payne. After William Barrett went missing on May 16, 1981, his body was found close to his home. The last victim added to the list was Nathaniel Cater, 27 years old. Investigator Chet Dettlinger created a map of the victims' locations. Despite the difference in ages, the victims fell with the same geographic parameters. They were connected to Memorial Drive and 11 major streets in the area. Capturing the suspect: As the media coverage of the killings intensified, the FBI confidentially predicted that the killer might dump the next victim into a body of water to conceal any evidence. Police staked out nearly a dozen area bridges, including crossings of the Chattahoochee River. During a stakeout on May 22, 1981, detectives got their first major break when an officer heard a splash beneath a bridge. Another officer saw a white 1970 Chevrolet station wagon turn around and drive back across the bridge. Two police cars later stopped the suspect station wagon about a half mile from the bridge. The driver was 23-year-old Wayne Bertram Williams, a supposed music promoter and freelance photographer. The Chevrolet wagon belonged to his parents. Dog hair and fiber evidence recovered from the rear of the vehicle were later used in the case against Williams, as identical fibers were found on some of the victims. They matched his dog and the carpet in his parents' house. During questioning, Williams said he was on his way to audition one Cheryl Johnson as a singer. Williams claimed she lived in the nearby town of Smyrna. Police did not find any record of her or the appointment. Two days later, on May 24, the nude body of Nathaniel Cater, 27, was found floating downriver a few miles from the bridge where police had seen the suspicious station wagon. The body had extensive water damage and may have been in the water for up to two weeks. Based on this evidence, including the police officer's hearing of the splash, police believed that Williams had killed Cater and disposed of his body while the police were nearby. Much circumstantial evidence led the police to consider Williams as the prime suspect. First, he was the only person stopped during the month-long stakeout of twelve bridges and that Williams had stopped on the bridge immediately after the splash was heard. Williams himself denied stopping his car on the bridge, instead claiming he had turned around in an adjacent lot. Secondly, police noted that Williams' appearance resembled a composite sketch of the suspect, including a bushy Afro sticking out from the sides of a baseball cap, and a birthmark or scar on the left cheek. Indeed, investigators who stopped Williams on the bridge noticed a 24-inch nylon cord.[where?] This cord seemed to match the choke marks on Cater and other victims. Furthermore, Williams admitted to spending much of his time seeking out and auditioning African-American boys whose ages matched many of the victims. Notably, Williams failed an FBI-administered polygraph examination--though polygraph results are not admissible as evidence in criminal courts. Even more evidence seemed to implicate Williams. Fibers matching carpet from the Williams residence matched those observed on two of the victims. Additional fiber evidence from the Williams' home, autos and pet dog were later matched those discovered on other victims. Another was the fact that witness Robert Henry claimed to have seen Williams holding hands and walking with Nathaniel Cater on the night he is believed to have died. On June 21, 1981, they arrested Williams. A Grand Jury indicted him for first-degree murder in the deaths of Nathaniel Cater and Jimmy Ray Payne, age 22. The trial date was set for early 1982. FBI Agent John E. Douglas, who had previously conducted a widely reported interview with People magazine about profiling the killer as a young black man, has admitted that when the news of Williams' arrest was officially released (his status as a suspect had previously been leaked to the media anyway), he stated that if it was Williams then he was 'looking pretty good for a good percentage of the killings'. This was widely reported across media outlets as the FBI effectively declaring Williams guilty, and Douglas was officially censured by the director of the FBI. Trial: Jury selection began on December 28, 1981, and lasted six days. The jury was composed of nine women and three men, with a racial composition