Thursday, June 30, 2016
Little Miss Lake Panasoffkee, or simply Little Miss Panasoffkee, is the name given to an unidentified young woman found on February 19, 1971, in Lake Panasoffkee, Florida. It is believed that she was a murder victim. The murder currently remains unsolved despite the reconstruction of the victim's face on two occasions, in 1971 and 2012. The case was also featured on the television show Unsolved Mysteries in 1993. Discovery of the body: On February 19, 1971, two teenage hitchhikers discovered a partially submerged body floating beneath a highway overpass in Lake Panasoffkee, Florida. Authorities subsequently retrieved the fully clothed, badly decomposed body of a young woman from the lake. The body had no identification papers. The body was dressed in a green shirt, green plaid pants, and a green floral poncho. Also found were a white gold watch and a gold necklace. On her ring finger there was a gold ring with a transparent stone, indicating that she may have been married. A forensic examination of the remains was conducted by Dr. William Schutze. Schutze concluded that the victim had been killed about 30 days prior to being found. A man's size–36 belt was fastened around her neck, strongly indicating strangulation as the cause of death. Forensic examination: The body was exhumed in February 1986 for further forensic examination. The woman was determined to have been between 17 and 24 years old when she died, and weighed about 115 pounds. She had dark hair, brown eyes, and prominent cheekbones. She was between 5 feet, 2 inches and 5 feet, 5 inches in height. She had received extensive dental work, including numerous silver tooth fillings. She had a porcelain crown upon one of her upper right teeth. It was determined that she had borne at least two children prior to her death. One of her ribs had been fractured at the time of death, leading investigators to theorize that the killer had possibly knelt upon her while he strangled her with the belt. Investigators initially believed the woman to be either of European or Native American ancestry. A further exhumation and examination of the remains, conducted in 2012, established that she was of European descent. An examination of Harris lines in the victim's bones indicated that an illness or malnutrition had briefly arrested her growth in childhood. Examining the lead isotopes within the victim's teeth, a geological scientist was able to deduce that the victim had undoubtedly spent her childhood and adolescence in a location in southern Europe close to the sea — most likely a location south of the Greek city of Athens — until within a year of her murder. The geological scientist, George Kamenov, was able to pinpoint the most likely place where the victim had lived as the fishing port of Laurium, Greece. Given the fact that there is a large Greek-American population within Tarpon Springs (about 117 kilometers (73 mi) from Lake Panasoffkee), and the two additional facts that the victim had been dead for about 30 days and had likely lived in Greece, it was possible to conclude that she had traveled to the United States to attend an Epiphany celebration. Forensic examination of her hair supported the theory that she had been visiting temporarily. This was indicated by the fact that she had been in Florida for less than two months before her death. An orthopedic surgery procedure, known as the "Watson-Jones" technique, had been performed on her right ankle when she was about 16 years old. This operation—which involved stretching the tendon by means of screws drilled into the bone—would most likely have been performed to rectify a chronic instability which would likely have seen the victim sprain her ankle several times prior to the operation. Periostitis was found in her right leg, which may have been discomforting and noticeable to the victim. Facial reconstructions: In 1971, a collection of forensic facial reconstructions was made in an attempt to show what Little Miss Lake Panasoffkee may have looked like at different stages of her life. In 2012, another composite was created, which was visually different from the first. The composite was also combined with a scale model of the victim's clothing.
"Delta Dawn" is the nickname of an unidentified decedent found in Moss Point, Mississippi in late 1982. The child was a murder victim, as she had both been smothered and drowned shortly before her body was found in the Escatawpa River. Discovery and circumstances: The body was discovered in Moss Point, Jackson County, Mississippi. According to witnesses, a baby was seen near the area with an adult female, possibly her mother, about two days before the discovery, on Mississippi State Highway 63 as well as National Interstate 10, near the border of Alabama. It is believed that this baby might be the victim later found in the river. The woman was carrying the child and walking above a bridge between midnight and one o'clock in the morning two days previously, reportedly distressed but refusing help from passing vehicles. Within two days after these sightings, a man called police to report the discovery of a body in the river, clothed in a blue plaid shirt, lying face-down, at about 7:00 AM on December 5, 1982. This body is now presumed to be that of the adult woman. Authorities responded to the scene, located along interstate 10, but instead came across the child's body. The sheriff who found Delta Dawn initially mistook her for his daughter, who was later found to be alive and well at his residence. Authorities immediately believed that the girl had been thrown from the bridge to the area where her body was found, as it was blocked by weeds and it was unlikely that the girl's body had drifted to the location. The woman's corpse was never found, and she has never been located alive, if the body seen was not hers. At the time of Delta Dawn's discovery, the river bottom in the vicinity where it was seen was dragged in hopes of finding the remains, which was unsuccessful. Searches were also conducted with helicopters and boats. On December 9, the skeletal remains of an African-American man, aged eighteen to twenty-two were found, sixty yards away, by one of the search teams. He also remains unidentified, but is not likely connected to the case. Physical examination: An autopsy performed on the Jane Doe's body concluded that she had been alive when she entered the water and had been intentionally deposited into the river. Evidence in her lungs indicated that she drowned, although someone had attempted to smother her before she entered the river. It was concluded that the official cause of her death was inhaling the water upon impacting its surface. Delta Dawn was a healthy toddler between the ages of one and two years old, most likely eighteen months. Twelve of her teeth had erupted at the time of her death, which influenced the age estimation. The girl was Caucasian with curly strawberry-blond hair. Because of the amount of time she was in the water, approximately thirty-six to forty-eight hours, her eyes had clouded to the point where estimating the exact color was very difficult, but it was believed that they were either blue or brown. Despite the elemental damage to the eyes, her face was described as in a "recognizable" condition. She was around two feet six inches and weighed around twenty-five pounds. The girl wore a pink and white checkered dress or shirt, decorated with three flowers on its front, along with a diaper. Aftermath and investigation: Extensive searches have been conducted to find the body of the woman reported to the police, but these have been fruitless. Several scenarios have been conceived, some asserting that the woman seen with the baby was her mother, who had caused the victim's death and subsequently committed suicide. An earlier report, of a woman who told sheriff's deputies that she had "given away" her child to a group of men, was originally connected to the case by the investigating officers; it was later determined that the subject requesting assistance had a male child. Newspapers later published the stories throughout the country and featured pictures of the child, but were unsuccessful with ascertaining her identity through this technique. The victim was adopted posthumously by a police officer and his wife, who funded the victim's funeral and burial. The officer's wife coined the victim's nickname. She is buried in the Jackson County Cemetery after an hourlong service. The means of paying for the ceremony were donated by local businesses and their employees. In 2007, a graveside memorial service was conducted in memory of the victim. Since her discovery, the girl was reconstructed forensically in efforts to identify her through facial recognition. The National Center for Missing & Exploited Children has released two illustrations and other artists have produced their own renderings.
Bare legs is the state in which a person does not cover his or her legs with any clothing or leggings in a public space. A person may have bare legs for functional reasons, such as to keep cooler in hot weather or during physical exercise. Most modern swimwear is worn without any leg covering (exemplified by the speedo, bikini, trunks, and fundoshi). The increased popularity of higher hemlines in women's clothing has resulted in increased and increasing exposure of legs. Initially, the shortened dresses were associated with the popularity of legwear which continued to cover the legs wholly or in part, such as socks and stockings. The introduction of the miniskirt and the microskirt saw a change to pantyhose or tights and other leggings. However, there has been an increasing trend towards women not wearing any legwear with short dresses and skirts, and high hemlines, except on formal occasions. Men commonly do not wear leg coverings other than for trousers, and sportswear. History: Bare legs have gone in and out of fashion many times in different cultures around the world. Examples of this fashion can be found as far back as 1066 with the Norman peasant class commonly baring their legs. Bare legs in England were a source of contention during the 1929 Wimbledon women's tennis tournament where a ban was considered and then ultimately rejected by English authorities, bare legs in women's tennis being the norm in both France and the United States at the time. Whilst western women's fashions through the first half of the 20th century and beyond gradually made the revealing of the leg acceptable or even the norm, the absence of any covering was often seen as having particular sexual connotations. The popularity of pantyhose grew into a wardrobe staple throughout the 1970s and 1980s. From 1995 a steady decline in sales of pantyhose began, levelling off in 2006 with American sales less than half of what they had once been. This decline has been attributed to bare legs in fashion, changes in workplace dress code, and the increased popularity of trousers.
Geek Girl is a 20th-century term, signifying a gendered subgenre within the modern geek subculture. History: The return of the word "geek" in the mid-1990s can be traced to the popularization of workplace computing and the Internet and the dot-com bubble of 1995-2000. The early days of the reclaimed use of "geek" were strongly associated with computers and information technology and the majority of practitioners were male. Similarly, in a 1996 study of high school cultures, linguist Mary Bucholtz noted that "nerd status is overwhelmingly associated with males" Two studies by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) quantified the gap between men and women in computing and the continuing problems recruiting and retaining female programmers. The term "Geekgirl" was coined by Rosie Cross in 1993 as the title of her online cyberfeminist magazine. This is Australia's longest running online publication and in September 1996 it was exhibited at the New Museum of Contemporary Art New York. Editions of this magazine from the mid 90's have been preserved by the Internet Archive. As the use of the personal computer grew during the mid-to-late 2000s, the number of women in computing rose proportionately, and networks were created to provide support and connection for self-described "geek girls". GirlGeeks.org was created in 1999 to serve as "the source for women in computing", and in 2005 Girl Geek Dinners was formed to connect women in the information technology (IT) sector. The widespread recognition of "geek girls" as a community occurred in summer 2010, when the annual San Diego Comic-Con International included a panel entitled "Geek Girls Exist". Panelists included StarWars.com journalist Bonnie Burton, singer-songwriter Marian Call, Tekzilla and Qore host Veronica Belmont, Mythbusters featured host Kari Byron, and was hosted by Kristin Rielly, founder of Geek Girls Network. The panel's popularity has been credited as a primary mover in solidifying the girl geek concept. Types of geek girls: The term geek girl is in some ways fractured between its technical and cultural uses. The strongest association remains with computing, IT, and engineering. Practicing "geek girls" then include video game executive Jade Raymond, computer scientist and Yahoo! CEO Marissa Mayer, social media developer Leah Culver, and engineer Limor Fried of Adafruit Industries. "Geek girl" is also a term applied to women who engage in journalism and media about technology, typically through the Internet rather than traditional print media, such as tech journalist Natali Morris. Perhaps the most well-known variety of the "geek girl" is the gamer, who typically engages in video and/or live role-playing games. In 2007, actress and gamer Felicia Day popularized the archetype through the webseries The Guild and the YouTube viral video (Do You Wanna Date My) Avatar. Recent developments: In September 2010, the geek girl group Team Unicorn was formed by four "gamer girls", who produced the YouTube video "G33k & G4m3r Girls" as a parody of the song California Gurls by Katy Perry. The video went viral within a week, but the name of the group was intended to reflect the invisible status of women in the geek subculture: "Geek Girls: Like unicorns, we're not supposed to exist." In late 2010, the Seattle-based non-profit GeekGirlCon announced that it would hold the first conference devoted to geek girls on October 8–9, 2011. In April 2011, the New York Times' television reviewer Ginia Bellefante caused a minor uproar by characterizing the medieval-fantasy series Game of Thrones as "boy fiction" that "no woman alive" would wish to watch. The review prompted a direct response from GeekGirlCon, as well as a flurry of discussion from bloggers and other news outlets.
Flip-flops also known as flim-flams are a type of open-toed footwear sandal, typically worn as a form of casual wear. They consist of a flat sole held loosely on the foot by a Y-shaped strap or thong that passes between the first and second toes and around both sides of the foot. The name "flip-flop" originated from the sound made by the slapping of the sole, foot and floor when walking. This style of footwear has been worn by the people of many cultures throughout the world, originating as early as the ancient Egyptians in 1,500 B.C. The modern flip-flop descends from the Japanese zōri, which became popular after World War II when soldiers returning to the United States brought them back. They became popular gender-neutral summer footwear starting in the 1960s. Some varieties have since found their way into more formal attire. Etymology: The term flip-flop has been used in American and British English since the 1970s to describe the thong or no heel strap sandal. It is an onomatopoeia of the sound made by the sandals when walking in them. They could be bought by tracing round the edge of a foot on paper, and then the template would accompany a servant to the market, where he would barter for flip-flops. They are called thongs in Australia, jandals (originally a trademarked name derived from "Japanese sandals") in New Zealand, slops in South Africa and tsinelas in Philippines (in some Visayan localities as "smagul", from the word smuggled). This footwear has a number of other names around the world. In India and Pakistan, flip-flops are commonly known as hawai chappal. The Japanese wear similarly designed, traditional straw sandals known as zōri. Throughout the world, they are known by a variety of other names, including dép tông or dép xỏ ngón in Vietnam, chinelos in Brazil, japonki in Poland, dacas in Somalia, sayonares (σαγιονάρες) in Greece, Schlapfen in Austria, slippers in Hawaii and the Netherlands, tsinelas in the Philippines, infradito in Italy, djapanki (джапанки) in Bulgaria, and vietnamki in Russia and Ukraine. History: Thong sandals have been worn for thousands of years, dating back to pictures of them in ancient Egyptian murals from 4,000 BC. A pair found in Europe was made of papyrus leaves and dated to be approximately 1,500 years old. These early versions of flip-flops were made from a wide variety of materials. Ancient Egyptian sandals were made from papyrus and palm leaves. The Masai of Africa made them out of rawhide. In India, they were made from wood. In China and Japan, rice straw was used. The leaves of the sisal plant were used to make twine for sandals in South America, while the natives of Mexico used the yucca plant. The Ancient Greeks and Romans wore versions of flip-flops as well. In Greek sandals, the toe strap was worn between the first and second toes, while Roman sandals had the strap between the second and third toes. These differ from the sandals worn by the Mesopotamians, with the strap between the third and fourth toes. In India, a related chappal ("toe knob") sandal was common, with no straps but a small knob sitting between the first and second toes. They are known as Padukas. The modern flip-flop became popular in the United States as soldiers returning from World War II brought Japanese zōri with them. It caught on in the 1950s during the postwar boom and after the end of hostilities of the Korean War. As they became adopted into American popular culture, the sandals were redesigned and changed into the bright colors that dominated 1950s design. They quickly became popular due to their convenience and comfort, and were popular in beach-themed stores and as summer shoes. During the 1960s, flip-flops became firmly associated with the beach lifestyle of California. As such, they were promoted as primarily a casual accessory, typically worn with shorts, bathing suits, or summer dresses. As they became more popular, some people started wearing them for more dressy or formal occasions. In 1962, Alpargatas marketed a version of flip-flops known as Havaianas in Brazil. By 2010, more than 150 million pairs of Havaianas were produced each year. Flip-flops quickly became popular as casual footwear of young adults. Girls would often decorate their flip-flops with metallic finishes, charms, chains, beads, rhinestones, or other jewelry. High-end flip-flops made of leather or sophisticated synthetic materials are commonly worn in place of sneakers or loafers as the standard, everyday article of casual footwear, particularly among teenagers and young adults, although it is not unusual to see older people wearing playful, thick-soled flip-flops in brilliant colors. A minor controversy erupted in 2005 when some members of Northwestern University's national champion women's lacrosse team visited the White House wearing flip-flops. The team responded to critics by auctioning off their flip-flops on eBay, raising $1,653 for young cancer patient, Jaclyn Murphy of Hopewell Junction, New York, who was befriended by the team. There is still a debate over whether this signaled a fundamental change in American culture — many youth feel that flip-flops are more dressy and can be worn in a variety of social contexts, while older generations feel that wearing them at formal occasions signifies laziness and comfort over style. In 2011, while vacationing in his native Hawaii, Barack Obama became the first President of the United States to be photographed wearing a pair of flip-flops. The Dalai Lama of Tibet is also a frequent wearer of flip-flops and has met with several US presidents, including George W. Bush and Barack Obama, while wearing the sandals. While exact sales figures for flip-flops are difficult to obtain due to the large number of stores and manufacturers involved, the Atlanta-based company Flip Flop Shops claimed that the shoes were responsible for a $20 billion industry in 2009. Furthermore, sales of flip-flops exceeded those of sneakers for the first time in 2006. If these figures are accurate, it is remarkable considering the low cost of most flip-flops. Design and custom: The modern flip-flop has a very simple design, consisting of a thin rubber sole with two straps running in a Y shape from the sides of the foot to the gap between the big toe and the one beside it. They typically do not have a strap around the heel, although heeled varieties are available, as well as flip-flops designed for sports, which come with added support common to athletic shoes, with the thong between the toes. Most modern flip-flops are inexpensive, costing as little as $5, or less in some parts of the world. They are made from a wide variety of materials, as were the ancient thong sandals. The modern sandals are made of more modern materials, such as rubber, foam, plastic, leather, suede, and even fabric. Thongs made of polyurethane have caused some environmental concerns — since polyurethane is a number 7 resin, they can't be easily discarded or they will be in landfills for a very long time. Due to these concerns, some companies have begun to sell flip-flops made from recycled rubber, such as that from used bicycle tires, or even hemp. In response to environmental concerns, some companies offer a recycling program for used flip flops. Because of the strap between the toes, flip-flops are typically not worn with socks. Though, in colder weather, some people may wear flip-flops with toe socks. The Japanese commonly wear tabi with their zōri sandals, which is a traditional sock with a single slot for the thong. Health and medical implications and injuries: While flip-flops do provide the wearer with some mild protection from hazards on the ground, such as hot sand at the beach, glass, thumb tacks or even fungi and wart-causing viruses in locker rooms or community pools, their simple design is responsible for a host of other injuries of the foot and lower leg. In the United Kingdom in 2002, 55,100 individuals went to hospital with flip-flop related injuries. By 2010, there were 200,000 flip-flop related injuries costing the National Health Service in Britain £40 million. Walking for long periods in flip-flops can be very tough on the feet, resulting in pain in the ankles, legs, and feet. A 2009 study at Auburn University found that flip-flop wearers took shorter steps and their heels hit the ground with less vertical force than those wearing athletic shoes. Individuals with flat feet or other foot issues are advised to wear a shoe with better support. The lack of support provided by thong sandals is a major cause of injuries. Since they have a spongy sole, the foot rolls further inward than normal when it hits the ground — an action called over-pronation, which is responsible for many foot problems. Overpronation may also lead to flat feet. Flip-flops can cause a person to overuse the tendons in their feet, resulting in tendonitis. The lack of an ankle strap that holds the foot in place is also a common reason for injury, as this causes wearers to scrunch their toes in an effort to keep the flip-flop in place, which can result in tendonitis. Ankle sprains or broken bones are also common injuries, due to stepping off a curb or tumbling — the ankle bends, but the flip-flop neither holds on to nor supports it. The straps of the flip-flop may cause frictional issues, such as rubbing, during walking. The open-toed nature of the thongs may result in cuts, scrapes, bruises, or stubbed toes. Despite all of these issues, flip-flops do not have to be avoided completely. Many podiatrists recommend avoiding the inexpensive, drug store varieties and spending more on sandals with thick-cushioned soles, as well as ones that have a strap that's not canvas and that comes back almost to the ankle.
Shabby chic is a form of interior design where furniture and furnishings are either chosen for their appearance of age and signs of wear and tear or where new items are distressed to achieve the appearance of an antique. At the same time, a soft, opulent, yet cottage-style decor, often with an affected feel is emphasized to differentiate it from genuine period decor. Description: Shabby chic items are often heavily painted through the years, with many layers showing through obviously time-worn areas. The style is imitated in faux painting using glaze or by painting then rubbing and sanding away the top coat to show the wood or base coats, known as "distressing" the finish of the furniture. Furniture pieces that are not genuine antiques are usually selected for their resemblance to older furniture styles, and may be reproduction furniture with a distressed finish. Elaborate furniture appliques depicting flower swags and garlands, cherubs, and other motifs may be added. Fabrics tend to be cottons and linens, with linen being particularly popular, inspired by old French linens. Pure whites, as well as ecrus and worn or bleached out pastel colors are favorites. Fabric is often stained with tea to give it the look of old fabric. Bleached and faded are terms often applied to the style. Vintage floral patterns with pastel colors, cotton ticking patterns, or linen in earth tones, are all typical of shabby chic style. Antique pieces such as pie safes and jelly cupboards are popular in shabby chic décor. Besides white, the shabby chic style also includes soft neutral colors such as sky blue, rose pink and beige tones. Hints from French-style interior design often show in shabby chic homes such as Rococo-style lighting fixtures, furniture or wall paneling. The shabby chic aesthetic also expands to the garden, with the same design principles of using timeworn garden furniture and feminine accessories. Rose gardens are popular with the shabby chic style of decor. Other popular decor items are pillows made of vintage barkcloth fabric, vintage linens, chenille bedspreads, vintage chandeliers, and anything with roses in the design. It is a soft, relaxed, feminine, romantic style of decorating that looks comfortable and inviting. Variants of shabby chic style include: -Cottage chic -Beach cottage chic -French country -Gustavian (Swedish) History: The style started in Great Britain and evokes the type of decoration found in large country houses where there are worn and faded old chintz sofas and curtains, old paintwork and unassuming 'good' taste. The end result of shabby chic is to achieve an elegant overall effect, as opposed to the sentimentally cute Pop-Victorian. Recycling old furniture and fabrics is an important aspect of the look and was especially popular with modern Bohemians and artisans that made up a sidelined counter-culture movement during the 1980s when expensive quality decor became very fashionable with the upper middle classes. The original shabby chic interiors were usually considered in themselves works of art. The early forms of shabby chic were rather grand but the style has evolved taking inspiration from many forms of decoration. These range from 18th century Swedish painted decoration, the French Chateau as well as the American Shakers where simplicity and plainness was essential. Origin of term: The term was coined by The World of Interiors magazine in the 1980s and became extremely popular in the US in the '90s with a certain eclectic surge of decorating styles with paints and effects, notably in metropolitan cultural centres on the West Coast of America, such as Los Angeles and San Francisco, with heavy influences from Mediterranean cultures such as Provence, Tuscany and Greece.
Country bohemian style is a style synthesizing rural elements with the bohemian style, creating a bohemian approach to life in the country. The country bohemian style can refer to both fashion and interior design. Characteristics: The country bohemian style is a deliberate blending of two seemingly disparate styles, country and bohemian. It incorporates local, rural features into bohemian sensibilities, favoring sustainability and rustic features while also embracing modern contributions.