of eight African Americans and four Caucasians. The trial officially began on January 6, 1982, with Judge Clarence Cooper presiding. The most important evidence against Williams was the fiber analysis between the victims Williams was indicted for, Jimmy Ray Payne and Nathaniel Cater, and the 12 pattern-murder cases in which circumstantial evidence culminated in numerous links among the crimes. This included witnesses testifying to seeing Williams with the victims, and some witnesses suggesting that he had solicited sexual favors. The prosecution's presentation of fiber statistics, particularly in the testimony of FBI special agent Deadman and in the summing up, has been criticized for being based on speculative assumptions and misleading phrasing of probabilities, to an extent that in some jurisdictions might have resulted in a mistrial. On February 27, 1982 - after eleven hours of deliberation - the jury found Wayne Bertram Williams guilty of the two murders. He was sentenced to two consecutive life terms in Georgia's Hancock State Prison at Sparta. On May 6, 2005, the DeKalb County, Georgia, Police Chief Louis Graham ordered the reopening of the murder cases of five boys who were killed in DeKalb County between February and May 1981 that had been attributed to Williams. Police Chief Graham believed that Williams may have been innocent of these and other murders. The remaining cases are under the jurisdiction of Fulton County, Georgia, and those authorities consider their related murder cases closed with the arrest and trial of Williams. Aftermath: Musicians performed concerts to honor the victims, and to provide benefits to the victim's families. Performers included Frank Sinatra and Sammy Davis Jr.. The Jacksons performed on July 22, 1981 at the Atlanta Omni Coliseum during their Triumph Tour raising $100,000 for the Atlanta Children's Foundation in response to the kidnappings and murders. Wayne Williams's father, who was a media photographer in Atlanta at the time, could be seen on stage with Frank Sinatra. Still in 1981, Gladys Knight & The Pips recorded Forever Yesterday (For The Children), a song in memorial of the victims written by Glenn Smith. In 1981, actor Robert De Niro, when accepting the Best Actor Oscar for his role in the film Raging Bull, wore a green ribbon as a sign of solidarity with the children of Atlanta. He is believed to be the first celebrity to have worn a ribbon at a major event as an awareness-raising effort. Later developments: Now 57 years old, Wayne Williams continues to maintain his innocence. About six months after becoming the DeKalb County Police Chief, Graham reopened the investigations into the deaths of the five DeKalb County victims: Aaron Wyche, 10; Curtis Walker, 13; Yusuf Bell, 15; William Barrett, 17; and Patrick Baltazar, 11. Graham, one of the original investigators in these cases, said he never believed Wayne Williams, the man convicted of two of the killings and blamed for 22 others, was guilty of any of them. On August 6, 2005, journalists reported that Charles T. Sanders once praised the crimes in secretly recorded conversations. Although Sanders did not claim responsibility for any of the deaths, lawyers for Williams believed that the evidence will help their bid for a new trial for Williams. (The police had investigated Sanders in relation to the murders, but dropped the probe into his and the KKK's possible involvement, after Sanders was kept under close surveillance for seven weeks, during which four more victims were killed, and after Sanders and two of his brothers volunteered for, and passed, lie detector tests.) The criminal profiler John E. Douglas said that, while he believes that Williams committed many of the murders, he does not think that he committed them all. Douglas added that he believes that law enforcement authorities have some idea of who the other killers are, cryptically adding, "It isn't a single offender and the truth isn't pleasant." On June 21, 2006, the DeKalb County Police dropped its reinvestigation of the Atlanta child murders. After resigning, Graham was replaced by the acting chief, Nick Marinelli, who said, "We dredged up what we had, and nothing has panned out, so until something does or additional evidence comes our way, or there's forensic feedback from existing evidence, we will continue to pursue the [other] cold cases that are [with]in our reach." On