Krispy Kreme Doughnuts, Inc. is an American global doughnut company and coffeehouse chain based in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Krispy Kreme is to become a privately held company owned by JAB Beech, itself a private German investment firm. Krispy Kreme founder Vernon Rudolph bought a yeast-raised recipe from a New Orleans chef, and in 1937 rented a building in what is now historic Old Salem in Winston-Salem, and began selling to local grocery stores. In the United States, Krispy Kreme's products are sold via their own outlets as well as through grocery, convenience stores, supermarkets, and Temples. They are also available in other countries through various channels. The company's growth was steady prior to its initial public offering but profits have decreased in recent quarters. On February 24, 2015, Krispy Kreme opened its 1,000th shop in Kansas City, Kansas. History: In 1933, eighteen-year-old Vernon Rudolph began working for his uncle, Ishmael Armstrong, who owned a small general store in Paducah, Kentucky that sold a wide variety of goods, including its very popular doughnuts. While the exact origin of the doughnut recipe remains partially a mystery, it is believed that Ishmael Armstrong was inspired by an Ohio River barge cook named Joseph LeBeouf who was famous for his light and fluffy doughnuts. The store struggled during the Great Depression, so in 1934 Vernon and Ishmael decided to move to the larger city of Nashville, Tennessee where they hoped business would be better. The uncle and nephew focused solely on selling their doughnuts and opened "The Krispy Kreme Doughnut Company" in a rented store on Gallatin Road. The shop did so well that Vernon's father, Plumie, also left Kentucky and moved to Nashville to help sell doughnuts. In 1937, Vernon Rudolph opened his own store, deciding on Winston-Salem, North Carolina for the location when he learned that his favorite cigarette company, Camel Cigarettes, was headquartered in the small North Carolina city. Rudolph primarily sold to convenience stores, however, he also sold hot doughnuts to individual customers who came during production time between midnight and 4am. The first store in North Carolina was located in a rented building on South Main Street in Winston-Salem in what is now called historic Old Salem. The Krispy Kreme logo was designed by Benny Dinkins, a local architect. The first Krispy Kreme bakery outside the South opened in Akron, Ohio, in 1939. Expansion occurred in the 1950s, including an early store in Savannah, Georgia. By the 1960s, Krispy Kreme was known throughout the Southeast, and it began to expand into other areas. In 1976, Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation became a wholly owned subsidiary of Beatrice Foods of Chicago, Illinois. The headquarters for Krispy Kreme remained in Winston-Salem. A group of franchisees purchased the corporation back from Beatrice Foods in 1982. In May 2016, JAB Beech, a German investment firm, is planning to purchase the company for $1.35 billion over the following two months that would make the company privately owned. Growth: Krispy Kreme began another phase of rapid expansion in the 1990s, opening stores outside the southeastern United States where most of their stores were located. Then, in December 2001, Krispy Kreme opened its first store outside the U.S. in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada, just outside Toronto. IPO and accounting scandals: On April 5, 2000, the corporation went public on the NASDAQ at $21 using the ticker symbol KREM. On May 17, 2001, Krispy Kreme switched to the New York Stock Exchange, with the ticker symbol KKD, which is its current symbol. The stock reached what would be its all-time high of $50 on the New York Stock Exchange in August 2003, a gain of 235 percent from its IPO price. For the fiscal year ending in February 2004, the company reported sales of $665.6 million and operating profits of $94.7 million from almost 400 stores (including international locations). The market initially considered the company as having "solid fundamentals, adding stores at a rapid clip and showing steadily increasing sales and earnings." Since then it had lost 75-80% of its value by 2005, amid earnings declines, as well as an SEC investigation over the company's alleged improper accounting practices. In May 2004, the company missed quarterly estimates for the first time and suffered its first loss as a public company. Chairman and CEO Scott Livengood attributed the poor results to the low-carbohydrate diet craze. This explanation was viewed with skepticism by analysts, as "blaming the Atkins diet for disappointing earnings carried a whiff of desperation", and as rival donut chain Dunkin' Donuts has not suffered from the low-carb trend over the same compared period. Analysts suggested that Livengood had expanded the chain too rapidly after the IPO, which concentrated certain markets with too many stores. While this approach initially grew revenues and profits at the parent-company level, due to royalty payments from new franchisees, which also increased sales, this reduced the profitability of individual franchisees in the long run as they were forced to compete with one another. For the 2003-04 fiscal year, while the parent enjoyed a 15 percent increase in second-quarter revenues, same-store sales increased only a tenth of a percent during that time. By contrast, McDonald's focused on profitability at the franchise level. Krispy Kreme also had supermarkets and gas stations carry their donuts, which soon contributed up to half of the chain's sales, creating further market saturation as well as increasing competition to its franchisees. All this expansion devalued Krispy Kreme brand's novelty, by making the once-specialty donuts ubiquitous, particularly as the newer sales outlets required pre-made donuts as opposed to the ones made fresh in factory stores, which alienated brand devotees. Besides royalty payments from new stores, the parent company also enjoyed significant profits by requiring franchisees to purchase mix and doughnut-making equipment from the parent's Krispy Kreme Manufacturing and Distribution (KKM&D) division. KKM&D earned $152.7 million in 2003, which made up 31 percent of sales, with a reported operating margin of 20 percent or higher, but these mark-ups were largely at the expense of its franchisees. By comparison, rival chain Dunkin' Donuts generally avoids selling equipment or materials to its franchisees which "keeps company and franchisee interests aligned", as well as having a royalty stream based on same-store sales. Krispy Kreme has been accused of channel stuffing by franchisees, whose stores reportedly "received twice their regular shipments in the final weeks of a quarter so that headquarters could make its numbers". The company was also dogged by questionable transactions and self-dealing accusations over the buybacks of franchisees, including those operated by company insiders. A report released in August 2005 singled out then-CEO Scott Livengood and then-COO John W. Tate to blame for the accounting scandals although it did not find that the executives committed intentional fraud. On March 4, 2009 the SEC issued a cease and desist order against Krispy Kreme for its actions inflating their revenues and engaging in illicit activities regarding the purchasing of its own stores to prop up revenues and setting up mechanisms to guarantee it beat earnings estimates by $0.01 which eventually resulted in Krispy Kreme reducing net income over 2 years of over $10.5 million. In it, it proposed remedial actions for Krispy Kreme to take. Management shuffle: On January 18, 2005, Krispy Kreme announced Stephen Cooper, chairman of financial consulting group Kroll Zolfo Cooper LLC, as interim CEO, succeeding Scott Livengood who retired as chairman, president, CEO and a director. The company also named Steven Panagos, a managing director of Kroll Zolfo, as president and COO. A turnaround plan in December 2005 aimed to close unprofitable stores in order to avoid bankruptcy. New offerings and changes: In 2003, a pilot project in Mountain View, California, to sell doughnuts through car windows and sunroofs at a busy intersection (with wireless payment) failed. Although based on informal advertising such as word-of-mouth, in 2006, Krispy Kreme moved into television and radio advertisements, beginning with its "Share the Love" campaign with heart-shaped doughnuts. On February 19, 2007, Krispy Kreme began selling the Whole Wheat Glazed doughnut in an attempt to appeal to the health conscious. The doughnut has 84 kJ (20 kilocalories in most countries, or 20 Calories in the US) fewer than the original glazed (754 kJ vs. 837 kJ) and contains more fiber (2 grams vs. 0.5 grams). As of January 2008, the trans fat content of all Krispy Kreme doughnuts was reduced to 0.5 of a gram or less. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, in its guidelines, allows companies to round down to 0 g in its nutrition facts label even if the food contains as much as 0.5 of a gram per serving. Krispy Kreme benefited from this regulatory rule in its subsequent advertising campaign, touting its doughnuts as "trans fat free" and having "0 grams trans fat!". On July 1, 2010, Krispy Kreme introduced a doughnut that included the soft drink Cheerwine, which was to be sold in grocery stores in North and South Carolina during July. The doughnuts proved so popular, the Salisbury, North Carolina Krispy Kreme location (the town where Cheerwine is made), sold them as well. After July 31, this was the only place to get them. The Cheerwine Kreme doughnut returned for July 2011 and made its debut in Tennessee and Roanoke, Virginia. Also in 2010, Krispy Kreme Express, a delivery service for businesses, began testing at the Battleground Avenue location in Greensboro, North Carolina. In the early 2010s, the company began developing shops with tunnel ovens, which allow for an all day "Hot Now" hot donut experience. On February 24, 2015, Krispy Kreme opened its 1,000th shop, in Kansas City, Kansas. The first customer received one free dozen of donuts per week, for a year. International operations: The first Krispy Kreme store to open outside North America was in Penrith, Australia, in Sydney. At first the operation was successful, opening 53 other stores around the country. However, as of November 1, 2010 the entire Australian division went into voluntary administration, with media reports attributing this to poor sales. They have since come out of administration as of December 2010, and continued trading, with fewer stores. Since 2012, Krispy Kreme doughnuts have been available through all 7-Eleven stores in the eastern states of Australia after announcing partnership with Krispy Kreme Australia in late 2011. Besides the stores that Krispy Kreme operate in the United States and Canada, there are also locations in the United Kingdom, Australia, Lebanon, Turkey, Dominican Republic, Kuwait, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Taiwan, South Korea, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines, Japan, China, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain Hong Kong (2006–2008), and Ethiopia. In August 2011, Krispy Kreme's Japan operation planned to increase the number of stores from 21 to 94, and its Mexico operation announced the number of stores would increase from 58 to 128 in five years. In the United Kingdom, Krispy Kreme continues its expansion and had plans and funding in place to open further stores in 2012. Krispy Kreme opened its first store in India on January 19, 2013 in Bangalore, Karnataka. The stores are operated by Citymax Hotels India under a franchise arrangement. So far, there are 5 stores opened in Bangalore, with two more in development. On July 23, 2014, Krispy Kreme has launched its first shop in Chennai, India at Express Avenue mall. On September 25, 2013, Krispy Kreme announced the opening of 25 stores, all within 5 years, in Colombia. This marks the first South American country for the company. In October 2014, Krispy Kreme opened another store at Colombia in Bogota and Chía, Cundinamarca. On December 12, 2013, Krispy Kreme opened its first store in Taipei, Taiwan. On October 10, 2014, Krispy Kreme opened another store at HSR Layout in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. On November 26, 2014, Krispy Kreme opened their first store in Western Australia with a new store opening in Whitfords, Perth. The store offers a 24/7 drive-thru. On May 18, 2015, Krispy Kreme announced it has signed a development agreement with KK Doughnuts SA (Pty) Ltd., to open 31 Krispy Kreme shops in South Africa over the next five years. This marks the company’s first venture into Africa. On September 10, 2015, Krispy Kreme signs development agreement with Agape Coral, SAC to open 24 shops over the next five years in Peru. On November 25, 2015, Krispy Kreme opened its first store in Rosebank, South Africa. On December 2, 2015, Krispy Kreme opened its largest store in The United Kingdom in Glasgow, Scotland. Retail availability: In the United States, the company's products are sold in Krispy Kreme stores, as well as through grocery stores, convenience stores, Walmart, Target and Shaw's stores. Internationally, doughnuts are sold in Loblaws supermarkets, Petro-Canada gas stations, and as freestanding stores in Canada, along with BP Service Stations and Travel Centres and 7-Eleven stores in Australia. In the United Kingdom, Tesco supermarkets, Tesco Extra, and most Tesco service stations carry Krispy Kreme products. Service stations Moto, Welcome Break & Road Chef also carry self-service cabinets. Environmental and ethical record: Currently, Krispy Kreme uses palm oil from suppliers that may be cutting down rainforests. However, in September 2014 the company pledged to source all its palm oil from suppliers who do not destroy rainforests by the end of 2016. Eggs for Krispy Kreme donuts currently come from caged hens.
Mud Coffee is a New York City-based coffee company that started by selling its own blend out of a converted Consolidated Edison step-van known as the Mudtruck. On weekdays, it frequents the intersection of Astor Place, Lafayette Street, Fourth Avenue, and Cooper Square in the East Village of Manhattan. It is an "anti-establishment" coffee company and can be described as a shot across the bow to Starbucks, a store containing which is 500 feet (150 m) from the Mud Coffee stand. The company, started in 2001 by husband and wife team Greg Northrop and Nina Barott, is known for their coffee as well as their locally oriented approach to business. This grassroots approach to conducting sustainable business while remaining faithful to the eclectic nature of the neighborhood has earned Mud the title of official coffee of famous satirical newspaper The Onion and the endorsement of cultural jammer leader Reverend Billy, in addition to popularity within the neighborhood. According to Barott, a former advertising professional, and Northrop, a rock musician, the company name was chosen because Greg's Italian grandmother called her coffee mud. In addition to operating the original Astor Place truck, they also have another truck parked at Sheridan Square in the West Village, a cafe called Mudspot at East 9th Street and Second Avenue, and a coffee and espresso bar located inside the flagship store of bath/body company Kiehl's.
Café du Monde, is a coffee shop on Decatur Street in the French Quarter in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States. It is best known for its café au lait and its French-style beignets. The New Orleans-style coffee is blended with chicory. History: The French brought coffee with them as they began to settle along the Gulf Coast and the Mississippi River, circa 1700. During the American Civil War, the New Orleans Creoles developed the chicory-blended coffee (as there was a coffee shortage)—which has continued to be served at Café du Monde and other New Orleans restaurants. Chicory adds a chocolate-like flavor to café au lait. The Acadians (Cajuns) from Nova Scotia brought other French customs, such as the beignet, to Louisiana in the 18th century. Unlike most doughnuts, beignets are squared pieces of dough with no hole in the middle and are most often covered with powdered sugar. Sometimes they are seen served with fruit, jam, maple syrup, or even savory items. At Café du Monde, the beignets are served traditionally, with a thick covering of powdered sugar, in orders of three. The menu at Café du Monde is simple, as it only includes dark-roasted coffee with chicory, beignets, white and chocolate milk, hot chocolate, and fresh-squeezed orange juice. The coffee is served black or au lait. According to the Café du Monde’s vice president, Burton E. Benrud, Jr., the beignets remain the only food item on the French Market location's menu; and Café du Monde is committed to “keeping things the way they’ve always been: recipes have gone relatively unchanged.” Café du Monde is open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, except for Christmas Day and days when "the occasional hurricane passes too close to New Orleans", and is patronized by both locals and visitors. Post-Katrina: Due to Hurricane Katrina, the shop closed at midnight on August 27, 2005. Although it suffered only minor damage, it remained closed for nearly two months. Owners took advantage of the low-traffic interval afterwards to refurbish the eating areas and kitchens. Six weeks after the hurricane, Café du Monde began promoting its re-opening as a sign that the city’s recovery had begun. Over 100 news media outlets, including ABC-TV’s Good Morning America, reported on the event. The opening of Café du Monde post-Katrina gave the city of New Orleans the boost it needed following the natural disaster. The French Quarter location reopened on October 19, 2005, to national media attention. Locations: “The Butcher’s Hall” is the name of the original building in which the café housed itself. It was built by the Spanish in 1791 on the site of the very first French Market building; however, it was damaged by a hurricane in 1812. A new building went up in 1813. Now, the Café Du Monde stands in the same location and has been there since 1862. The location at the end of the French Market was established in 1862. For over a century it was one of two similar coffee-and-beignet places in the Market, the other being Morning Call, which was established in 1870 and moved out of the old French Market in 1974 to the suburban area of Metairie. Starting in the late 1980s, Café du Monde opened up additional locations in shopping malls. There are a total of eight Café du Monde coffee stand locations in the New Orleans metropolitan area: the original located in the French Market at 800 Decatur Street, Riverwalk Marketplace, Esplanade Mall, Lakeside Mall, Oakwood Mall, Veterans Boulevard, Mandeville, and Covington. Japanese franchise: Beginning with the 1984 Louisiana World Exposition in New Orleans, Café du Monde was approached by Japanese businesses interested in expanding the brand to Japan. In 1989 the Duskin Company formally contacted Café du Monde, and a franchise agreement was agreed in time for Duskin to open its first Japanese outlets in 1990. The franchise expanded to a peak of 32 locations, and as of 2014 has 21 locations in Japan. For the most part, the Japanese Café du Monde franchise has kept the same aesthetic as the original locations: green and white color scheme and the style of French Quarter architecture. Unlike the Café du Monde stores in Louisiana, the Japan franchise expanded the original menu by adding different varieties of beignets, but the Café du Monde coffee with chicory stays the same. Along with their varieties of beignet toppings, the Japanese franchise also offers seasonal desserts, which are not offered at Café du Monde in Louisiana. Online café: Café du Monde also sells merchandise on their original website. This includes the Café du Monde beignet mix, coffee, apparel, mugs, accessories, sweets, books, art, and gift baskets. Each different gift basket is named after the streets of the different locations. One could also become a member of the Café du Monde Coffee club. This offers three different plans to receive cans of both regular and chicory coffee every three months for one year. These plans include the Loyola Ave. Coffee Plan, Napoleon Ave. Coffee Plan, and Louisiana Ave. Coffee Plan. One could find step-by-step directions on how to make the Café du Monde beignets from the mix here. In popular culture: Café du Monde has appeared in multiple fictional depictions of the city including the "Dave Robicheaux" series of novels by James Lee Burke, and novels by John Connolly, Adam Gnade, Poppy Z. Brite, Sherrilyn Kenyon, Anne Rice, Kresley Cole and Nancy A. Collins. The café as it appeared in 1955 can be seen in an extended sequence in the William Castle film New Orleans Uncensored; and as it appeared shortly before Hurricane Katrina in two scenes in the 2003 movie Runaway Jury. The business is sung about in the Jimmy Buffett song, "The Wino and I Know." In a 2009 episode of Man v. Food centered in New Orleans, the restaurant is visited by Adam Richman. In the 2013 movie Now You See Me, the character Merritt McKinney played by Woody Harrelson performs his magic tricks inside the café. In addition, it is featured multiple times in the TV series Tremé. Cafe du Monde is prominently featured in the 2014 film Chef, directed by and starring Jon Favreau.
McCafé is a coffee-house-style food and drink chain, owned by McDonald's. Conceptualised and launched in Melbourne, Australia in 1993 by McDonald's Licensee Ann Brown, and introduced to the public with help from late McDonald's CEO Charlie Bell and then-Chairman and future CEO Jim Skinner, the chain reflects a consumer trend towards espresso coffees. Reports indicated that McCafé outlets generated 15% more revenue than a regular McDonald's and, by 2003, were the largest coffee shop brand in Australia and New Zealand. International expansion: The first one in the United States opening in Chicago, Illinois, in May 2001 when there were about 300 worldwide. In 2004 McCafé opened in Costa Rica and in France, and the next year, the concept was launched in Italy. In 2007, the chain expanded to Japan as part of McDonald's efforts to boost sales with healthier soup and sandwich offerings and reach out to new customers who favoured traditional coffee shops. Despite being a relatively small part of McDonald's overall strategy, there are currently 1,300 worldwide. In June 2006 the very first McCafé in Bulgaria opened at the Mall of Sofia. McCafé arrived In Paraguay in 2007. McDonald's introduced a coffee line called "McCafé" nationwide in the United States. Unlike in other countries, "McCafé" is just a line of special drinks, not a full coffee shop. In August 2008, McDonald's expanded their McCafé concept to South Africa, where the McDonald's franchise is already a household name and one of the largest fast-food chains in the country. At the end of 2009 McCafé drinks were available at McDonald's restaurants in the U.S.A. McCafé opened in El Salvador on July 6, 2010, located in McDonald's restaurants in the Zona Rosa and Próceres Boulevard with the goal of providing the aroma, flavor and texture of 100% Salvadorian gourmet coffee. McCafé opened in Madrid, Spain on June 28, 2008, located in McDonald's Montera restaurants. In 2011 McDonald's started expansion of McCafé in Ukraine. There are 6 McCafés in Kyiv, 1 in Lviv, 1 in Odesa, 1 in Dnipropetrovsk and 1 in Kharkiv as of January, 2014. In July 2010 the McCafé added real fruit smoothies to their drink list. In November 2010 they added mocha and hot chocolate to their drink list. In July 2011 they added Frozen Strawberry Lemonade and the Mango Pineapple Smoothie to the U.S. menu. On November 7, 2011, McDonald's Canada launched McCafé across the nation after being available only in select stores prior to this announcement. With the introduction of McCafé in Canada, participating McDonald's stores have added mocha, cappuccino, espresso, americano, latte, iced latte, iced mocha and hot chocolate to their menus. With McCafé, McDonald's is now in direct competition with Coffee Time, Country Style, Second Cup, Starbucks, Tim Hortons, and Timothy's in the Canadian coffee market. On June 16, 2012, McDonald's launched the first McCafé Malaysia in Kota Damansara, with a few others subsequently opening in the Bandar Utama, Subang Jaya, Titiwangsa, and Taman Connaught outlets - all currently located in Klang Valley as well as in Greenlane, Birch House, IJM Promenade and Penang International Airport - all in Penang. In Turkey, McCafé operates under the name "McD Café". The first coffee shop opened in July 2012 at Sabiha Gökçen Airport. As of April 2016, there are 8 Mcd Cafés on the Asian side of Istanbul, 6 on the European side, 3 in Antalya, 2 each in Adana and Kocaeli, and one each in Afyonkarahisar, Aksaray, Ankara and Kırşehir. In December 2012, McDonald's announced that it would be bringing the McCafé brand and line of products to all of the McDonald's restaurants in the United Kingdom. This would include the addition of iced frappés, iced fruit smoothies and a rebranding of the standard McDonald's coffee to "McCafé." On October 14, 2013, McDonald's launched the first McCafé India in the South Mumbai district of Maharashtra. In August 2014, the company announced it was going to start to selling its coffee for home brewing in supermarkets across the United States. Manufactured and distributed in partnership with Kraft Foods, the coffee is currently available in prepackaged bags and K-Cups. In December 2015, McDonald's Canada opened its first standalone McCafe store in Toronto Union Station's newly built York concourse area.