January 29, 2007, attorneys for the State of Georgia agreed to allow DNA testing of the dog hair that was used to help convict Williams. This decision was a response to a legal filing as a part of Williams' efforts to appeal his conviction and life sentences. Williams' lawyer, Jack Martin, asked a Fulton County Superior Court judge to allow DNA tests on canine and human hair and blood, stating the results might help Williams win a new trial. On June 26, 2007, the DNA test results were published, but they failed to exonerate Williams. In fact, the results were that the hairs on the bodies contained the same mitochondrial DNA sequence as Williams' dog, and that the DNA sequence occurs in only about 1 out of 100 dogs. Dr. Elizabeth Wictum, director of the UC Davis laboratory that carried out the testing, told The Associated Press that while the results were “fairly significant,” they "don't conclusively point to Williams' dog as the source of the hair", because the lab was able to test only for mitochondrial DNA which, unlike nuclear DNA, cannot be shown to be unique to one dog. Later in 2007, the FBI performed DNA tests on two human hairs found on one of the victims. The mitochondrial DNA sequence in the hairs would eliminate 99.5% of persons by not matching their DNA. The mitochondrial DNA sequence in the hairs would eliminate 98% of African American persons by not matching their DNA. However, they matched Williams' DNA and so did not eliminate the possibility that the hairs were his. Media coverage and adaptations: The first national media coverage of the case was in 1980, when a team from ABC News 20/20, Stanhope Gould and Bill Lichtenstein, producer Steve Tello and correspondent Bob Sirkin, from the ABC Atlanta bureau looked in to the case. They were assigned to the story after ABC News president Roone Arledge read a tiny story in the newspaper that said police had ruled out any connection between a day care explosion, which turned out to be a faulty furnace, and the cases of lost and missing children, which had been previously unreported on in the national media. In a week, the team reported on the dead and missing children, and they broke the story that the Atlanta Police Task Force was not writing down or following up every lead they received through the police hotline that had been set up. In 1981 British novelist Martin Amis published "The Killings in Atlanta" for The Observer, later compiled into The Moronic Inferno: And Other Visits to America (1986). In 1982, writer Marty Pasko dedicated an issue of Saga of the Swamp Thing to "the good people of Atlanta, that they may put the horror behind them... but not forget." The story revolved around a serial killer who targeted minority children in the fictional town of Pineboro, Arkansas, who is revealed to be a demon that had possessed the TV host "Uncle Barney" (a thinly-veiled parody of Fred Rogers). While the demon is ultimately vanquished, the story ends on an ominous note criticizing the social inequalities that made the non-white children such attractive targets, as well as children's television shows that encourage blind trust of strangers. In 1985, the film The Atlanta Child Murders was released. The film was centered around the murders and the arrest of the suspect. Like JFK, the film revolved mainly around the aftermath of the killings and the trials. The film starred Calvin Levels, Morgan Freeman, James Earl Jones, Rip Torn, Jason Robards, Martin Sheen, and Bill Paxton. Atlanta officials criticized The Atlanta Child Murders film, claiming that it distorted the facts of the case. After a series of negotiations, CBS executives agreed to insert a disclaimer alerting viewers that the film is based on fact but contains fictional elements. In 2000, Showtime released a drama film titled Who Killed Atlanta's Children? Like JFK and Frost/Nixon, the film centered mainly around the possibility of a conspiracy. On June 10, 2010, CNN broadcast a documentary, The Atlanta Child Murders, with interviews by Soledad O'Brien of some of the people involved including Wayne Williams. The two-hour CNN documentary invited viewers to weigh the evidence presented and then go to CNN.com to cast votes on whether Williams was "guilty," "innocent"—or the case is "not proven." 68.6 percent of respondents said Williams was guilty, 4.3 percent said he was innocent and 27.1 percent chose "not proven".