The rape and murder of Jennifer Ertman and Elizabeth Peña, two teenage girls from Houston, Texas, occurred on June 24, 1993. The murder of the two girls made headlines in Texas newspapers due to the nature of the crime and the new law resulting from the murder that allows families of the victims to view the execution of the murderers. The case was also notable in that the state of Texas rejected attempts by the International Court of Justice to halt the executions of several of the perpetrators. Murder: On June 24, 1993, Jennifer Lee Ertman and Elizabeth Christine Peña, Waltrip High School students, were attending a pool party of a friend who lived in the Spring Hill Apartments. The pair realized that they were going to be late returning home and decided to leave the party. In order to meet an 11 p.m. curfew, Ertman and Peña decided to take a 10-minute shortcut to Peña's residence in Oak Forest by following the railroad tracks and then passing through T.C. Jester Park. The girls walked along the White Oak Bayou when they encountered gang members drinking beer after holding a gang initiation. The gang captured Peña, and Ertman was captured after she ran to her friend as she screamed. Six gang members raped the girls repeatedly. After realizing that the girls might identify them, Peter Anthony Cantu, a leader of the gang, ordered the members to kill the girls, so the members strangled them to death. Derrick Sean O'Brien and Raul Omar Villarreal strangled Ertman with a red nylon belt before the belt broke; then the gang members used shoelaces. Cantu, José Medellín, and Efrain Perez strangled Peña with shoelaces. The members then stomped on the girls' throats to ensure their deaths. Cantu, Medellín, Perez, and Villareal then congregated at Cantu's residence, where he lived with his brother, Joe Cantu, and sister-in-law, Christina Cantu. Christina Cantu questioned why Villareal was bleeding and Perez had a bloody shirt. This prompted Medellín to say the gang "had fun," and that details would appear on the news. He then elaborated that he had raped both girls. Peter Cantu then returned, and divided valuables that had been stolen from the girls. Medellín got a ring with an "E", so he could give it to his girlfriend, Esther. Medellín reported that he had killed a girl, and noted that he would have found it easier with a gun. Derrick Sean O'Brien was videotaped smiling at the scene of the crime. After the gang left, Christina Cantu convinced Joe Cantu to report the crime to police. Four days after the crime, the bodies were found in the park during hot weather conditions. They were badly decaying, and dental records were used for identification. The medical examiner corroborated that the cause of death was strangulation. All those believed responsible were ultimately arrested. Medellín gave both a written and taped confession. Sentencing, incarceration, and execution: The offenders were sentenced into the Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ) system. Peter Cantu, José Ernesto Medellín, Derrick Sean O'Brien, Efrain Perez, and Raul Omar Villareal received death sentences. Venancio Medellín, the brother of José Medellín, was 14 at the time of the murder. Venancio received a 40 year prison sentence. When the Supreme Court of the United States banned the executions of people who committed crimes while they were below 18 years of age, the sentences of Perez and Villareal were commuted to life in prison. O'Brien, the only black member of the gang, was the first to be executed, in July 2006. José Medellín appealed his execution, saying that he had informed City of Houston and Harris County police officers that he was a Mexican citizen, and that he had been unable to confer with Mexican consular officials. The prosecutors said that Medellín never told authorities that he was a Mexican citizen. Medellín said in a sworn statement that he learned that the Mexican consulate could assist him in 1997. He petitioned the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals in 1998 regarding this issue; the appeal failed. José Medellín's impending execution became an international controversy, since the state did not hold a hearing about whether the inability for Medellín to meet with Mexican consular officials harmed his defense. The right of a defendant to talk with his or her consulate is specified in the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations; the United States is a party to the convention, although the U.S. withdrew from compulsory jurisdiction in 1986 to accept the court's jurisdiction only on a case-by-case basis In 2004 the International Court of Justice responded to a lawsuit filed by Mexico against the United States; the court ordered hearings to be held for inmates, including Medellín, who were denied consular rights. In 2005 President of the United States George W. Bush ordered hearings to be held. The State of Texas, represented by Solicitor General Ted Cruz, challenged Bush's order, and the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that only the Congress of the United States has the right to order hearings to be held. In July the World Court ordered a stay of Medellín's execution. Governor Rick Perry argued that Texas is not bound to World Court rulings. Death penalty opponents protested the impending execution. The parents of both Jennifer Ertman and Elizabeth Peña strongly favored the execution(s). Randy Ertman, father of Jennifer Ertman, wanted to have Andy Kahan, the City of Houston's crime advocate, witness the execution of José Medellín. TDCJ refused to permit Kahan to witness the execution. Michelle Lyons, a TCDJ official, said that Tropical Storm Edouard would likely not be a factor preventing the execution of Medellín. José Ernesto Medellín was executed at 9:57 p.m. on August 5, 2008, after his last-minute appeals were rejected by the Supreme Court. Governor Perry rejected calls from Mexico and Washington, D.C. to delay the execution, citing the torture, rape and strangulation of two teenage girls in Houston 15 years ago as just cause for the death penalty. Peter Anthony Cantu was executed seventeen years after the crimes on August 17, 2010. The lethal injection was performed at 6:09 p.m. and at 6:17 p.m. Cantu was pronounced dead. During his lifetime Randy Ertman, father of Jennifer Ertman, advocated strongly against granting parole to Venancio Medellín. Aftermath: The parents of the murder victims successfully advocated for the State of Texas allowing relatives of victims to have permission to witness executions. Before the murder happened, City of Houston officials had stated that gangs were not a significant issue in the city. C.E. Anderson, a Houston Police Department officer who worked on the murder case, described the murder as "part of the impetus for the anti-gang programs in Houston." Jennifer Latson of the Houston Chronicle said that the deaths of the girls "shook" the Oak Forest neighborhood of Houston "to its foundation." Waltrip High School contains a memorial to the girls. Another memorial exists at T.C. Jester Park. One of the perpetrators, Derrick Sean O'Brien, was buried in the Captain Joe Byrd Cemetery in Huntsville after his execution.
In the Latter Day Saint movement, the Presiding Patriarch (also called Presiding Evangelist, Patriarch over the Church, Patriarch of the Church, or Patriarch to the Church) is a church-wide leadership office within the priesthood. Among the duties of the Presiding Patriarch are to preside in council meetings, ordain other patriarchs, and administer patriarchal blessings. Originally, the office of Presiding Patriarch was one of the highest and most important offices of the church's priesthood. The role was equated by Joseph Smith with Biblical patriarchs from Adam to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and it was expected that the office would descend through lineal succession from father to son. This precedent was set when Hyrum Smith, Joseph's brother, became the second Presiding Patriarch because he was the eldest surviving son of the first Presiding Patriarch, Joseph Smith, Sr. When the office was given to Hyrum, he was given "keys of the patriarchal priesthood over the kingdom of God on earth, even the Church of the Latter Day Saints." Thus, some have argued that Presiding Patriarch is an office of the Patriarchal Priesthood. However, the existence and meaning of the Patriarchal Priesthood is controversial and uncertain. Community of Christ In the major denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement, the role of the Presiding Patriarch diminished substantially after the death of Hyrum Smith. Today, the Community of Christ, formerly the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (RLDS), ordains a Presiding Evangelist who plays an important role as a world church leader, but it is not required that the person be a descendant of Joseph Smith's family. That tradition was discontinued in 1958 when RLDS Prophet-Presidents W. Wallace Smith, a grandson of Joseph Smith, presented Roy Cheville as a successor to Elbert A. Smith. Unlike Elbert A. Smith, Cheville was not a descendant of Joseph Smith, Sr. Prior to 1984 Presiding Patriarch and Presiding Evangelist were used interchangeably for the one presiding over the Order of Evangelists. In 1984, the Community of Christ dropped its use of the name Presiding Evangelist for this role, along with the change of name of the local office from Evangelist-Patriarch to simply Evangelist. The current Presiding Evangelist of the Community of Christ is David R. Brock. Role within the Community of Christ: Within the international leadership Councils, Quorums, and Orders of the Community of Christ, the Presiding Evangelist serves as a spiritual companion, counselor and guide to the church and its leaders, and to the Order of Evangelists in fulfilling the significant ministry they provide, especially what the church considers "a time of transformation and change". According to the church, Evangelists are ordained to be ministers of blessing, witnessing of Jesus Christ and responsive to the reconciling and redeeming influence of the Holy Spirit in the lives of persons, serving in multiple ministries according to the unique gifts and callings of each evangelist. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints- Role within The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints: When a Presiding Patriarch has existed, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) has sustained the person as a prophet, seer, and revelator. In the history of the LDS Church, there have been eight Presiding Patriarchs, three Acting Presiding Patriarchs, and one Patriarch Emeritus. The LDS Church effectively discontinued the office of Presiding Patriarch in 1979, indicating enough local patriarchs existed so that the church-wide position was no longer needed. Until that time, the role and duties of the office had varied. The Presiding Patriarch sometimes appointed local patriarchs in the church's stakes and presided over them as a loose "Quorum of Patriarchs." Like the local patriarchs, the Presiding Patriarch was also empowered to give patriarchal blessings.
A skirt is a tube- or cone-shaped garment that hangs from the waist or hips and covers all or part of the legs. The hemline of skirts can vary from micro to floor-length and can vary according to cultural conceptions of modesty and aesthetics as well as the wearer's personal taste, which can be influenced by such factors as fashion and social context. Most skirts are self-standing garments, but some skirt-looking panels may be part of another garment such as leggings, shorts, and swimsuits. In the western world, skirts are more commonly worn by women; with some exceptions such as the izaar which is worn by Muslim cultures and the kilt which is a traditional men's garment in Scotland and Ireland. Some fashion designers, such as Jean Paul Gaultier, have shown men's skirts. Other cultures traditionally wear skirts. At its simplest, a skirt can be a draped garment made out of a single piece of material (such as pareos), but most skirts are fitted to the body at the waist or hips and fuller below, with the fullness introduced by means of darts, gores, pleats, or panels. Modern skirts are usually made of light to mid-weight fabrics, such as denim, jersey, worsted, or poplin. Skirts of thin or clingy fabrics are often worn with slips to make the material of the skirt drape better and for modesty. History A straw-woven skirt dating to 3900 BC was discovered in Armenia at the Areni-1 cave complex. Skirts have been worn by men and women from many cultures, such as the lungi, lehnga, kanga and sarong worn in South Asia and Southeast Asia, and the kilt worn in Scotland and Ireland. The earliest known culture to have females wear clothing resembling miniskirts were the Duan Qun Miao (短裙苗), which literally meant "short skirt Miao" in Chinese. This was in reference to the short miniskirts "that barely cover the buttocks" worn by women of the tribe, and which were "probably shocking" to observers in medieval and early modern times. In the Middle Ages, some upper-class women wore skirts over three metres in diameter at the bottom. At the other extreme, the miniskirts of the 1960s were minimal garments that may have barely covered the underwear when seated. Costume historians[who?] typically use the word "petticoat" to describe skirt-like garments of the 18th century or earlier. 19th century During the 19th century, the cut of women's dresses in western culture varied more widely than in any other century. Waistlines started just below the bust (the Empire silhouette) and gradually sank to the natural waist. Skirts started fairly narrow and increased dramatically to the hoopskirt and crinoline-supported styles of the 1860s; then fullness was draped and drawn to the back by means of bustles. In the 1890s the rainy daisy skirt was introduced for walking or sportswear. It had a significantly shorter hemline measuring as much as six inches off the ground and would eventually influence the wider introduction of shorter hemlines in the early 20th century. 20th and 21st centuries Beginning around 1915, hemlines for daytime dresses left the floor for good. For the next fifty years fashionable skirts became short (1920s), then long (1930s), then shorter (the War Years with their restrictions on fabric), then long (the "New Look"), then shortest of all from 1967 to 1970, when skirts became as short as possible while avoiding exposure of underwear, which was considered taboo. Since the 1970s and the rise of pants/trousers for women as an option for all but the most formal of occasions, no one skirt length has dominated fashion for long, with short and ankle-length styles often appearing side-by-side in fashion magazines and catalogs. Basic types A-line skirt, a skirt with a slight flare, roughly in the shape of a capital letter A Bell-shaped skirt, flared noticeably from the waist but then, unlike a church bell, cylindrical for much of its length Circle skirt, a skirt cut in sections to make one or more circles with a hole for the waist, so the skirt is very full but hangs smoothly from the waist without darts, pleats, or gathers Culottes, a form of divided skirt constructed like a pair of shorts, but hanging like a skirt. Full skirt, a skirt with fullness gathered into the waistband Pleated skirt, a skirt with fullness reduced to fit the waist by means of regular pleats ('plaits') or folds, which can be stitched flat to hip-level or free-hanging Short skirt, a skirt with hemline above the knee Straight skirt or Pencil skirt, a tailored skirt hanging straight from the hips and fitted from the waist to the hips by means of darts or a yoke; may have a vent or kick-pleat set in the hem for ease of walking Wrap or wraparound skirt, a skirt that wraps around the waist with an overlap of material Fads and fashions -Ballerina skirt, a mid-calf full skirt popular in the 1950s. -Broomstick skirt, a light-weight ankle-length skirt with many crumpled pleats formed by compressing and twisting the garment while wet, such as around a broomstick. (1980s and on) -Bubble dress/skirt, a voluminous skirt whose hem is tucked back under to create a “bubble effect” at the bottom. -Cargo skirt, a plain utilitarian skirt with belt loops and numerous large pockets, based on the military style of Cargo pants and popularised in the 1990s. -Crinoline, a very full skirt supported by hoops or multiple petticoats, popular at various times from the mid 19th century onwards. -Dirndl skirt, a skirt in the German-Austrian dirndl style, made of a straight length of fabric gathered at the waist -Denim skirt (or jeans skirt), a skirt made of denim, often designed like 5-pocket jeans, but found in a large variety of styles. -Hobble skirt, a long and tight skirt with a hem narrow enough to significantly impede the wearer's stride -Kilt-skirt, a wrap-around skirt with overlapping aprons in front and pleated around the back. Though traditionally designed as women's wear, it is fashioned to mimic the general appearance of a man's kilt. -Leather skirt, a skirt made of leather -Lehenga (also Ghagra; Garara), a long, pleated skirt, often embroidered, worn mostly as the bottom part of the Gagra choli in North India and Pakistan. -Micromini, an extremely short miniskirt. -Mini-crini, a mini-length version of the crinoline, designed by Vivienne Westwood in the mid 1980s. -Poodle skirt, a circle or near-circle skirt with an appliqued poodle or other decoration (1950s) -Puffball skirt (also called "puff" or "pouf"), a bouffant skirt caught in at the hem to create a puffed silhouette. Popular in the mid-late 1980s when it was inspired by Westwood's "mini-crini". -Rah-rah skirt, a short, tiered, and often colourful skirt fashionable in the early-mid-1980s. -Sarong, a square or rectangle of fabric wrapped around the body and tied on one hip to create a skirt that can be worn by both sexes -Scooter skirt or skort (variant), a skirt that has an attached pair of shorts underneath for modesty. Alternatively, but with similar effect, a pair of shorts incorporating a skirt-like flap across the front of the body. -Skater skirt, a short, high-waisted circle skirt with a hemline above the knee, often made of lighter materials to give the flowing effect that mimics the skirts of figure skaters. -T-skirt, made from a tee-shirt, the T-skirt is generally modified to result in a pencil skirt, with invisible zippers, full length two-way separating side zippers, as well as artful fabric overlays and yokes. -Tiered skirt, made of several horizontal layers, each wider than the one above, and divided by stitching. Layers may look identical in solid-colored garments, or may differ when made of printed fabrics. -Prairie skirt (variant), a flared skirt with one or more flounces or tiers (1970s and on) -Trouser skirt or cullotte, a straight skirt with the part above the hips tailored like men's trousers, with belt loops, pockets, and fly front. Male wear: There are a number of garments marketed to men which fall under the category of "skirt" or "dress". These go by a variety of names and form part of the traditional dress for men from various cultures. Usage varies – the dhoti is part of everyday dress on the Indian subcontinent while the kilt is more usually restricted to occasional wear and the foustanella is used almost exclusively as costume. Robes, which are a type of dress for men, have existed in many cultures, including the Japanese kimono, the Chinese cheongsam, the Arabic thobe, and the African Senegalese kaftan. Robes are also used in some religious orders, such as the cassock in Christianity and various robes and cloaks that may be used in pagan rituals. Examples of men's skirts and skirt-like garments from various cultures include: -The fustanella is worn by men in Greece and other parts of the Balkans. By the mid-20th Century, it was relegated to ceremonial use and as period or traditional costume. -The gho is a knee-length robe worn by men in Bhutan. They are required to wear it every day as part of national dress in government offices, in schools and on formal occasions. -The kilt is a skirt of Gaelic and Celtic history, part of the Scottish national dress in particular, and is worn formally and to a lesser extent informally. Irish and Welsh kilts also exist but are not so much a part of national identity. -The sarong is a piece of cloth that may be wrapped around the waist to form a skirt-like garment. Sarongs exist in various cultures under various names, including the pareo and lavalava of the Hawaiian islands and Polynesia (Samoa, Tonga, Tahiti, and Fiji), the Indian dhoti and lungi, and the South Indian and Maldivian mundu. Aside from the wearing of kilts, in the Western world skirts, dresses, and similar garments are commonly considered primarily women's clothing – which, historically, was not always the case.