Meet the Mormons is a 2014 American documentary film directed by Blair Treu and produced by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). The film documents the lives of six devout Mormons living in the United States, Costa Rica, and Nepal. The LDS Church donated all net proceeds from the theatrical release of film to the American Red Cross. Production: The film was originally designed for viewing in the Legacy Theater in the Joseph Smith Memorial Building in Salt Lake City, but after screenings with test audiences, LDS Church leadership decided to release the film first in theaters across the United States. According to Jeffrey R. Holland, the film is "not a proselytizing effort but informative" and is an "opportunity to share who Mormons really are". The film is financed and distributed by the LDS Church, a first for the church. It is shot in documentary format and will be translated into 10 languages. American singer-songwriter and actor David Archuleta sang the track "Glorious" for the film. Featured People: The film features Jermaine Sullivan, "The Bishop", and his family. Sullivan is an African-American who is an academic counselor at the University of Phoenix. He was bishop of a ward in Atlanta, Georgia when the film was made, and now serves as a stake president. The film also covers Sullivan's wife and children. Darius Gray was among the associates of Sullivan interviewed. "The Coach", Ken Niumatalolo, head football coach at the United States Naval Academy. "The Fighter", Carolina Muñoz Marin, an MMA fighter from Costa Rica who had a chance to go pro international, but she and her husband decided it would separate their family too much. "The Humanitarian", Bishnu Adhikari, a man from Nepal, with a degree in engineering who is the country director for Choice Humanitarian in Nepal. The organization works to improve the living situation in rural parts of Nepal. "The Candy Bomber", Gail Halvorsen. "The Missionary Mom", Dawn Armstrong, her story is chronicled from the birth of a son when she was a teenager, abandonment by his biological father, meeting her current husband - who had both her oldest son and her deceased next oldest son sealed to him when they were married in the temple, to her oldest son leaving to serve as a mission. Release: Meet the Mormons was released on October 10, 2014, in the United States by Purdie Distribution and Excel Entertainment. The LDS Church is donating all net proceeds from the theatrical release of film to the American Red Cross. Beginning January 2015, the LDS Church began showing the film in all of its visitors' centers and historical sites. Reception: The film holds an 11% critics' rating and a 90% audience rating at Rotten Tomatoes. Metacritic reports a score of 29/100 from published reviews, indicating "generally unfavorable reviews". The film has been criticized as propaganda. While praised for its "slick" cinematography, critics felt the documentary lacked information about Mormon history, its tenets, and its controversies. The film grossed $2,509,808 in its opening weekend, placing it outside the top 10. As of January 2015, it is listed 31st in revenue-producing documentary films.
Deanna J. Cremin (March 26, 1978 – March 30, 1995) was a 17-year-old American murder victim from Somerville, Massachusetts. Deanna Cremin was found behind a senior housing complex four days after her seventeenth birthday. An autopsy revealed she had been strangled, and her murder remains unsolved. Biography: Cremin was a student of Somerville High School. She did volunteer work at Somerville Cable Access Television, worked with third graders at the Child Development Program at her school, and worked at Star Market. Murder: On March 29, 1995, Deanna Cremin followed her usual Wednesday routine of going out with friends and visiting her boyfriend. Her curfew was 10 pm; when she was not home by midnight, her mother tried unsuccessfully to reach her on her pager. Her boyfriend, considered the last person to see Cremin alive, admits walking her home that night, but says he left her halfway, as he often had during their year-long courtship. Cremin's body was found at 8 a.m. on March 30, behind a senior housing complex, less than a block from her home. She was found by two children she babysat for, taking a shortcut on their way to school. Her body was lying on its back, and mostly undressed. She had been strangled. Investigation: Police identified three men as persons of interest in the crime: Cremin's teenage boyfriend; a Somerville firefighter more than twice Cremin's age, said to have been fixated on her; and a third adult man, later imprisoned at Massachusetts Correctional Institution - Cedar Junction. But no charges were pressed. In 2005, Middlesex district attorney Martha Coakley announced new forensic evidence had been found with procedures unavailable in 1995, raising hope of progress in the case, but again no charges were pressed. In 2009, current Middlesex district attorney Gerry Leone stated that the murder would be solved, but law enforcement needed witnesses who had remained silent to come forward. The Cremin family erects a billboard each year since her death, to offer a reward for information about the killer. At the bottom of the billboard, a quote reads: "You know what you did to me. How much longer must I wait! Please help make my time in heaven restful." The reward has grown from $10,000 in 1995 to $20,000 by 2005. Aftermath: A thousand mourners attended Cremin's funeral at St. Polycarp's church, including a procession with 150 vehicles. Trees and benches around the city have been dedicated to Deanna Cremin. The Deanna Cremin Reward Scholarship is a $500 annual award given to one recipient currently attending the Child Development Program at Somerville High School. In the summer of 1995, Deanna Cremin Square was dedicated to her. The idea was proposed by a friend, Danielle Shute. The square is located on the corner of Jaques Street and Temple Street, Cremin's neighborhood.42.394343°N 71.092041°W It is also located near St. Polycarp's Church, where her funeral was held. The family places a new wreath on it every year. A friend of Deanna's published a poem titled "Waiting For Your Return" in Teen Ink magazine. Willie Alexander, former member of The Velvet Underground, wrote a song about her death titled "Who Killed Deanna", which appeared on his albums The East Main Street Suite (1999), and The Dog Bar Yacht Club (2005). Years later, the case has not been forgotten. On October 1, 2006, hundreds of people wearing shirts reading "Justice for Deanna" marched through her old neighborhood seeking action on the case. The case has been repeatedly featured on WFXT television "New England's Unsolved", through 2009. On March 30, 2013, hundreds of supporters retraced her last path through the streets of Somerville's Winter Hill neighborhood. On March 31, 2014, the Mayor of Somerville announced a $50,000 reward to help find the people, or person behind Deanna Cremin's murder.