A blouse is a loose-fitting upper garment that was formerly worn by workmen, peasants, artists, women and children. It is typically gathered at the waist or hips (by a waistband or belt) so that it hangs loosely ("blouses") over the wearer's body. Today, the word most commonly refers to a girl's or woman's dress shirt but can also refer to a man's shirt if it is a loose-fitting style (e.g. poet shirts and Cossack shirts). Traditionally, the term has been used to refer to a shirt which blouses out or has an unmistakably feminine appearance. The term is also used for some men's military uniform jackets. Etymology: Blouse is a loanword to English from French: blouse means "dust coat". It possibly was brought back from their travels by French Crusaders. They moved on their armor a so-called "p(e)lusisian shirt", a blue-colored gowns to the dust, which had its name from the Egyptian town of Pelusium. The derivation may also be from "wool", blouso "short wool" and blos, blouse "deprived, naked" taken off (Provençal dialect). It is first officially noted in 1828, from French blouse ("a workman's or peasant's smock"), of obscure Occitan route. Description and history: Blouses (pronounced blause or blooze) are historically a cask style, mostly mail-like garment, that were rarely part of the fashionable woman's wardrobe until the 1890s. Before that time, they were occasionally popular for informal wear in styles that echoed peasant or traditional clothing, such as the Garibaldi shirt of the 1860. During the later Victorian period blouses became common for informal, practical wear. A simple blouse with a plain skirt was the standard dress for the newly expanded female (non-domestic) workforce of the 1890s, especially for those employed in office work. In the 1900s and 1910s, elaborate blouses, such as the "lingerie blouse" (so-called because they were heavily decorated with lace and embroidery in a style formerly restricted to underwear) and the "Gibson Girl blouse" with tucks and pleating, became immensely popular for daywear and even some informal evening wear. Since then, blouses have remained a wardrobe staple, so by now blouses have not ceased to be fixed in the "popular cloakroom" style. Blouses are often made of cotton or silk cloth and may or may not include a collar and sleeves. They are generally more tailored than simple knit tops, and may contain feminine details such as ruffles, a tie or a soft bow at the neck, or embroidered decorations. Tailoring provides a closer fit to the wearer's shape. This is achieved with sewing of features such as princess seams or darting in the waist and/or bust. Blouses (and many women's shirts with buttons) usually have buttons reversed from that of men's shirts (except in the case of male military fatigues). That is, the buttons are normally on the wearer's left-hand and the buttonholes are on the right. The reasons for this are unclear, and several theories exist without have conclusive evidence. Some suggest this custom was introduced by launderers so they could distinguish between women's and men's shirts. One theory purports that the tradition arose in the Middle Ages when one manner of manifesting wealth was by the number of buttons one wore. Another that the original design was based on armour which was designed so that a right-handed opponent would not catch their weapon in the seam and tear through,and that a person could draw a weapon with their right-hand without catching it in a loose seam of their own clothes. Female servants were in charge of buttoning their mistress's gowns (since the buttons were usually in the back). They tired of attempting to deal with buttons that were, from their point of view, backwards and, as such they started reversing the placement when making or repairing them. Another possible reason is so that men can easily undo blouses as, from the front, buttons are on the same side as a man's shirt. One other theory is that women were normally dressed by their maids, while men dressed themselves. As such, women's blouses were designed so it could be easily buttoned by the maid but that of men were designed so it could be easily buttoned by the person wearing it. Although in all the cases proposed the reasons for the distinction no longer exist, it continues out of custom or tradition. While most women prefer to have the top button open for better comfort, some blouses made for women have looser necklines so the top button can be fastened without compromising comfort, but giving the same stylish appearance. Some women attach various pins and ornaments to their blouses over a fastened top button for style. Some of these attach directly to the button itself, others to the collars. Some blouses do not have a top button at all, and collars are styled to be open. They also form part of some nations' traditional folk costume. Styles since World War Two: Various new and different forms of collar emerged in the 1920s. They diminished in sizes by the 1950s, but were huge in the 1930s. At the beginning of the 1970s, popular styles included the rounded collar, sausage dog collar, then extra wide collar and double cuffs from shirts, that fell on them often from fashions relating to synthetic fabrics like usually polyester. The fashion of standing and federal collar, loops, rounded collars, haemoglobin collars, and the smallest collar, sometimes with concealed button fly on a "smoking blouse", attached folds and stressed set-in-followed in the 1980s. Again, thin and often shining synthetic fibres were very popular. Towards the end of the 20th Century, they were of an extra-long blouses of pants style and worn over trousers or skirt worn, optionally combined with a rather wide belt around the waist in the Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, Poland, the UK, Ireland, South Africa and the USA. The sleeves had been shortened during the early 1950s to the ½ and ¼ length in Europe. They were reduced again in the mid-1990s and are now regularly at the ⅞, ½, ⅓ and ¼ length around the world. As the eye will be drawn to the naked flesh below the sleeve, designers often use sleeve length to focus the minds eye on the slimmer parts of the arm, particularly short sleeve blouses below the elbow to give the illusion of a slimmer arm. Sleeveless tops were fashionable and a topical item in Western Europe and America during the mid-2000s. Many fashionable styles of both the 1970s and 1980s were on the go again after the millennium in the blouse fashion: double cuffs, extra wide pointed collar, belt around the waist, synthetic fibre and the like. Often the blouses also embroidery or "crystal stocking", have especially on collar and string. The blouses with the so-called three-quarter arm were a striking phenomenon of the 1990s. Blouses can be combined well and easily with a blazer, tank top, bolero or sweater, with or without some colourful silks or bead chain necklaces. Eco movement: As part of the Eco movement's folk blouses for women were cut from natural materials such as flax, linen and cotton. Men also wore these "Frisian blouses" on occasion. The blouse jacket or blouson: The blouse jacket or blouson is garment drawn tight at the waist with blousing hanging over the waist band. The new style of man's chetten lose blouse coat is made of stronger material or with inner lining, which can be worn alone or as a jacket or over a separate top is related to. It is related to the Eisenhower jacket. Use in Aboyne dress: In one version, a tartan pattern skirt is worn with an over-the-shoulder plaid, a white blouse and petticoat, and a velvet bodice. The alternative is a white dress over a petticoat, together with a tartan pattern sash. A typical Aboyne dress consists of a dark bodice or elaborate waistcoat, decorative blouse, full tartan skirt and some times a petticoat and apron. Some have a tartan sash (usually draped over the shoulder and coming down towards the hem of the skirt in the back) rather than an apron. Use with a dirndl: A woman wearing a dirndl with white blouse is usual in Bavaria and rural Austria. They are usually made of light fabric (textile), such as silk or cotton thin, until the early 1990s still often from soft covered by art faserstoffen (such as polyester and satin). They often have fanciful decorations (such as frills, embroidery, or grinding) and are a classic among the women's blouses—here the fashionable combination possibilities are especially varied. The open Spaten—or lapel collar—is another common type of a classic ladies blouse. The choli: A choli is a midriff-baring blouse shell garment in the Indian sari costume worn in India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and other countries where the sari is worn. The choli is cut to fit tightly to the body and has short sleeves and a low neck. The choli is usually cropped, allowing exposure of the navel; the cropped design is particularly well-suited for wear in the hot South Asian summers. Cut-out backs and front-opening buttons are some of the features of contemporary designs. Saris are often woven with an extra length of material meant to be cut off and fashioned into a matching choli. The choli may be sewn so that the elaborately woven borders of the sari material form the bottom edges of the choli sleeves. However, cholis need not match the sari. There is a growing trend towards stretchy, comfortable cholis made from knit materials.
Wednesday, June 29, 2016
In modern usage, the term "Bohemian" is applied to people who live unconventional, usually artistic, lives. The adherents of the "Bloomsbury Group", which formed around the Stephen sisters, Vanessa Bell and Virginia Woolf in the early 20th century, are among the best-known examples. The original "Bohemians" were travellers or refugees from central Europe (hence, the French bohémien, for "gypsy"). Reflecting on the fashion style of "boho-chic" in the early years of the 21st century, the Sunday Times thought it ironic that "fashionable girls wore ruffly floral skirts in the hope of looking bohemian, nomadic, spirited and non-bourgeois", whereas "gypsy girls themselves ... are sexy and delightful precisely because they do not give a hoot for fashion". By contrast, in the late 19th century and first half of the 20th, aspects of Bohemian fashion reflected the lifestyle itself. Since the 1960s: hippie/boho-chic: Journalist Bob Stanley remarked that "the late 1960s are never entirely out of fashion, they just need a fresh angle to make them de jour". Thus, the features of hippie fashion re-emerged at various stages during the ensuing forty years. In the mid-to-late 1980s, variants of the short and fundamentally un-Bohemian rah-rah skirt (which originated with cheerleaders) were combined with leather or demin to create a look with some Bohemian or even gothic features (for example, by the singing duo Strawberry Switchblade who took inspiration from 1970s punk fashion). In the 1990s the term, "hippie chic", was applied to Tom Ford’s collections for the Italian house of Gucci. These drew on, among other influences, the style, popular in retrospect, of Talitha Getty (died 1971), actress wife of John Paul Getty and step-granddaughter of Dorelia McNeil, who was represented most famously in a photograph of her and her husband taken by Patrick Lichfield in Marrakesh, Morocco in 1969. Recalling the influx of hippies into Marrakesh in 1968, Richard Neville, then editor of Oz, wrote that "the dapper drifters in embroidered skirts and cowboy boots were so delighted by the bright satin '50s underwear favoured by the matrons of Marrakesh that they wore them outside their denims à la Madonna the singer twenty-five years later". In the early 21st century, "boho-chic" was associated initially with supermodel Kate Moss and then, as a highly popular style in 2004-5, with actress Sienna Miller. In America similar styles were sometimes referred to as "bobo-" or "ashcan chic", or "luxe grunge", their leading proponents including actresses Mary-Kate Olsen and Zooey Deschanel. As if to illustrate the cyclical nature of fashion, by the end of the noughties strong pre-Raphaelite traits were notable in, among others, singer Florence Welch and model Karen Elson.
Boho-chic is a style of fashion drawing on various bohemian and hippie influences, which, at its height in late 2005 was associated particularly with actress Sienna Miller and model Kate Moss in England and (as "bobo" chic) actress and businesswoman Mary-Kate Olsen in the United States. It has been seen since the early 1990s and, although appearing to wane from time to time, has repeatedly re-surfaced in varying guises. Many elements of boho-chic became popular in the late 1960s and some date back much further, being associated, for example, with pre-Raphaelite women of the mid-to-late 19th century. Lexicography- "Boho": "Boho" is an abbreviation of bohemian. Vanessa Nicholson (granddaughter of Vanessa Bell, one of the pivotal figures of the unconventional, but influential "Bloomsbury Group" in the first half of the 20th century) has described it as a "curious slippery adjective". Although the original Bohemians were travellers or refugees from central Europe (the French bohémien translates as "Gypsy or Roma people"), the term has, as Nicholson noted, "attached itself to individuals as disparate as Shakespeare and Sherlock Holmes". The writer and historian A. N. Wilson remarked that, "in his dress-sense as in much else", Winston Churchill was "pre-First World War Bohemian", his unbleached linen suit causing surprise when he arrived in Canada in 1943. In Arthur Conan Doyle's first short story about Holmes for The Strand, Doctor Watson noted that the detective "loathed every form of society with his whole Bohemian soul" and "remained in our lodgings in Baker-street, buried among his old books and alternating from week to week between cocaine and ambition..". Designer Savannah Miller, elder sister of actress Sienna Miller, described a "real bohemian" as "someone who has the ability to appreciate beauty on a deep level, is a profound romantic, doesn't know any limits, whose world is their own creation, rather than living in a box". "Chic": "Chic" was borrowed from French in the late 19th century and has come to mean stylish or elegant.
Chic, meaning "stylish" or "smart", is an element of fashion. Etymology: Chic is a French word, established in English since at least the 1870s. Early references in English dictionaries classified it as slang and New Zealand-born lexicographer Eric Partridge noted, with reference to its colloquial meaning, that it was "not so used in French." Gustave Flaubert notes in Madame Bovary (published in 1856) that "chicard" (one who is chic) is then Parisian very current slang for "classy" noting, perhaps derisively, perhaps not, that it was bourgeoisie. There is a similar word in German, schick, with a meaning similar to chic, which may be the origin of the word in French; another theory links chic to the word chicane. Although the French pronunciation (shēk or "sheek") is now virtually standard and was that given by Fowler, chic was often rendered in the anglicised form of "chick". In a fictional vignette for Punch (c. 1932) Mrs F. A. Kilpatrick attributed to a young woman who 70 years later would have been called a "chavette" the following assertion: "It 'asn't go no buttons neither ... That's the latest ideer. If you want to be chick you just 'ang on to it, it seems". By contrast, in Anita Loos' novel, Gentlemen Prefer Blondes (1925), the diarist Lorelei Lee recorded that "the French use the word 'sheik' for everything, while we only seem to use if for gentlemen when they seem to resemble Rudolf Valentino" (a pun derived from the latter's being the star of the 1921 silent film, The Sheik). The Oxford Dictionary gives the comparative and superlative forms of chic as chicer and chicest. These are wholly English words: the French equivalents would be plus chic and le/la plus chic. Super-chic is sometimes used: "super-chic Incline bucket in mouth-blown, moulded glass" An adverb chicly has also appeared: "Pamela Gross ... turned up chicly dressed down". The use of the French très chic (very chic) by an English speaker – "Luckily it's très chic to be neurotic in New York" – is usually rather pretentious, but sometimes merely facetious—Micky Dolenz of The Monkees described ironically the Indian-style suit he wore at the Monterey Pop Festival in 1967 as "très chic". Über-chic is roughly the mock-German equivalent: "Like his clubs, it's super-modern, über-chic, yet still comfortable". The opposite of "chic" is unchic: "the then uncrowded, unchic little port of St Tropez". Quotes: Over the years "chic" has been applied to, among other things, social events, situations, individuals, and modes or styles of dress. It was one of a number of "slang words" that H. W. Fowler linked to particular professions – specifically, to "society journalism" – with the advice that, if used in such a context, "familiarity will disguise and sometimes it will bring out its slanginess." -In 1887 The Lady noted that "the ladies of New York ... think no form of entertainment so chic as a luncheon party." -Forty years later, in E. F. Benson's novel Lucia in London (1927), Lucia was aware that the arrival of a glittering array of guests before their hostess for an impromptu post-opera gathering was "the most chic informality that it was possible to conceive." -In the 1950s, Edith Head designed a classic dress, worn by Audrey Hepburn in the film Sabrina (1954), of which she remarked, "If it had been worn by somebody with no chic it would never have become a style." -By the turn of the 21st century, the travel company Thomas Cook was advising those wishing to sample the nightlife of the sophisticated Mediterranean resort of Monte Carlo that "casual is fine (except at the Casino) but make it expensive, and very chic, casual if you want to blend in." -According to American magazine Harper's Bazaar (referring to the "dramatic simplicity" of the day-wear of couturier Cristóbal Balenciaga, 1895–1972), "elimination is the secret of chic."
Starbucks Corporation is an American coffee company and coffeehouse chain. Starbucks was founded in Seattle, Washington in 1971. Today it operates 23,768 locations worldwide, including 13,107 (+170) in the United States, 2,204 (+86) in China, 1,418 (-12) in Canada, 1,160 (+2) in Japan and 872 in South Korea (bumping United Kingdom from 5th place) (Differences reflect growth since Jan 8, 2016). Starbucks is considered the main representative of "second wave coffee", initially distinguishing itself from other coffee-serving venues in the US by taste, quality, and customer experience, while popularizing darkly roasted coffee. Since the 2000s, third wave coffee makers have targeted quality-minded coffee drinkers with hand-made coffee based on lighter roasts, while Starbucks nowadays used automated espresso machines for efficiency and safety reasons. Starbucks locations serve hot and cold drinks, whole-bean coffee, microground instant coffee known as VIA, espresso, caffe latte, full- and loose-leaf teas including Teavana tea products, Evolution Fresh juices, Frappuccino beverages, pastries, and snacks; some offerings (including their Pumpkin Spice Latte) are seasonal or specific to the locality of the store. Many stores sell pre-packaged food items, hot and cold sandwiches, and drinkware including mugs and tumblers; select "Starbucks Evenings" locations offer beer, wine, and appetizers. Starbucks-brand coffee, ice cream and bottled cold coffee drinks are also sold at grocery stores. Starbucks first became profitable in Seattle in the early 1980s, and despite an initial economic downturn with its expansion into the Midwest and British Columbia in the late 1980s, the company experienced revitalized prosperity with its entry into California in the early 1990s. The first Starbucks location outside North America opened in Tokyo in 1996; overseas properties now constitute almost one third of its stores. The company had opened an average of two new locations daily between 1987 and 2007. History- Founding: The first Starbucks opened in Seattle, Washington, on March 31, 1971, by three partners who met while they were students at the University of San Francisco: English teacher Jerry Baldwin, history teacher Zev Siegl, and writer Gordon Bowker. The three were inspired to sell high-quality coffee beans and equipment by coffee roasting entrepreneur Alfred Peet after he taught them his style of roasting beans. The company took the name of the chief mate in the book Moby-Dick: Starbuck, after considering "Cargo House" and "Pequod". Bowker recalls that Terry Heckler, with whom Bowker owned an advertising agency, thought words beginning with "st" were powerful. The founders brainstormed a list of words beginning with "st". Someone pulled out an old mining map of the Cascade Range and saw a mining town named "Starbo", which immediately put Bowker in mind of the character "Starbuck". Bowker said, "Moby-Dick didn't have anything to do with Starbucks directly; it was only coincidental that the sound seemed to make sense." The first Starbucks store was located at 2000 Western Avenue from 1971–1976 in Seattle. This cafe was later moved to 1912 Pike Place Market; never to be relocated again. During this time, the company only sold roasted whole coffee beans and did not yet brew coffee to sell. The only brewed coffee served in the store were free samples. During their first year of operation, they purchased green coffee beans from Peet's, then began buying directly from growers. Sale and expansion: In 1984, the original owners of Starbucks, led by Jerry Baldwin, purchased Peet's. During the 1980s, total sales of coffee in the US were falling, but sales of specialty coffee increased, forming 10% of the market in 1989, compared with 3% in 1983. By 1986 the company operated six stores in Seattle and had only just begun to sell espresso coffee. In 1987, the original owners sold the Starbucks chain to former employee Howard Schultz, who rebranded his Il Giornale coffee outlets as Starbucks and quickly began to expand. In the same year, Starbucks opened its first locations outside Seattle at Waterfront Station in Vancouver, British Columbia, and Chicago, Illinois. By 1989, 46 stores existed across the Northwest and Midwest and annually, Starbucks was roasting over 2,000,000 pounds (907,185 kg) of coffee. At the time of its initial public offering (IPO) on the stock market in June 1992, Starbucks had 140 outlets, with a revenue of US$73.5 million, up from US$1.3 million in 1987. The company's market value was US$271 million by this time. The 12% portion of the company that was sold raised around US$25 million for the company, which facilitated a doubling of the number of stores over the next two years. By September 1992, Starbucks' share price had risen by 70% to over 100 times the earnings per share of the previous year. In July 2013, over 10% of in-store purchases were made on customer's mobile devices using the Starbucks app. The company once again utilized the mobile platform when it launched the "Tweet-a-Coffee" promotion in October 2013. On this occasion, the promotion also involved Twitter and customers were able to purchase a US$5 gift card for a friend by entering both "@tweetacoffee" and the friend's handle in a tweet. Research firm Keyhole monitored the progress of the campaign and a December 6, 2013 media article reported that the firm had found that 27,000 people had participated and US$180,000 of purchases were