Jill-Lyn Euto (March 20, 1982 – January 28, 2001) was an 18-year-old murder victim from Syracuse, New York. Her mother found her stabbed to death in her apartment. Her murder remains unsolved. Biography: Euto was studying to be a paramedic while working at Aeropostale clothing stores in local Syracuse malls. Euto's murder: Euto was stabbed to death in her sixth-floor apartment at 600 James Street in Syracuse, NY on Super Bowl Sunday January 28, 2001. Investigators have stated that the murder occurred between noon and 3 pm. No locks were broken, no money was taken. Based on eyewitness reports, whoever killed her did not come into the building with her. The murder weapon was one of Euto's own kitchen knives. Her mother, Joanne Browning, found the body. Investigation: To date, police have not publicly identified any suspects. Aftermath: Following the murder, Joanne Browning appeared on national television on shows such as Sally Jesse Raphael, Montel Williams, and the case has been profiled on America's Most Wanted. In 2006, Joanne Browning filed a lawsuit against the property owner of the apartment. The complaint alleged that the property owners failed to "take minimal precautions to protect decedent from foreseeable harm from the criminal conduct of a thirdparty." The case was dismissed due to lack of proof of negligence on behalf of the property owner. An annual candlelight vigil for Jill took place from 2001 to 2007 to remember Jill and raise awareness.
The Jeff Davis 8 refers to a series of unsolved murders in Jefferson Davis Parish, Louisiana. Between 2005 and 2009, the bodies of eight women, all of whom had an involvement with drugs or prostitution, were found in swamps and canals surrounding Jennings, Louisiana. Most of the bodies were found in such a state of decomposition as to make the actual cause of death difficult to determine. Author and investigative reporter Ethan Brown has revealed how police investigations have been plagued by missteps in the sheriff's office, contributing to lost or missing evidence. Brown's work has revealed that there are multiple suspects in the Jeff Davis 8 case and that therefore it is unlikely that this is a serial killer case; furthermore, Brown has revealed that law enforcement's own witnesses have named members of local law enforcement as suspects in the case. After some speculation that the HBO series True Detective is based on the Jeff Davis 8 case, creator Nic Pizzolatto claimed in a DVD Commentary that he had not heard of the specific case until after the episodes had aired. Murders- Victims: The first victim, Lynn Lewis, 28, was found floating in a river by a fisherman on May 20, 2005. Other victims included Ernestine Marie Daniels Patterson, 30; Kristen Gary Lopez, 21; Whitnei Dubois, 26; Laconia “Muggy” Brown, 23; Crystal Shay Benoit Zeno, 24; and Brittney Gary, 17. The final body of Necole Guillory, 26, was found off Interstate 10 in 2009. Causes of death: Patterson and Brown had their throats slit; the other bodies were in too advanced a state of decomposition to determine the cause of death, though asphyxia is a suspected cause of death. Connections: Brown's investigative work reveals many tangled connections between victims, suspects, and the police. Most of the victims knew each other well. Some were related by blood (such as cousins Kristen Gary Lopez and Brittney Gary) or lived together (Gary lived with Crystal Benoit shortly before her death). The victims also shared in common traits such as poverty, mental illness, and histories of drug abuse and prostitution. The women all also served as informants for the police about the local drug trade and often provided police with information about other Jeff Davis 8 victims before their own deaths. Kristen Lopez, one of the victims, was present when police shot and killed a drug dealer named Leonard Crochet in 2005 along with several individuals connected to the Jeff Davis 8 case, including Alvin "Bootsy" Lewis, who fathered a child with victim Whitnei Dubois and is also the brother in law of the first victim, Loretta Chaisson Lewis. A grand jury investigated the shooting and determined there was no probable