made to date. Expansion to new markets and products: The first Starbucks location outside North America opened in Tokyo, Japan, in 1996. Starbucks entered the U.K. market in 1998 with the $83 million USD acquisition of the then 56-outlet, UK-based Seattle Coffee Company, re-branding all the stores as Starbucks. In September 2002, Starbucks opened its first store in Latin America, at Mexico City. Currently there are over 500 locations in Mexico. In 1999, Starbucks experimented with eateries in the San Francisco Bay area through a restaurant chain called Circadia. These restaurants were soon "outed" as Starbucks establishments and converted to Starbucks cafes. In October 2002, Starbucks established a coffee trading company in Lausanne, Switzerland to handle purchases of green coffee. All other coffee-related business continued to be managed from Seattle. In April 2003, Starbucks completed the purchase of Seattle's Best Coffee and Torrefazione Italia from AFC Enterprises for $72m. The deal only gained 150 stores for Starbucks, but according to the Seattle Post-Intelligencer the wholesale business was more significant. In September 2006, rival Diedrich Coffee announced that it would sell most of its company-owned retail stores to Starbucks. This sale included the company-owned locations of the Oregon-based Coffee People chain. Starbucks converted the Diedrich Coffee and Coffee People locations to Starbucks, although the Portland International Airport Coffee People locations were excluded from the sale. In August 2003, Starbucks opened its first store in South America in Lima, Peru. In 2007, the company opened its first store in Russia, ten years after first registering a trademark there. In March 2008 they purchased the manufacturer of the Clover Brewing System. They began testing the "fresh-pressed" coffee system at several Starbucks locations in Seattle, California, New York and Boston. In early 2008, Starbucks started a community website, My Starbucks Idea, designed to collect suggestions and feedback from customers. Other users comment and vote on suggestions. Journalist Jack Schofield noted that "My Starbucks seems to be all sweetness and light at the moment, which I don't think is possible without quite a lot of censorship". The website is powered by Salesforce.com software. In May 2008, a loyalty program was introduced for registered users of the Starbucks Card (previously simply a gift card) offering perks such as free Wi-Fi Internet access, no charge for soy milk and flavored syrups, and free refills on brewed drip coffee, iced coffee or tea. In 2009, Starbucks began beta testing its mobile app for the Starbucks card, a stored value system in which consumers access pre-paid funds to purchase products at Starbucks. Starbucks released its complete mobile platform on January 11, 2011. On November 14, 2012, Starbucks announced the purchase of Teavana for US$620 million in cash and the deal was formally closed on December 31, 2012. On February 1, 2013, Starbucks opened its first store in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and this was followed by an announcement in late August 2013 that the retailer will be opening its inaugural store in Colombia. The Colombian announcement was delivered at a press conference in Bogota, where the company's CEO explained, "Starbucks has always admired and respected Colombia's distinguished coffee tradition." In August 2014, Starbucks opened their first store in Williamsburg, Brooklyn. This location will be one of 30 Starbucks stores that will serve beer and wine. In September 2014, it was revealed that Starbucks would acquire the remaining 60.5 percent stake in Starbuck Coffee Japan that it does not already own, at a price of $913.5 million. In August 2015, Starbucks announced that it will enter Cambodia, its 16th market in the China/Asia Pacific region. The first location will open in the capital city of Phnom Penh by the end of 2015. In February 2016, Starbucks announced that it will enter Italy, its 24th market in Europe. The first location will open in Milan by 2017. Corporate governance: Starbucks' chairman, Howard Schultz, has talked about making sure growth does not dilute the company's culture and the common goal of the company's leadership to act like a small company. Howard Schultz served as the company's CEO until 2000. Orin C. Smith was President and CEO of Starbucks from 2001 to 2005. In January 2008, Schultz resumed his roles as President and CEO after an eight-year hiatus, replacing Jim Donald, who took the posts in 2005 but was asked to step down after sales slowed in 2007. Schultz aims to restore what he calls the "distinctive Starbucks experience" in the face of rapid expansion. Analysts believe that Schultz must determine how to contend with higher materials prices and enhanced competition from lower-price fast food chains, including McDonald's and Dunkin' Donuts. Starbucks announced it would discontinue the warm breakfast sandwich products they originally intended to launch nationwide in 2008 and refocus on coffee, but they reformulated the sandwiches to deal with complaints and kept the product line. As of January 2015, the chief operating officer of Starbucks was Troy Alstead, though at that time he announced he was taking an extended leave of absence of undetermined length. Subsequently, Kevin Johnson was appointed to succeed Alstead as president and COO. In October 2015, Starbucks hired its first Chief Technology Officer, Gerri Martin-Flickinger, to lead their technology team. Starbucks maintains control of production processes by communicating with farmers to secure beans, roasting its own beans, and managing distribution to all retail locations. Additionally, Starbucks’ Coffee and Farmer Equity Practices require suppliers to inform Starbucks what portion of wholesale prices paid reaches farmers. Products: In 1994, Starbucks bought The Coffee Connection, gaining the rights to use, make, market, and sell the "Frappuccino" beverage. The beverage was introduced under the Starbucks name in 1995 and as of 2012, Starbucks had annual Frappuccinos sales of over $2 billion. The company began a "skinny" line of drinks in 2008, offering lower-calorie and sugar-free versions of the company's offered drinks that use skim milk, and can be sweetened by a choice of "natural" sweeteners (such as raw sugar, agave syrup, or honey), artificial sweeteners (such as Sweet'N Low, Splenda, Equal), or one of the company's sugar-free syrup flavors. Starbucks stopped using milk originating from rBGH-treated cows in 2007. In June 2009, the company announced that it would be overhauling its menu and selling salads and baked goods without high-fructose corn syrup or artificial ingredients. This move was expected to attract health- and cost-conscious consumers and will not affect prices. Starbucks introduced a new line of instant coffee packets, called VIA "Ready Brew", in March 2009. It was first unveiled in New York City with subsequent testing of the product also in Seattle, Chicago and London. The first two VIA flavors include Italian Roast and Colombia, which were then rolled out in October 2009, across the U.S. and Canada with Starbucks stores promoting the product with a blind "taste challenge" of the instant versus fresh roast, in which many people could not tell the difference between the instant and fresh brewed coffee. Analysts speculated that by introducing instant coffee, Starbucks would devalue its own brand. Starbucks began selling beer and wine at some US stores in 2010. As of April 2012, it is available at seven locations and others have applied for licenses. In 2011, Starbucks introduced its largest cup size, the Trenta, which can hold 31 ounces. In September 2012, Starbucks announced the Verismo, a consumer-grade single-serve coffee machine that uses sealed plastic cups of coffee grounds, and a "milk pod" for lattes. On November 10, 2011, Starbucks Corporation announced that it had bought juice company Evolution Fresh for $30 million in cash and planned to start a chain of juice bars starting in around middle of 2012, venturing into territory staked out by Jamba Inc. Its first store released in San Bernardino, California and plans for a store in San Francisco were to be launched in early 2013. In 2012, Starbucks began selling a line of iced Starbucks Refresher beverages that contain an extract from green arabica coffee beans. The beverages are fruit flavored and contain caffeine but advertised as having no coffee flavor. Starbucks' green coffee extraction process involves soaking the beans in water. On June 25, 2013, Starbucks began to post calorie counts on menus for drinks and pastries in all of their U.S. stores. In 2014, Starbucks began producing their own line of "handcrafted" sodas, dubbed "Fizzio". In 2015, Starbucks began serving coconut milk as an alternative to dairy and soy. Tea: Starbucks entered the tea business in 1999 when it acquired the Tazo brand for US$8,100,000. In late 2012, Starbucks paid US$620 million to buy Teavana. As of November 2012, there is no intention of marketing Starbucks' products in Teavana stores, though the acquisition will allow the expansion of Teavana beyond its current main footprint in shopping malls. In January 2015, Starbucks began to roll out Teavana teas into Starbucks stores, both in to-go beverage and retail formats. Coffee quality: Kevin Knox, who was in charge of doughnuts quality at Starbucks from 1987 to 1993, recalled on his blog in 2010 how George Howell, coffee veteran and founder of the Cup of Excellence, had been appalled at the dark roasted beans that Starbucks was selling in 1990. Talking to the New York Times in 2008, Howell stated his opinion that the dark roast used by Starbucks does not deepen the flavor of coffee, but instead can destroy purported nuances of flavor. The March 2007 issue of Consumer Reports compared American fast-food chain coffees and ranked Starbucks behind McDonald's Premium Roast. The magazine called Starbucks coffee "strong, but burnt and bitter enough to make your eyes water instead of open". As reported by TIME in 2010, third wave coffee proponents generally criticize Starbucks for over-roasting beans. Although pour over coffee options are available at every Starbucks location, the company generally does not advertise them conspicuously, because preparation times are much higher and thus profits are lower than for espresso-based variations. Other products: In 2012, Starbucks introduced Starbucks Verismo, a line of coffee makers that brew espresso and regular chocolate from coffee capsules, a type of pre-apportioned single-use container of ground coffee and flavorings utilizing the K-Fee pod system. In a brief review of the 580 model, Consumer Reports described the results of a comparative test of the Verismo 580 against two competitive brands: "Because you have to conduct a rinse cycle between each cup, the Verismo wasn't among the most convenient of single-serve machines in our coffeemaker tests. Other machines we've tested have more flexibility in adjusting brew strength—the Verismo has buttons for coffee, espresso, and latte with no strength variation for any type. And since Starbucks has limited its coffee selection to its own brand, there are only eight varieties so far plus a milk pod for the latte." Technology: Starbucks launched an update to their mobile app in 2015 labelled Cuerden and Proctor App. The App allows customers to place their orders, pay and pick up. The mobile feature is integrated with Starbuck’s existing mobile app and My Starbucks reward loyalty program. Starbucks Mobile Order is available for customers using a Starbucks app for iPhone (version 3.2) in markets where the feature is available. Starbucks tried launching a delivery service that can be used by a mobile app in Seattle by way of showing an example in 2015. Locations: The company's headquarters is located in Seattle, Washington, United States, where 3,501 people worked as of January 2015. Current: As of June 9, 2016, Starbucks is present in 72 countries and territories. Licensed locations: Independently operated Starbucks locations exist. Stores that independently operate locations include Target, Tom Thumb, and Barnes & Noble. As of 2015, 4,962 licensed locations exist. In 2008, Starbucks continued its expansion, settling in Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic and Portugal. European and Scandinavian expansion continued in 2009 with Poland (April), Utrecht, Netherlands (August), and Sweden at Arlanda airport outside Stockholm (October). In 2010, growth in new markets continued. In May 2010, Southern Sun Hotels South Africa announced that they had signed an agreement with Starbucks to brew Starbucks coffees in select Southern Sun and Tsonga Sun hotels in South Africa. The agreement was partially reached so Starbucks coffees could be served in the country in time for the 2010 FIFA World Cup hosted by South Africa. In June 2010, Starbucks opened its first store in Budapest, Hungary and in November the company opened the first Central American store in El Salvador's capital, San Salvador. In December 2010, Starbucks debuted their first ever Starbucks at sea, where with a partnership with Royal Caribbean International; Starbucks opened a shop aboard their Allure of the Seas Royal Caribbean's second largest ship, and also the second largest ship in the world. Starbucks is planning to open its fourth African location, after South Africa, Egypt and Morocco, in Algeria. A partnership with Algerian food company Cevital will see Starbucks open its first Algerian store in Algiers. In January 2011, Starbucks and Tata Coffee, Asia's largest coffee plantation company, announced plans for a strategic alliance to bring Starbucks to India and also to source and roast coffee beans at Tata Coffee's Kodagu facility. Despite a false start in 2007, in January 2012, Starbucks announced a 50:50 joint venture with Tata Global Beverages called Tata Starbucks. Tata Starbucks will own and operate Starbucks outlets in India as Starbucks Coffee "A Tata Alliance". Starbucks opened its first store in India in Mumbai on October 19, 2012.