cause for a charge of negligent homicide against police even though a Louisiana State Police investigation into the Crochet shooting concluded that he was unarmed when he was shot to death by law enforcement. However, witnesses told investigators they believed the police had killed many of the victims because of what they knew about the shooting of Leonard Crochet. Investigation: In December 2008, a task force consisting of 14 federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies was formed to solve the killings. From the outset, the task force was searching for a serial killer. However, Brown's recent investigative work exposing connections between victims, suspects, and the police casts doubt on the theory that the Jeff Davis 8 is the work of a serial killer. Family members of the victims suspect the police are actually responsible for the deaths. True Detective creator Nic Pizzolatto believes this case serves as an "important study of police corruption." Allegations of misconduct: Task force investigative reports reveal a series of witness interviews in which local law enforcement were implicated in the murders. Statements from two female inmates portrayed suspects working with the sheriff’s office to dispose of evidence in the Lopez case. However, the sergeant who took the statements was forced out of his job, and the allegations were ignored by law enforcement. Sheriff’s office chief criminal investigator, Warren Gary, was also accused of purchasing a truck suspected of being used to transport a body for the purpose of discarding evidence. In 2009, the sheriff ordered that every investigator working the Jeff Davis 8 case be swabbed for DNA in response to the accusations against investigators. However, the office refuses to comment on the results of the DNA testing. Suspects: Police have arrested or issued warrants for the arrest of four people in connection with the case. Two people were held on murder charges for months before being released due to issues with evidence. Frankie Richard, a local strip club owner and suspected drug dealer admitted to being a crack addict and to having sex with most of the victims. He was among last person seen with one of the victims, Kristen G. Lopez. Law enforcement's own witnesses have connected Richard to the Sheriff's Office. The two female inmates who stated the Sheriff's Office disposed of evidence in the Lopez case alleged that the evidence was discarded at the behest of Richard. Byron Chad Jones and Lawrence Nixon (a cousin of the fifth victim, Laconia Brown) were briefly charged with second-degree murder in the Ernestine Patterson case. However, the sheriff’s office did not test the alleged crime scene until 15 months after Patterson’s murder, and found it “failed to demonstrate the presence of blood.”
i got back on my skateboard and didn't fall. i love my skateboarding. its so much fun. my skateboarding is something i like doing even when you have a bad back. apparently, you gotta be coordinated enough to do it. a missionary loved hearing my stories about it as did a friend who lives in Darnestown. you gotta get back up and do it over and over again
Hailey Owens was a 10-year-old girl from Springfield, Missouri, who was abducted and murdered on February 18, 2014. The murder caught attention nationally and was discussed on Nancy Grace. Thousands of people attended a candlelight vigil for Hailey on February 23, 2014. A neighborhood park was later dedicated to her called Hailey's Playground. At about 5 p.m. on February 18, 2014, Hailey was walking home from a friend's house when a man in a truck pulled over, called to her and asked for directions and, as she approached him, grabbed her and threw her into his truck and sped away. Eyewitnesses were able to get the complete license plate number. The suspect in the murder is Craig Michael Wood. His trial is set to begin Sept. 26, 2016. Prosecutors intend to seek the death penalty. The family of Hailey Owens is trying to get a law passed named Hailey's Law. They hope the new law will help in future abduction cases by consolidating the systems in which an Amber Alert is issued, allowing an alert to be issued faster.